Production of Human T-Cell Hybridomas by Electrofusion
The somatic cell hybridization technique provides a means for the immortalization of specific cellular functions. Köhler and Milstein (1975) were the first to be successful in the immortalization of the production of specific immunoglobulins by cell fusion. They prepared a continuously immunoglobulin-secreting hybridoma cell line by fusion of mouse myeloma cells with spleen cells of an immunized mouse in the presence of inactivated Sendai virus. In addition to Sendai virus, polyethylene glycol (PEG) has also been widely used for cell fusion. During the past 10 years, an explosive development of hybridoma technology has taken place in many laboratories for the in vitro production of mouse monoclonal antibodies [for a review, see Reading (1982)]. It was later demonstrated that other cellular functions can also be immortalized by cell fusion. For example, mouse T-cell hybridomas that secrete immunoregulatory molecules such as interleukin 2 (IL-2) or T-cell replacing factor (TRF) have been produced. Other mouse T-cell hybrids expressing helper or suppressor functions have been established [for a review, see Malissen and Zeurthen (1982)]. More recently, several laboratories have directed their attention to xenogeneic and human—human hybrids exerting specific immunologic functions with a view to their potential clinical application. However, the preparation of human hybrids has generally appeared to be more difficult than that of murine hybrids. Initial growth of the fused cells (for human T-T and for some human B—B cell hybridomas) is difficult to achieve and often it takes more than a month before proliferation of fused cells can be observed (Greene et al., 1982; Grillot-Courvalin and Brouet, 1981; Sikora et al., 1982; Chiorazzi et al.,1982). Moreover, human—human hybridomas frequently show chromosomal instability (Foung et al., 1982; Kozbor and Roder, 1983). In this respect, the choice of fusion agent could be an important factor. PEG has a number of disadvantages that might be drawbacks in the production of a larger repertoire of hybrid cells.
KeywordsCell Fusion Hybrid Cell Fusion Product Cytolytic Activity Parental Cell Line
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