Advertisement

The SCE Test as a Tool for Cytogenetic Monitoring of Human Exposure to Occupational and Environmental Mutagens

  • Toshiaki Watanabe
  • Akira Endo

Summary

The sister chromatid exchange (SCE) test system using human peripheral lymphocytes is proposed as a valuable tool for the cytogenetic monitoring of exposure to potential chemical mutagens in the occupational environment. We examined the SCE frequencies in organic solvent-exposed workers and reviewed the effects of occupational and environmental chemicals on SCE frequencies. The results obtained in these exposed populations are rather contradictory, which may be related to confounding factors, such as personal life style (smoking, drinking, and drugs) of the examinees, tissue culture conditions and the number of subjects examined. We discussed some practical problems for exposure estimation and sample size determination and are led to the following conclusions. 1) The possible combined effects of potential mutagens and cigarette smoking should be taken into consideration when using the SCE test system. 2) Cell cycle kinetic analysis by differential chromatid staining would provide valuable information as a biological indicator for the monitoring of the workers exposed to xenobiotics. 3) By appropriately setting the number of examinees, monitoring would become more efficient in detecting an increased SCE frequency in the exposed populations. Further studies are also required to enhance the sensitivity of the SCE test system for monitoring purposes.

Keywords

Chromosomal Aberration Chromosome Aberration Sister Chromatid Exchange Exposed Population Vinyl Chloride Monomer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Perry, P., and K.J. Evans (1975) Cytological detection of mutagen-carcinogen exposure by sister chromatid exchange. Nature(Lond.) 258:121–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Brøgger, A. (1982) Application of SCE to public health. In Sister Chromatid Exchange, A.A. Sandberg, ed. Alan R. Liss, New York, pp. 655–673.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Watanabe, T., A. Endo, Y. Kato, S. Shima, T. Watanabe, and M. Ikeda (1980) Cytogenetics and cytokinetics or cultured lympho cytes from benzene-exposed workers. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health 46:31–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ikeda, M., A. Koizumi, T. Watanabe, A. Endo, and K. Sato (1980) Cytogenetic and cytokinetic investigations on lymphocytes from workers occupationally exposed to tetrachloroethylene. Toxicol. Lett. 5:251–256.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Watanabe, T., A. Endo, K. Sato, T. Ohtsuki, M. Miyasaka, A. Koizumi, and M. Ikeda (1981) Mutagenic potential of styrene in man. ndust. Health 19:37–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Watanabe, T., A. Endo, M. Kumai, and M. Ikeda (1983) Chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges in styrene-exposed workers with reference to their smoking habits. Environ. Muta gen. 5:299–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Funes-Cravioto, F., C. Zapata-Gayon, B. Kolmodin-Hedman, B. Lambert, J. Lindsten, E. Norberg, M. Nordenskjöld, R. Olin, and K . Swensson (1977) Chromosome aberrations and sister-chromatid exchange in workers in chemical laboratories and a rotoprinting factory and in children of women laboratory workers. Lancetii:322–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Moszczynski, P. (1981) Organic solvents and T lymphocytes. Lancet i:438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Santesson, B., K. Lindahl-Kiessling, and A. Mattsson (1979) SCE in B and T lymphocytes. Possible implications for Bloom’s syndrome. Clin. Genet. 16:133–135.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lindblad, A., and B. Lambert (1981) Relation between sister chromatid exchange, cell proliferation and proportion of B and T cells in human lymphocyte cultures. Human Genet. 57:31–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Meretoja, T., H. Järventaus, M. Sorsa, and H. Vainio (1978) Chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes of workers exposed to styrene. Scand. J. Work Environ. Health 4 (Suppl. 2):259–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sorsa, M., M. Hyvönen, H. Järventaus, and H. Vainio (1979) Chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchange in children of women in reinforced plastic industry. Sym. Toxicol. University of Turku, (Abstract) p. 16.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Andersson, H.C., E.K . Tranberg, A.H. Uggla, and G. Zetterberg (1980) Chromosomal aberrations and sister-chromatid exchanges in lymphocytes of men occupationally exposed to styrene in a plastic-boat factory. Mutat. Res. 73:387–401.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Husgafvel-Pursiainen, K., J. Mäki-Paakkanen, H. Norppa, and M. Sorsa (1980) Smoking and sister chromatid exchange. Hereditas92:247-250.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Uggla, A.H., H.C. Andersson, E.K . Tranberg, and L.G. Zetterberg (1980) Correlation between exposure to styrene and the frequency of chromosomal aberrations and sister-chromatid exchanges in lymphocytes of workers in a plastic boat factory. Mutat. Res74:199 (Abstract).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Camurri, L., S. Codeluppi, C. Pedroni, and L. Scarduelli (1983) Chromosomal aberrations and sister-chromatid exchanges in workers exposed to styrene. Mutat. Res. 119:361–369.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Carrano, A.V., L.K. Ashworth, J.L. Minkler, and D.H. Moore, II (1981) Sister chromatid exchange frequencies in humans: The effect of smoking. Environ. Mutagen. 3:339 (Abstract).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Carrano, A.V., and D.H. Moore, II (1982) The rationale and methodology for quantifying sister chromatid exchange in humans. In Mutagenicity: New Horizons in Genetic Toxicology, J.A. Heddle, ed. Academic Press, New York, pp. 267–304.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bridges, B.A., J. Clemmesen, and T. Sugimura (1979) CigaretteGoogle Scholar
  20. 18.
    smoking -does it carry a genetic risk? ICPEMC publication no. 3. Mutat. Res. 65:71-81.Google Scholar
  21. 20.
    Obe, G., and J. Herha (1978) Chromosomal aberrations in heavy smokers. Human Genet. 41:259–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 21.
    Hüttner, E., and J. Schöneich (1981) Effects of smoking on the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations and SCE in man. Mutat. Res. 85:255 (Abstract).Google Scholar
  23. 22.
    Obe, G., H.-J. Vogt, S. Madle, A. Fanning, and W.D. Heller (1982) Double-blind study on the effect of cigarette smoking on the chromosomes of human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vivo. Mutat. Res. 92:309–319.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 23.
    Livingston, G.K., and R.M. Fineman (1983) Correlation of human lymphocyte SCE frequency with smoking history. Mutat. Res119:59–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 24.
    Wulf, H.C., B. Husum, and E. Niebuhr (1983) Sister chromatid exchanges in smokers of high-tar cigarettes, low-tar cigar ettes, cheroots and pipe tobacco. Hereditas 98:225–228.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 25.
    Watanabe, T., T. Kasukawa, and A. Endo (1983) Sister chromatid exchanges in lymphocytes from cigarette smokers. Jpn. Human Genet. 28:152 (Abstract).Google Scholar
  27. 26.
    Mäki-Paakkanen, J., M. Sorsa, and H. Vainio (1981) Chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges in lead-exposed workers. Hereditas 94:269–275.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 27.
    Lambert, B., and A. Lindblad (1980) Sister chromatid exchange and chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes of laboratory personnel. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 6:1237–1243.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 28.
    Seshadri, R., E. Baker, and G.R. Sutherland (1982) Sister-chromatid exchange (SCE) analysis in mothers exposed to DNA-damag-ing agents and their newborn infants. Mutat. Res. 97:139–146.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 29.
    Waksvik, H., M. Boysen, A. Brøgger, and O. Klepp (1981) Chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges in persons occupationally exposed to mutagens/carcinogens. In Chromosome Damage and Repair, E. Seeberg and K. Kleppe, eds. Plenum Press, New York, pp. 563–566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 30.
    Hollander, D.H., M.S. Tockman, Y.W. Liang, D.S. Borgaonkar, and J.K. Frost (1978) Sister chromatid exchanges in the peripheral blood of cigarette smokers and in lung cancer patients; and the effect of chemotherapy. Human Genet. 44:165–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 31.
    Aronson, M.M., P.C. Miller, R.B. Hill, W.W. Nichols, and A.T. Meadows (1982) Acute and long-term cytogenetic effects of treatment in childhood cancer: Sister-chromatid exchanges and chromosome aberrations. Mutat. Res. 92:291–307.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 32.
    Crossen, P.E., and W.F. Morgan (1982) The effect of chlorpromazine on SCE frequency in human chromosomes. An in vitro and in vivo study. Mutat. Res. 96:225–232.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 33.
    Ghosh, R., and P.K. Ghosh (1983) Sister-chromatid exchanges in herpes simplex infection. Mutat. Res. 119:303–308.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 34.
    Kurvink, K., C.D. Bloomfield, and J. Cervenka (1978) Sister chromatid exchange in patients with viral disease. Exp. CellRes. 113:450–453.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 35.
    Lambert, B., A. Ehrnst, K. Hansson, A. Lindblad, M. Morad, and B. Werelius (1979) Sister chromatid exchange in peripheral lymphocytes of subjects vaccinated against measles. Human Genet. 50:291–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 36.
    Knuutila, S., J. Mäki-Paakkanen, M. Kähkönen, and E. Hokkanen (1978) An increased frequency of chromosomal changes and SCE’s in cultured blood lymphocytes of 12 subjects vaccinated against smallpox. Human Genet. 41:89–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 37.
    Knuutila, S., A. Harkki, K. Ellimäki, and R. Salunen (1979) Decreased sister chromatid exchange in Down’s syndrome after measles vaccination. Hereditas 90:147–149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 38.
    Morgan, W.F., and P.E. Crossen (1977) The incidence of sister chromatid exchanges in cultured human lymphocytes. Mutat. Res42:305–312.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 39.
    Pedersen, C., E. Oláh, and U. Merrild (1979) Sister chromatid exchanges in cultured peripheral lymphocytes from twins. Human Genet. 52:281–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 40.
    Waksvik, H., P. Magnus, and K. Berg (1981) Effects of age, sex and genes on sister chromatid exchange. Clin. Genet. 20:449–454.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 41.
    Livingston, G.K., L.A. Cannon, D.T. Bishop, P. Johnson, and R.M. Fineman (1983) Sister chromatid exchange: Variation by age, sex, smoking, and breast cancer status. Cancer Genet. Cytogenet. 9:289–299.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 42.
    de Arce, M.A. (1981) The effect of Donor sex and age on the number of sister chromatid exchanges in human lymphocytes grow ing in vitro. Human Genet. 57:83–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 43.
    Ardito, G., L. Lamberti, E. Ansaldi, and P. Ponzetto (1980) Sister-chromatid exchanges in cigarette-smoking human females and their newborns. Mutat. Res. 78:209–212.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 44.
    Lundberg, M.S., and G.K. Livingston (1983) Sister-chromatid exchange frequency in lymphocytes of smoking and nonsmoking mothers and their newborn infants. Mutat. Res. 121:241–246.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 45.
    Tice, R., L. Schneider, and J.M. Rary (1976) The utilization of bromodeoxyuridine incorporation into DNA for the analysis of cellular kinetics. Exp. Cell Res. 102:232–236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 46.
    Crossen, P.E., and W.F. Morgan (1977) Analysis of human lymphocyte cell cycle time in culture measured by sister chromatid differential staining. Exp. Cell Res. 104:453–457.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 47.
    Schneider, E.L., and J. Lewis (1981) Aging and sister chromatid exchange. VIII.. Effect of the aging environment on sister chromatid exchange induction and cell cycle kinetics in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells. A brief note. Mech. Age. Develop. 17: 327–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 48.
    Lamberti, L., P.B. Ponzetto, and G. Ardito (1983) Cell kinetics and sister-cH romatid-exchange frequency in human lymphocytes. Mutat. Res. 120:193–199.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 49.
    Colton, T. (1974) Statistics in Medicine, Little, Brown and Company, Boston.Google Scholar
  51. 50.
    Beek, B., and G. Obe (1974) The human leukocyte test system. II. Different sensitivities of sub-populations to a chemical mutagen. Mutat. Res. 24:395–398.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 51.
    Snope, A.J., and J.M. Rary (1979) Cell-cycle duration and sister-chromatid exchange frequency in cultured human lymphocytes. Mutat. Res. 63:345–349.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 52.
    Morimoto, K., and S. Wolff (1980) Cell cycle kinetics in human lymphocyte cultures. Nature (Lond.) 288:604–606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 53.
    Schwartz, J.L., and M.E. Gaulden (1980) The relative contributions of B and T lymphocytes in the human peripheral blood mutagen test system as determined by cell survival, mitogenic stimulation, and induction of chromosome aberrations by radiation. Environ. Mutagen. 2:473–485.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 54.
    Haglund, U., I. Lundberg, and L. Zech (1980) Chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges in Swedish paint industry workers. Scand. J. Work Environ. Health 6:291–298.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 55.
    Bauchinger, M., E. Schmid, J. Dresp, J. Kolin-Gerresheim, R. Hauf, and E. Suhr (1982) Chromosome changes in lymphocytes after occupational exposure to toluene. Mutat. Res102:439-445.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 56.
    Mäki-Paakkanen, J., K. Husgafvel-Pursiainen, P.-L. Kalliomäki, J. Tuominen, and M. Sorsa (1980) Toluene-exposed workers and chromosome aberrations. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 6:775–781.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 57.
    Hedner, K., B. Högstedt, A.-M. Kolnig, E. Mark-Vendel, B. Strömbeck, and F. Mitelman (1983) Sister chromatid exchanges and structural chromosome aberrations in relation to smoking in 91 individuals. Hereditas 98:77–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 58.
    Kucerová, M., Z. Polívková, and J. Bátora (1979) Comparative evaluation of the frequency of chromosomal aberrations and the SCE numbers in peripheral lymphocytes of workers occupationally exposed to vinyl chloride monomer. Mutat. Res. 67:97–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 59.
    Hansteen, I.-L., L. Hillestad, E. Thiis-Evensen, and S. Storetvedt Heldaas (1978) Effects of vinyl chloride in man. A cytogenetic follow-up study. Mutat. Res. 51:271–278.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 60.
    Lambert, B., A. Lindblad, M. Nordenskjöld, and B. Werelius (1978) Increased frequency of sister chromatid exchanges in cigarette smokers. Hereditas 88:147–149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 61.
    Bauchinger, M., J. Dresp, E. Schmid, and R. Hauf (1982) Chromosome changes in lymphocytes after occupational exposure to pentachlorophenol (PCP). Mutat. Res. 102:83–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 62.
    Husum, B., and H.C. Wulf (1980) Sister chromatid exchanges in lymphocytes in operating room personnel. Acta Anaesth. Scand24:22–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 63.
    Husum, B., H.C. Wulf, and E. Niebuhr (1981) Sister chromatid exchanges in lymphocytes after anaesthesia with halothane or enflurane. Acta Anaesth. Scand. 25:97–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 64.
    Mitelman, F., S. Fregert, K. Hedner, and K. Hillbertz-Nilsson (1980) Occupational exposure to epoxy resins has no cytogenetic effect. Mutat. Res. 77:345–348.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 65.
    Sorsa, M., B. Kolmodin-Hedman, and H. Järventaus (1982) No effect of sulphur dioxide exposure, in aluminium industry, on chromosomal aberrations or sister chromatid exchanges. Hereditas 97:159–161.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 66.
    Dalprà, L., M.G. Tibiletti, G. Nocera, P. Giulotto, L. Auriti, V. Carnelli, and G. Simoni (1983) SCE analysis in children exposed to lead emission from a smelting plant. Mutat. Res120:249–256.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 67.
    Waksvik, H., and M. Boysen (1982) Cytogenetic analyses of lym phocytes from workers in a nickel refinery. Mutat. Res. 103: 185–190.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 68.
    Linnainmaa, K. (1983) Sister chromatid exchanges among workers occupationally exposed to phenoxy acid herbicides 2,4-D and MCP. Teratogen. Carcinogen. Mutagen. 3:269–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 69.
    Brøgger, A., H. Waksvik, and P. Thune (1978) Psoralen/UVA treatment and chromosomes. II. Analysis of psoriasis patients. Arch. Dermatol. Res. 261:287–294.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 70.
    Goh, K.-O. (1980) Sister chromatid exchange in normal adults long after thymus irradiation. Invest. Radiol. 15:332–334.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 71.
    Murthy, P.B.K. (1979) Frequency of sister chromatid exchanges in cigarette smokers. Human Genet. 52:343–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 72.
    Valadaud-Barrieu, D., and C. Izard (1979) Action de la phase gazeuse de fumeé de cigarette sur le taux échanges des chromatides-soeurs du lymphocyte humain in vitro. C.R. Acad. Sc(Paris) 288:899–901.Google Scholar
  74. 73.
    Crossen, P.E., and W.F. Morgan (1980) Sister chromatid exchange in cigarette smokers. Human Genet. 53:425–426.Google Scholar
  75. 74.
    Hopkin, J.M., and H.J. Evans (1980) Cigarette smoke-induced DNA damage and lung cancer risks. Nature (Lond.) 283:388–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 75.
    Evans, H.J. (1981) Cigarette smoke induced DNA damage in man. Prog. Mutat. Res. 2:111–128.Google Scholar
  77. 76.
    Husum, B., H.C. Wulf, and E. Niebuhr (1981) Sister chromatid exchanges in peripheral lymphocytes after preoperative mammography. Radiat. Res. 87:684–688.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 77.
    Husum, B., H.C. Wulf, and E. Niebuhr (1981) Sister-chromatid exchanges in lymphocytes in women with cancer of the breast. Mutat. Res. 85:357–362.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 78.
    Husum, B., H.C. Wulf, and E. Niebuhr (1982) Increased sister chromatid exchange frequency in lymphocytes in healthy cigarette smokers. Hereditas 96:85–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 79.
    Meiying, C., X. Jiujin, and Z. Xianting (1982) Comparative studies on spontaneous and mitomycin-C-induced sister-chromatid exchanges in smokers and non-smokers. Mutat. Res. 105:195–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 80.
    Vijayalaxmi, and H.J. Evans (1982) In vivo and in vitro effects of cigarette smoke on chromosomal damage and sister-chromatid exchange in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Mutat. Res92:321–332.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 81.
    Lambert, B., A. Bredberg, W. McKenzie, and M. Sten (1982) Sister chromatid exchange in human populations: The effect of smoking, drug treatment, and occupational exposure. CytogenetCell Genet. 33:62–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Toshiaki Watanabe
    • 1
  • Akira Endo
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Hygiene and Preventive MedicineYamagata University School of MedicineZao-Iida, Yamagata 990-23Japan

Personalised recommendations