Molecular Mechanisms of the Modulation of Phospholipid Metabolism by Glucocorticoids
Glucocorticoids are hormones from the adrenal cortex and have diverse effects on the metabolisms of purines, fats, amino acids, and carbohydrates in a variety of tissues and organs. The actions of glucocorticoids have been well documented with respect to the capacity of organisms to resist environmental changes and noxious stimuli, especially stress (Axelrod and Reissin, 1984). These hormones are reported generally to act in concert with a variety of other hormones in a permissive manner. Many hormones, neurotransmitters, and drugs cause release of arachidonic acid, a precursor of leukotrienes and prostaglandins, from target tissues or organs, and glucocorticoids suppress such receptor-mediated release of arachidonic acid (Kuehl and Egan, 1980). Since prostaglandins and leukotrienes are now believed to be inflammatory mediators, the antiinflammatory activity, a major action, of glucocorticoids has been proposed to be associated with inhibition of this arachidonic acid release (Kuehl and Egan, 1980). In the present chapter, I describe the molecular mechanism of actions of glucocorticoids whereby these hormones block the release of arachidonic acid stimulated by hormones, neurotransmitters, and drugs.
KeywordsArachidonic Acid Glucocorticoid Receptor U937 Cell Phospholipid Metabolism Arachidonic Acid Release
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