Selection of Human T-Cell Hybridomas That Produce Inflammatory Lymphokines by the Emetine-Actinomycin D Method

  • Toshiaki Osawa
  • Yoshiro Kobayashi
  • Makoto Asada
  • Masahiro Higuchi
  • Shu-ichi Tsuchiya


T lymphocytes produce various physiologically active lymphokines upon stimulation with antigens or mitogens. These lymphokines can roughly be divided into two groups: cell regulatory lymphokines and inflammatory lymphokines. The lymphokines in the former group play roles in the effector mechanism of the immune response; interleukin 2, B-cell growth factor, and T-cell replacing factors belong to this group. Those in the latter group (Table I) react with macrophages and other inflammatory cells or with the vascular endothelium and are considered to be involved in the induction of delayed-type hypersensitivity. However, since activated lymphocytes produce a mixture of many inflammatory lymphokines in very tiny amounts (possibly ~1–10 ng from 106 activated lymphocytes), it has been very difficult to prove directly their participation in the development of various diseases related to delayed hypersensitivity, although some of these lymphokines have actually been detected in tissues or fluids of patients or lesion-bearing experimental animals (Honda and Hayashi, 1982; Cohen and Yoshida, 1983). Furthermore, this limited availability of inflammatory lymphokines has hampered their biochemical characterization and presented several controversial problems concerning the molecular identity between lymphokines. For example, migration-inhibitory factor (MIF) and macrophage-activating factor (MAF), and MAF and immune interferon (IFN-γ), have been assumed to represent identical molecular species, respectively, and skin-reactive factor has been considered to be not a single entity, but a mixture of various lymphokines, including MIF, macrophage chemotactic factor, and vascular permeability factor.


Migration Inhibitory Factor Macrophage Activation Factor Macro Phage Distinct Molecular Species Migration Inhibitory Factor Activity 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Toshiaki Osawa
    • 1
  • Yoshiro Kobayashi
    • 1
  • Makoto Asada
    • 1
  • Masahiro Higuchi
    • 1
  • Shu-ichi Tsuchiya
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Chemical Toxicology and Immunochemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical SciencesUniversity of TokyoTokyoJapan

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