Therapeutic Care of Children with Reading and Writing Difficulties in Poland

  • Marta Bogdanowicz


In Poland, dyslexia, dysorthography, and dysgraphy are the terms most frequently used to define difficulties in reading and writing among children with normal mental development. Treatment programs for these children were started after World War I and scientific publications in the subject began to appear in the 1920s and 1930s. However, it was not until the late 1950s that systematic multi-disciplinary investigations were taken up. Some of the early work was done at the Mental Health and Child Psychiatry Institute of Polish Science Academy by Drath and associates (e.g., Drath, Siw-kiewicz, Sochanska, & Zakrzewska, 1965). The studies of Spionek (1965, 1973) are of considerable significance for the development in this branch of knowledge in Poland. He adopted and popularized in out-patient psychological clinics the basic battery of diagnostic methods worked out in France by Zazzo (1974) and other workers. Spionek takes the view that only those cases which have been caused by partial retardation of the development of perceptual-motor functions can be recognized as cases of specific difficulties in reading and writing. The degree of retardation or “indicator of partial developmental deficit” is the discrepancy between the function examined and the chronological age of the child.


Dyslexic Child Psychomotor Development Specific Learning Disability Partial Retardation Graphical Symbol 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marta Bogdanowicz
    • 1
  1. 1.Instytut PsychologiiUniwersytet GdańskiSopotPoland

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