Sister Chromatid Exchange Induction by Cigarette Smoke
This paper presents evidence that cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) is a potent inducer of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in cultured human lymphocytes; that benzo(a)pyrene (BP) contributes very little to this activity; that smokers have higher SCE rates than nonsmokers; that smokers with untreated lung cancer have consistently higher basal and CSC-induced SCE rates than their matched heavy smoking controls; and that, on a weight-for-weight basis, CSCs from different tar categories of cigarettes induce similar numbers of SCEs.
These results are in keeping with the evidence that many smokers die of lung cancer, and that the basis of malignant transformation may be an alteration in cellular DNA. The results raise questions about possible innate differences in individuals’ responses to cigarette smoke, and about the “safeness” of lower tar cigarettes.
KeywordsCigarette Smoke Sister Chromatid Exchange Healthy Smoker Develop Lung Cancer Cigarette Smoke Condensate
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
Doll, R., and R. Peto (1976) Mortality in relation to smoking. Brit. Med. J
. 2:1525–1536.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
ToKuhata, G.K. (1964) Familial factors in lung cancer and smok ing. Amer. J. Public Health
Gelboin, H.V. (1977) Cancer susceptibility and carcinogen metabolism. N. Eng. J. Med
. 297:384–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rigby, P.W.J. (1982) The oncogenic circle closes. Nature
297: 451–453.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Perry, P., and H.J. Evans (1975) Cytological detection of mutagencarcinogen exposure by sister chromatid exchanges. Nature
Carrano, A.V., C.H. Thompson, P.A. Lindl, and J.L. Minkler (1978) Sister chromatid exchange as an indicator of mutagenesis. Nature
Hopkin, J.M., and H.J. Evans (1979) Cigarette smoke condensates damage DNA in human lymphocytes. Nature
Perry, P., and S. Wolff (1974) A new method for the differential staining of sister chromatid exchanges. Nature
Hopkin, J.M., and P. Perry (1980) Benzpyrene does not contribute to the SCEs induced by cigarette smoke. Mutat. Res
. 77: 377–381.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hopkin, J.M., and H.J. Evans (1980) Cigarette smoke induced DNA damage and lung cancer risks. Nature
Lenfant, C. (1983) Are low yield cigarettes really safer. N. Eng. J. Med
. 309:181–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hopkin, J.M., and D. Gorecka (1983) Tough cells and old age. Lancet
Office of Population Censuses and Surveys (1981) Cancer statis tics, Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London.Google Scholar
© Plenum Press, New York 1984