Advertisement

Ethical Issues in Human in Vitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfer

  • LeRoy Walters

Abstract

My goal in this chapter is to survey the major ethical issues in human in vitro fertilization (IVF) and/or embryo transfer (ET)—both in the clinic and in the laboratory. More specifically, the chapter seeks to analyze six major alternative ethical positions on IVF and ET and to display the presupposition and the internal logic of each of these positions.

Keywords

Embryo Transfer Moral Status Human Embryo Embryo Culture Infertile Couple 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    United States, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Ethics Advisory Board, HEW support of research involving human in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer, 2 vols., Washington, D.C., HEW (May 4, 1979).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Australia, National Health and Medical Research Council, Working Party on Ethics in Medical Research, Ethics in medical research ,Canberra, Australian Government Publishing Service, 1983.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Catholic Bishops of Victoria [Australia], Submission to the Committee to Examine In Vitro Fertilization ,unpublished document (August 6, 1982).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Victoria [Australia], Committee to Consider the Social, Ethical and Legal Issues Arising from In Vitro Fertilization (Chairman, Louis Waller), Interim report ,unpublished document (September 1982).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Medical Research Council [Great Britain], Research related to human fertilisation and embryology, British Medical Journal 285:1480 (1982).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists [Great Britain], Report of the RCOG Ethics Committee on In Vitro Fertilization and Embryo Replacement or Transfer ,London, Chameleon Press (March 1983).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Catholic Bishops’ Joint Committee on Bio-Ethical Issues [Great Britain], In vitro fertilisation: morality and public policy ,unpublished document (March 2, 1983).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Royal Society [Great Britain], Human fertilization and embryology ,London, Royal Society (March 1983).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    British Medical Association, Working Group on In-Vitro Fertilisation, Interim report on human in vitro fertilisation and embryo replacement and transfer, British Medical Journal 286:1594 (1983).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Victoria [Australia], Committee to Consider the Social, Ethical and Legal Issues Arising from In Vitro Fertilization (Chairman, Louis Waller), Report on donor gametes in IVF ,unpublished document (August 1983).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    European Medical Research Councils, Advisory Subgroup, Human in-vitro fertilisation and embryo transfer, Lancet 2:1187 (1983).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    American Fertility Society, Ethical statement on in vitro fertilization, Fertility and Sterility 41:12 (1984).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    United Kingdom, Department of Health and Social Security, Report of the Committee of Inquiry into Human Fertilisation and Embryology (Chairman, Mary Warnock), London, Her Majesty’s Stationery Office (July 1984).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Victoria [Australia], Committee to Consider the Social, Ethical and Legal Issues Arising from In Vitro Fertilization, Report on the disposition of embryos produced by in vitro fertilization (Chairman, Louis Waller), Melbourne, F. D. Atkinson Government Printer (August 1984).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Catholic Bishops of Victoria (n. 3), p. 6.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Buster, J. E. et al. ,Non-surgical transfer of an in-vivo fertilised donated ovum to an infertility patient. Lancet 1:816 (1983).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Catholic Bishops’ Joint Committee on Bio-Ethics (see n. 7), p. 10.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    United States, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Ethics Advisory Board, Report and conclusions (n. 1), p. 101.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ibid. ,pp. 106–111.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Medical Research Council [Great Britain] (n. 5), p. 1480.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Royal Society [Great Britain] (n. 8), pp. 7–9, 11.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    United Kingdom, Department of Health and Social Security (n. 13), pp. 60–61.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Catholic Bishops’ Joint Committee on Bio-Ethics (n. 7), p. 16.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gordon, J. W., and Ruddle, F. H., Integration and stable germ line transmission of genes injected into mouse pronuclei, Science 214:1244 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Anderson, W. F., Prospects for human gene therapy, Science 226:401 (1984).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Short, R. V., Human in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer, in United States, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Ethics Advisory Board (n. 1), Appendix ,Essay 10, pp. 6–7.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Medical Research Council [Great Britain] (n. 5), p. 1480.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Royal Society [Great Britain] (n. 8), pp. 5–6.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ibid. ,p. 6.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ibid. ,p. 3.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ibid. ,p. 10.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    New, D. A. J., Studies of mammalian fetuses in vitro during the period of organogenesis, in Austin, C. R. (ed.), The mammalian fetus in vitro ,London, Chapman and Hall (1973), pp. 15–65.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Aubrey Milunsky and George J. Annas 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • LeRoy Walters
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Center for BioethicsKennedy Institute of EthicsUSA
  2. 2.Department of PhilosophyGeorgetown UniversityUSA

Personalised recommendations