Advertisement

The Viruses and Their Taxonomy

  • R. I. B. Francki
Part of the The Viruses book series (VIRS)

Abstract

In the past decade and a half the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) has evolved a virus taxonomy which is accepted and used by the majority of virologists (Wildy, 1971; Fenner, 1976; Matthews, 1979, 1982). This is in sharp contrast to the previous efforts of numerous individual workers who endeavored to establish suitable methods of nomenclature and classification (reviewed by Francki, 1981, and Matthews, 1983) and most of which now appear rather naive and unacceptable by contemporary notions. Currently, the majority of viruses infecting vertebrates are classified into families and genera on the recommendation of the Vertebrate Virus Subcommittee of the ICTV. This approach has been followed for the classification of bacterial and invertebrate viruses by the respective ICTV subcommittees. Contrary to this, the Plant Virus Subcommittee (PVS) has divided viruses into loosely defined groups with the exception of those which show affinities to viruses of vertebrates and arthropods; they are included in the families Reoviridae and Rhabdovir-idae. In the case of the Reoviridae, members infecting plants have been subdivided into two genera, Phytoreovirus and Fijivirus (Matthews, 1982). Thus, at present, plant viruses are divided among two families and 24 groups (Matthews, 1982).

Keywords

Mosaic Virus Coat Protein Cucumber Mosaic Virus Plant Virus Alfalfa Mosaic Virus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ahlquist, P., Dasgupta, R., and Kaesberg, P., 1981a, Near identity of 3′ RNA secondary structure in Bromoviruses and cucumber mosaic virus, Cell 23:183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahlquist, P., Luckow, V., and Kaesberg, P., 1981b, Complete nucleotide sequence of brome mosaic virus RNA 3, J. Mol. Biol 153:23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andrewes, C. H., 1955, The classification of viruses, J. Gen. Microbiol. 12:358.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bancroft, J. B., 1971, Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus, CMI/AAB Descriptions of Plant Viruses No. 49. Google Scholar
  5. Barker, R. F., Jarvis, N. P., Thompson, D. V., Loesch-Fries, L. S., and Hall, T. C., 1983, Complete nucleotide sequence of alfalfa mosaic virus RNA 3, Nucleic Acids Res. 11:2881.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Basit, A. A., and Francki, R. I. B., 1970, Some properties of rose mosaic virus from South Australia, Aust. J. Biol Sci. 23:1197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bol, J. F., van Vloten-Doting, L., and Jaspars, E. M. J., 1971, A functional equivalence of top component a RNA and coat protein in the initiation of infection by alfalfa mosaic virus, Virology 46:73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Boswell, K. F., and Gibbs, A. J., 1983, Viruses of Legumes 1983: Descriptions and Keys from VIDE, Canberra Publishing and Printing Co., Canberra.Google Scholar
  9. Cornelissen, B. J. C., and Bol, J. F., 1985, Homology between the proteins encoded by tobacco mosaic virus and two Tricornaviridae, Plant Mol. Biol, (in press).Google Scholar
  10. Cornelissen, B. J. C., Janssen, H., Zuidema, D., and Bol, J. F., 1984, Complete nucleotide sequence of tobacco streak virus RNA 3, Nucleic Acids Res. 12:2427.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dale, J. L., Gibbs, A. J., and Behncken, G. M., 1984, Cassia yellow blotch virus: A new Bromovirus from an Australian native legume, Cassia pleurocarpa, J. Gen. Virol. 65:281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Devergne, J. C., and Cardin, L. 1975, Relations serologiques entre cucumovirus (CMV, TAV, PSV), Ann. Phytopathol. 7:255.Google Scholar
  13. Devergne, J. C., Cardin, L., Burckard, J., and van Regenmortel, M. H. V., 1981, Comparison of direct and indirect ELISA for detecting antigenically related Cucumoviruses, J. Virol. Methods 3:193.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fenner, F., 1976, Classification and nomenclature of viruses: Second report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, Intervirology 7:1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Francki, R. I. B, 1981, Plant virus taxonomy, in: Handbook of Plant Virus Infections: Comparative Diagnosis (E. Kurstak, ed.), p. 3, Elsevier/North-Holland, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  16. Francki, R. L B., 1983, Current problems in plant virus taxonomy, in: A Critical Appraisal of Viral Taxonomy (R. E. F. Matthews, ed.), p. 63, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.Google Scholar
  17. Francki, R. I. B., Mossop, D. W., and Hatta, T., 1979, Cucumber mosaic virus, CMI/AAB Descriptions of Plant Viruses No. 213. Google Scholar
  18. Francki, R. I. B., Milne, R. G., and Hatta, T., 1985, An Atlas of Plant Viruses Volume II, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida (in press).Google Scholar
  19. Fulton, R. W., 1981, Ilarviruses, in: Handbook of Plant Virus Infections: Comparative Diagnois (E. Kurstak, ed.), p. 377, Elsevier/North-Holland, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  20. Fulton, R. W., 1983, Ilarvirus group, CMI/AAB Descriptions of Plant Viruses No. 275. Google Scholar
  21. Gibbs, A., 1969, Plant virus classification, Adv. Virus Res. 14:263.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gibbs, A. J., 1972, Broad bean mottle virus, CMI/AAB Descriptions of Plant Viruses No. 101. Google Scholar
  23. Gonda, T. J., and Symons, R. H., 1978, The use of hybridization analysis with complementary DNA to determine the RNA sequence homology between strains of plant viruses: Its application to several strains of Cucumoviruses, Virology 88:361.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gonsalves, D., and Fulton, R. W., 1977, Activation of prunus necrotic ringspot virus and rose mosaic virus by RNA 4 components of some Ilarviruses, Virology 81:398.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gonsalves, D., and Garnsey, S. M., 1975, Infectivity of heterologous RNA-protein mixtures from alfalfa mosaic, citrus leaf rugose, citrus variegation and tobacco streak viruses, Virology 67:319.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gould, A. R., and Symons, R. H., 1982, Cucumber mosaic virus RNA 3: Determination of the nucleotide sequence provides the amino acid sequences of protein 3A and viral coat protein, Eur. J. Biochem. 126:217.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Habili, N., and Francki, R. I. B., 1974, Comparative studies on tomato aspermy and cucumber mosaic viruses. I. Physical and chemical properties, Virology 57:392.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Halk, E. L., and Fulton, R. W., 1978, Stabilization and particle morphology of prune dwarf virus, Virology 91:434.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hanada, K., and Tochihara, H., 1982, Some properties of an isolate of the soybean stunt strain of cucumber mosaic virus, Phytopathology 72:761.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Harrison, B. D., Finch, J. T., Gibbs, A. J., Hollings, M., Shepherd, R. J., Valenta, V., and Wetter, C., 1971, Sixteen groups of plant viruses. Virology 45:356.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Haseloff, J., Goelet, P., Zimmern, D., Ahlquist, P., Dasgupta, R., and Kaesberg, P., 1984, Striking similarities in amino acid sequences among nonstructural proteins encoded by RNA viruses that have dissimilar genomic organization, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81:4358.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hollings, M., and Horváth, F., 1981, Melandrium yellow fleck virus, CMI/AAB Descriptions of Plant Viruses No. 236. Google Scholar
  33. Hollings, M., and Stone, O. M., 1971, Tomato aspermy virus, CMI/AAB Descriptions of Plant Viruses No. 79. Google Scholar
  34. Holmes, F. O., 1948, Order Virales: The filtrable viruses, in: Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 6th ed. (R. S. Breed, E. G. D. Murray, and A. P. Hitchens, eds.), p. 126, Ballière, Tindall &. Cox, London.Google Scholar
  35. Houwing, C. J., and Jaspars, E. M. J., 1978, Coat protein binds to the 3′-terminal part of RNA 4 of alfalfa mosaic virus, Biochemistry 17:2927.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hull, R., 1969, Alfalfa mosaic virus, Adv. Virus Res. 15:365.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Jaspars, E. M. J., 1974, Plant viruses with a multipartite genome, Adv. Virus Res. 19:37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Jaspars, E. M. J., and Bos, L., 1980, Alfalfa mosaic virus, CMI/AAB Descriptions of Plant Viruses No. 229. Google Scholar
  39. Joshi, R. L., Joshi, S., Chapeville, F., and Haenni, A.-L., 1983, tRNA-like structures of plant viral RNAs: Conformational requirements for adenylation and aminoacylation, EMBO J. 2:1123.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Kaper, J. M., and Waterworth, H. E., 1981, Cucumoviruses, in: Handbook of Plant Virus Infections: Comparative Diagnosis (E. Kurstak, ed.), p. 257, Elsevier/North-Holland, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  41. Kohl, R. J., and Hall, T. C., 1974, Aminoacylation of RNA from several viruses: Amino acid specificity and differential activity of plant, yeast and bacterial synthetases, J. Gen. Virol. 25:257.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Koper-Zwarthoff, E. C., and Bol, J. F., 1980, Nucleotide sequence of the putative recognition site for coat protein in the RNAs of alfalfa mosaic virus and tobacco streak virus, Nucleic Acids Res. 8:3307.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lane, L. C., 1974, The Bromoviruses, Adv. Virus Res. 19:151.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lane, L. C., 1977, Brome mosaic virus, CMI/AAB Descriptions of Plant Viruses No. 180. Google Scholar
  45. Lane, L. C., 1979a, The nucleic acids of multipartite, defective, and satellite plant viruses, in: Nucleic Acids in Plants (T. C. Hall and J. W. Davies, eds.), Volume 2, p. 65, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.Google Scholar
  46. Lane, L. C., 1979b, Bromovirus Group, CMI/AAB Descriptions of Plant Viruses No. 215. Google Scholar
  47. Lane, L. C., 1981, Bromoviruses, in: Handbook of Plant Virus Infections: Comparative Diagnosis (E. Kurstak, ed.), p. 333, Elsevier/North-Holland, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  48. Lot, H., and Kaper, J. M., 1976, Physical and chemical differentiation of three strains of cucumber mosaic virus and peanut stunt virus, Virology 74:209.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Matthews, R. E. F., 1979, Classification and nomenclature of viruses: Third report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, Intervirology 12:129.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Matthews, R. E. F., 1982, Classification and nomenclature of viruses: Fourth report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, Intervirology 17:1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Matthews, R. E. F., 1983, A Critical Appraisal of Viral Taxonomy, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.Google Scholar
  52. Mink, G. I., 1972, Peanut stunt virus, CMI/AAB Descriptions of Plant Viruses No. 92. Google Scholar
  53. Murant, A. F., Abu-Salih, H. S., and Goold, R. A., 1974, Viruses from broad bean in the Sudan, Rep. Scott. Host Res. Inst, for 1973, p. 67. Google Scholar
  54. Murthy, M. R. N., 1983, Comparison of the nucleotide sequences of cucumber mosaic virus and brome mosaic virus, J. Mol. Biol. 168:469.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Pfeiffer, P., and Hirth, L., 1975, The effect of conformational changes in brome mosaic virus upon its sensitivity to trypsin, chymotrypsin and ribonuclease, FEBS Lett. 56:144.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Pfeiffer, P., Herzog, M., and Hirth, L., 1976, Stabilization of brome mosaic virus, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B. 276:99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Phatak, H. C., Diaz-Ruiz, J. R., and Hull, R., 1976, Cowpea ringspot virus: A seed transmitted Cucumovirus, Phytopathol. Z. 87:132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Piazzolla, P., Diaz-Ruitz, J. R., and Kaper, J. M., 1979, Nucleic acid homologies of eighteen cucumber mosaic virus isolates determined by competition hybridization, J. Gen. Virol. 45:361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Rezaian, M. A., Williams, R. H. V., Gordon, K. H. J., Gould, A. R., and Symons, R. H., 1984, Nucleotide sequence of cucumber mosaic virus RNA 2 reveals a translation product significantly homologous to corresponding proteins of other viruses, Eur. J. Biochem. 143:277.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Richter, J., Proll, E., and Musil, M., 1979, Serological relationships between robinia mosaic, clover blotch and peanut stunt viruses, Acta Virol. 23:489.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Roosien, J., and van Vloten-Doting, L., 1983, A mutant of alfalfa mosaic virus with an unusual structure, Virology 126:155.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Rybicki, E. P., and von Wechmar, M. B., 1981, The serology of the Bromoviruses. I. Serological interrelationships of the Bromoviruses, Virology 109:391.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Rybicki, E. P., and von Wechmar, M. B., 1982, Characterization of an aphid-transmitted virus disease of small grains: Isolation and partial characterisation of three viruses, Phytopathol. Z. 103:306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Savithri, H. S., and Murthy, M. R. N., 1983, Evolutionary relationship of alfalfa mosaic virus with cucumber mosaic virus and brome mosaic virus, J. Biosci. 5:183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Shepherd, R. J., Francki, R. I. B., Hirth, L., Hollings, M., Inouye, T., MacLeod, R., Purcifull, D. E., Sinha, R. C., Tremaine, J. H., Valenta, V., and Wetter, C., 1976. New groups of plant viruses approved by the International Committe on Taxonomy of Viruses, September 1975, Intervirology 6:181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Thomas, B. J., Barton, R. J., and Tuszynski, A., 1983, Hydrangea mosaic virus, a new Ilarvirus from Hydrangea macrophylla (Saxifragaceae), Ann. Appl. Biol. 103:261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Uyeda, I., and Mink, G.I., 1983, Relationships among some Ilarviruses: Proposed revision of subgroup A, Phytopathology 73:47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. van Tol, R. G. L., and van Vloten-Doting, L., 1981, Lack of serological relationship between the 35K nonstructural protein of alfalfa mosaic virus and the corresponding proteins of three other plant viruses with the tripartite genome, Virology 109:444.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. van Vloten-Doting, L., 1975, Coat protein is required for infectivity of tobacco streak virus: Biological equivalence of the coat proteins of tobacco streak and alfalfa mosaic viruses, Virology 65:215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. van Vloten-Doting, L., 1976, Similarities and differences between viruses with a tripartite genome. Ann. Microbiol. (Inst. Pasteur) 127A:119.Google Scholar
  71. van Vloten-Doting, L., and Jaspars, E. M. J., 1977, Plant covirus systems: Three component systems, in: Comprehensive Virology (H. Fraenkel-Conrat and R. R. Wagner, eds.), Volume 11, p. 1, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  72. van Vloten-Doting, L., Francki, R. I. B., Fulton, R. W., Kaper, J. M., and Lane, L. C., 1981, Tricornaviridae—A proposed family of plant viruses with tripartite, single-stranded RNA genomes, Intervirology 15:198.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Wildy, P., 1971, Classification and nomenclature of viruses: First report of the International Committee on Nomenclature of Viruses, Monogr. Virol. 5:1.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. I. B. Francki
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Plant Pathology, Waite Agricultural Research InstituteThe University of AdelaideGlen OsmondAustralia

Personalised recommendations