Secreted Alpha Granule Proteins

The Race for Receptors
  • Deane F. Mosher
  • Donna M. Pesciotta
  • Joseph C. Loftus
  • Ralph M. Albrecht


Alpha granules are the specific, protein-containing granules of platelets. Contents of alpha granules are released during platelet activation and blood coagulation. Of the released proteins, some bind to the surface of activated platelets, some participate in fibrin formation, and some prepare and activate traumatized or inflamed tissue for subsequent repair. In the present chapter, we describe these processes. We pay particular attention to the concentration of certain proteins within alpha granules, which may be up to a millionfold greater than concentrations in plasma and a thousandfold greater than concentrations in serum. We emphasize our recent studies of surface-activated platelets using correlative scanning and high-voltage electron microscopy. Finally, we consider the high surface concentration of glycoprotein (GP) IIb-IIIa complexes on unactivated platelets and hypothesize that loosening of the tight packing of the complexes during platelet activation may explain why proteins such as fibrinogen bind to activated but not unactivated platelets.


Human Platelet Dense Body Platelet Factor Platelet Surface Fibrinogen Binding 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Akkerman, J. W. N., Gorter, G., and Kloprogge, E., 1982, Kinetic analysis of alpha-granule secretion by platelets. A methodological report, Thrombos. Res. 27:59–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen, R. D., Zacharski, L. R., Widirstky, S. T., Rosenstein, R., Zaitlin, L. M., and Burgess, D. R., 1979, Transformation and motility of human platelets. Details of the shape change and release reaction observed by optical and electron microscopy, J. Cell Biol 83:126–142.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Assoian, R. K., Komoriya, A., Meyers, C. A., Miller, D. M., and Spom, M. B., 1983, Transforming growth factor-b in human platelets. Identification of a major storage site, purification, and characterization, J. Biol. Chem. 258:7155–7160.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Barnes, D. W., Silnutzer, J., See, C., and Shaffer, M., 1983, Characterization of human serum spreading factor with monoclonal antibody,Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. U.S.A, 80:1362–1366.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bennett, J. S., and Vilaire, G., 1979, Exposure of platelet fibrinogen receptors by ADP and epinephrine, J. Clin. Invest. 64:1393–1398.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bennett, J. S., Vilaire, G., and Cines, D. B., 1982, Identification of the fibrinogen receptor on human: by photoaffinity labeling, J. Biol. Chem. 257:8049–8054.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bennett, J. S., Hoxie, J. A., Leitman, S. F., Vilaire, G., and Cines, D.B., 1983, Inhibition of fibrinogenbinding to stimulated human platelets by a monoclonal antibody, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 80:241 7–2421.Google Scholar
  8. Breton-Gorius, J., Vainchenker, W., Nurden, A., Levy-Toledano, S., and Caen, J., 1981, Defective α-granule production in megakaryocytes from gray platelet syndrome: Ultrastructural studies of bone marrow cells and megakarocytes growing in culture from blood precursors, Am. J. Pathol. 102:10–19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Castor, C. W., Miller, J. W., and Walz, D. A., 1983, Structural and biological characteristics of connective tissue activating peptide (CTAP-III), a major human platelet-derived growth factor, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A 80:765–769.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chernoff, A., Levin, R. F., and Goodman, D. S., 1980, Origin of platelet-derived growth factor in megakaryocytes in guinea pigs,J. Clin. Invest. 65:926–930.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chesney, C. M., Pifer, D., and Colman, R. W., 1981, Subcellular localization and secretion of factor V from human platelets, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 78:5180–5184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Coller, B. S., Peerschke, E. I., Scudder, L. E., and Sullivan, C. A., 1983, A murine monoclonal antibody that completely blocks the binding of fibrinogen to platelets produces a thrombasthenic-like state in normal platelets and binds to glycoproteins IIb and/or Illa, J. Clin. Invest. 72:325–338.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Costa, J. L., Detwiler, T. C., Feinman, R. D., Murphy, D. L., Patlak, C. S., and Pettigrew, K. D., 1977, Quantitative evaluation of the loss of human platelet dense bodies following stimulation by thrombin or A23187, J. Physiol. 264:297–306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Crabtree, G. R., and Kant, J. A., 1982, Organization of the rat γ-fibrinogen gene: Alternative mRNA splice patterns produce the γA and γB(γ’) chains of fibrinogen. Cell 31:159–166.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dawes, J., Clemetson, K. J., Gogstad, G. O., McGregor, J., Clezardin, P., Prowse, C. V., and Pepper, D. S., 1983, A radioimmunoassay for thrombospondin, used in a comparative study of thrombospondin, b-thromboglobulin and platelet factor 4 in healthy volunteers, Thromb. Res. 29:569–581.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. DiMinno, G., Thiagarajan, G. P., Perussia, B., Martinez, J., Shapiro, S., Trinchieri, G., and Murphy, S., 1983, Exposure of platelet fibrinogen binding sites by collagen, arachidonic acid, and ADP: Inhibition by a monoclonal antibody to the glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex,Blood 61: 140–148.Google Scholar
  17. Droller, M. J., 1973a, Ultrastructural visualization of the thrombin-induced platelet release reaction, Scand. J. Haematol. 11:35–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Droller, M. J., 1973b, Ultrastructure of the platelet release reaction in response to various aggregating agets and their inhibitors, Lab. Invest. 29:595–606.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Estensen, R. D., and White, J. G., 1974, Ultrastructural features of the platelet response to phorbol myristate acetate.Am. J. Pathol. 74:441–452.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Files, J. C., Malpass, T. W., Yee, E. K., Ritchie, J. L., and Harker, L. A., 1981, Studies of human platelet alpha granule release in vivo. Blood 58:607–618PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Gartner, T. K., and Dockter, M. E., 1983, Secreted platelet thrombospondin binds monovalently to platelets and erythrocytes in the absence of free Ca2+,Thromb. Res. 33:19–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. George, J. N., and Onofre, A. R., 1982, Human platelet surface binding of endogenous secreted factor VIII- von Willebrand factor and platelet factor 4, Blood 58:194–197.Google Scholar
  23. George, J. N., Lyons, R. M., and Morgan, R. K., 1980, Membrane changes associated with platelet activation. Exposure of actin on the platelet surface after thrombin-induced secretion,J. Clin. Invest. 66:1–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gerrard, J. M., Phillips, D. R., Rao, G. H. R., Plow, E. F., Walz, D. A., Ross, R., Marker, L. A., and White, J. G., 1980, Biochemical studies of two patients with the Gray Platelet Syndrome. Selective deficiency of platelet alpha graunules, J. Clin. Invest. 66:102–109.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Giddings, J. C., Brookes, L. R., Piovella, F., and Bloom, A. L., 1982, Immunohistological comparison of platelet factor 4 (PF4), fibronectin (Fn) and factor VIII related antigen (VIII R:Ag) in human platelet granules, Br. J. Haematol. 52:79–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ginsberg, M. H., Taylor, L., and Painter, R. G., 1980, The mechanism of thrombin-induced platelet factor 4 secretion. Blood 55:661–668.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Ginsberg, M. H., Forsyth, J., Lightsey, A., Chediak, J., and Plow, E. F., 1983a, Reduced surface expression and binding of fibronectin to thrombin-stimulated thromboasthenic platelets, J. Clin. Invest. 71:619–624.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ginsberg, M. H., Wencel, J. D., White, J. G., and Plow, E. F., 1983b, Binding of fibronectin to a-granule- deficient platelets, J. Cell Biol. 97:571–573.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ginsberg, M. H., Wolff, R., Marguerie, G., Coller, B., McEver, R., and Plow, E. F., 1984, Thrombospondin binding to thrombin-stimulated platelets: Evidence for a common adhesive protein binding mechanism,Clin. Res. 32:308A.Google Scholar
  30. Gogstad, G. O., Krutnes, M. B., Hetland, O., and Solum, N. O., 1983, Comparison of protein and lipid composition of the human platelet α-granule membranes and glycerol lysis membranes, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 732:519–530.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Holme, R., Sixma, J. J., Murer, E. H., and Hovig, T., 1973, Demonstration of platelet fibrinogen secretion via the surface connecting system,Thromb. Res. 3:347–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Holmsen, H., and Weiss, H. J., 1979, Secretable storage pools in platelets,Annu. Rev. Med. 30:119–134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hormia, M., Lehto, V.-P., and Virtanen, I., 1983, Factor VIII-related antigen. A pericellular matrix component of cultured human endothelial cells, Exp. Cell Res. 149:483–497.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Huang, S. S., Huang, J. S., and Deuel, T. F., 1982, Proteoglycan carrier of human platelet factor 4. Isolation and characterization, J. Biol. Chem. 257:11546–11550.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Ihlenfeld, J. V., Mathis, T. R., Barber, T. A., Mosher, D. F., Riddle, L. M., Hart, A. P., Updike, S. J., and Cooper, S. L., 1978, Transientin vivo thrombus deposition onto polymeric biomaterials. Role pf plasma fibronectin,Trans.Am. Soc. Artif, Intern. Organs 24:727–735.Google Scholar
  36. Jamieson, J. D., and Palade, G. E., 1977, Production of secretory proteins in animal cells, in: International Cell Biology 1976–1977 (B. R. Brinkley and K. R. Porter, eds.), The Rockefeller University Press, New York, pp. 308–317.Google Scholar
  37. Kaplan, D. L., Chao, F. C., Stiles, C. D., Antoniades, M. N., and Scher, C. D., 1979, Platelet α-granules contain a growth factor for fibroblasts. Blood 53:1043–1052.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Kaplan, K. L., 1980, b-thromboglobulin, Prog. Hemostas. Thrombos. 5:153–178.Google Scholar
  39. Kaplan, K. L., Broekman, M. J., Chernoff, A., Lesznik, G. R., and Drillings, M., 1979, Platelet α-granule proteins: Studies on release and subcellular localization,Blood 53:604–618.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Kirkpatrick, J. P., Mclntire, L. V., Moake, J. L., and Cimo, P. L., 1980, Differential effects of cytochala-sin B on platelet release, aggregation and contractility: Evidence against a contractile mechanism for the release of platelet granuler contents, Thromb. Haemost. 42:1483–1489.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Kloczewiak, M., Timmons, S., Lukas, T. J., and Hawiger, J., 1984, Platelet receptor recognition site on human fibrinogen. Synthesis and structure-function relationships of peptides corresponding to the carboxy-terminal segment of the 7 chain. Biochemistry 23:1767–1774.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kornecki, E., Tuszynski, G. P., and Niewiarowski, S., 1983, Inhibition of fibrinogen receptor-mediated platelet aggregation by heterologous anti-human platelet membrane antibody, J. Biol. Chem. 258:9349–9356.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Lahav, J., and Hynes, R. O., 1981, Involvement of fibronectin, von Willebrand factor, and fibrinogen in platelet interaction with solid substrata,J. Supramolec. Struct. Cell. Biochem. 17:299–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Leung, L. L. K., Harpel, P. C., Nachman, R. L., and Rabellino, E. M., 1983, Histidine-rich glycoprotein is present in human platelets and is released following thrombin stimulation, Blood 62:1016–1021.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Levy-Toledano, S., Caen, J. P., Breton-Gorius, J., Rendu, F., Cywiner-Golenzer, C., Dupuy, E., Legrand, Y., and Maclouf, J., 1981, Gray platelet syndrome: «-Granule deficiency. Its influence on platelet function,J. Lab. Clin. Med. 98:831–848.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Loftus, J. C., and Albrecht, R. M., 1984, Redistribution of the fibrinogen receptor of human platelets after surface activation, J. Cell Biol. 99:822–829.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Loftus, J. C., Choate, J., and Albrecht, R. M., 1984, Platelet activation and cytoskeletal reorganization: HVEM examination of intact and Triton extracted whole mounts, J. Cell Biol. 98:2019–2025.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. McEver, R. P., and Martin, M. N., 1984, A monoclonal antibody to a membrane glycoprotein binds only to activated platelets. J. Biol. Chem. 289:9799–9804.Google Scholar
  49. McEver, R. P., Bennett, E. M., and Martin, M. N., 1983, Identification of two structurally and functionally distinct sites on human platelet membrane glycoprotein Ilb-IIIa using monoclonal antibodies, J. Biol. Chem. 258:5269–5275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. McKeown-Longo, P. J., and Mosher, D. F., 1983, Binding of plasma fibronectin to cell layers of human skin fibroblasts,J. Cell Biol 97:466–472.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. McKeown-Longo, P. J., Manning, R., and Mosher, D. F., 1984, Binding and degradation of platelet thrombospondin by cultured fibroblasts, J. Cell Biol 98:22–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. McLaren, K. M., 1983, Immunohistochemical localization of thrombospondin in human megakaryocytes and platelets, J. Clin. Pathol 36:197–199.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Michl, J., Pieczonka, M. M., Unkeless, J. C., Bell, G. I., and Silverstein, S. C., 1983a, Fc receptor modulation in mononuclear phagocytes maintained on immobilized immune complexes occurs by diffusion of the receptor molecule, J. Exp. Med. 157:2121–2139.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Michl, J., Unkeless, J. C., Pieczonka, M. M., and Silverstein, S. C., 1983b, Modulation of Fc receptors of mononuclear phagocytes by immobilized antigen-antibody complexes. Quantitative analysis of the relationship between ligand number and Fc receptor response, J. Exp. Med. 157:1746–1757.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Mosesson, M. W., Homandberg, G. A., and Amrani, D. L., 1984, Human platelet fibrinogen gamma chain structure. Blood 63:990–995.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Nachman, R. L., and Harpel, P. C., 1976, Platelet a2-niacroglobulin and ai-antitrypsin, J. Biol Chem. 251:4514–4521.Google Scholar
  57. Nachman, R. L., and Jaffe, E. A., 1975, Subcellular platelet Factor VIII antigen and von Willebrand factor, J. Exp. Med. 141:1101–1112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Nachman, R. L., Levine, R., and Jaffe, E. A., 1977, Synthesis of factor VIII antigen by cultured guinea pig megakaryocytes, J. Clin. Invest. 60:914–921.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Niewiarowski, S., Budzynski, A., Morinelli, T., Budzynski, T., and Stewart, G. J., 1981, Exposure of fibrinogen receptor on human platelets by proteolytic enzymes, J. Biol Chem. 256:917–925.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Nurden, A. T., Kunicki, T. J., Dupuis, D., Soria, C., and Caen, J. P., 1982, Specific protein and glycoprotein deficiencies in platelets isolated from two patients with the gray platelet syndrome. Blood 59:709–718.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Peerschke, E. I., Zucker, M. B., Grant, R. A., Egan, J. J., and Johnson, M., 1980, Correlation between fibrinogen binding to human platelets and platelet aggregability. Blood 55:841–847.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Pham, T. D., Kaplan, K. L., and Butler, V. P., 1983, Immunoelectron microscopic localization of platelet factor 4 and fibrinogen in the granules of human platelets, J. Histochem. Cytochem. 31:905–910.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Phillips, D. R., Jennings, L. K., and Prasanna, H. R., 1980, Ca2+-mediated association of glycoprotein G (thrombin-sensitive protein, thrombospondin) with human platelets, J. Biol Chem. 255:11629- 11632.Google Scholar
  64. Pidard, D., Montgomery, R. R., Bennett, J. S., and Kunicki, T. J., 1983, Interaction of AP-2, a monoclonal antibody specific for the human platelet glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex, with intact platelets, J. Biol Chem. 258:12582–12586.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Pledger, W. J., Stiles, C. D., Antoniades, H. N., and Scher, C. D., 1978, An ordered sequence of events is required before BALB/C-3T3 cells becomes committed to DNA synthesis, Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 75:2839–2943.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Plow, E. F., and Collen, D., 1981, The presence and release of a2-antiplasmin from human platelets. Blood 58:1069–1074.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Plow, E. F., and Ginsberg, M. H., 1981, Specific and saturable binding of plasma fibronectin to thrombin- stimulated human platelets, J. Biol Chem. 256:9477–9482.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Plow, E. F., Birdwell, C., and Ginsberg, M. H., 1979, Identification and quantitation of platelet-associated fibronectin antigen, J. Clin. Invest. 63:540–543.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Plow, E. F., Srouji, A. H., Meyer, D., Marguerie, G., and Ginsberg, M. H., 1984, Evidence that three adhesive proteins interact with a common recognition site on activated platelets, J. Biol Chem. 259:5388–5391.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Pollard, H. B., Tack-Goldman, K., Pazoles, C. J., Creutz, C. E., and Shulman, N. C., 1977, Evidence for control of serotonin secretion from human platelets by hydroxyl ion transport and osmotic lysis,Proc. Natl Acad. Sci U.S.A. 74:5295–5299.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Rabellino, E. M., Nachman, R. L., William, N. Winchester, R. J., and Ross, G. D., 1979, Human megakaryocytes. I. Characterization of the membrane and cytoplasmic components of isolated marrow megakaryocytes, J. Exp. Med. 149:1273–1287.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Rabellino, E. M., Levene, R. B., Leung, L. L. K., and Nachman, R. L., 1981, Human megakaryocytes. IL Expression of platelet proteins in early marrow megakaryocytes, J. Exp. Med. 154:88–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Raccuglia, G., 1971, Gray platelet syndrome: A variety of qualitative platelet disorder. Am. J. Med. 51:818–828.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Rothman, J. E., 1981, The Golgi apparatus. Two organelles in tandem, Science 213:1212–1219.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Ruggeri, Z. M., Bader, R., and DeMarco, L., 1982, Glanzmann thrombasthenia: Deficient binding of von Willebrand factor to thrombin-stimulated platelets,Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 79:6038–6041.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Ruggeri, Z. M., DeMarco, L., Gatti, L., Bader, R., Montgomery, R. R., 1983, Platelets have more than one binding site for von Willebrand factor, J. Clin. Invest. 72:1–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Ryo, R., Proffitt, R. T., Poger, M. E., O’Bear, R., and Deuel, T. F., 1980, Platelet factor 4 antigen in megakaryocytes, Thromb. Res. 17:645–652.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Ryo, R., Nakoff, A., Huang, S. S., Ginsberg, M., and Deuel, T. F., 1983, New synthesis of a platelet- I specific protein: Platelet factor 4 synthesis in a megakaryocyte-enriched rabbit bone marrow culture system, J. Cell Biol. 96:515–520.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Saglio, S. D., and Slayter, H. S., 1982, Use of a radioimmunoassay to quantify thrombospondin, Blood 59:162–166.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Sander, H. J., Slot, J. W., Bouma, B. N., Bolhuis, P. A., Pepper, D. S., and Sixma, J. J., 1983, Immunocytochemical localization of fibrinogen, platelet factor 4, and beta thromboglobulin in thin frozen sections of human blood platelets, J. Clin. Invest. 72:1277–1287 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Senior, R. M., Griffin, G. L., Huang, J. S., Walz, D. A., and Deuel, T. F., 1983, Chemotactic activity of platelet alpha granule proteins for fibroblasts,J. Cell Biol. 96:382–385.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Seppä, H., Grotendorst, G., Seppä, S., Schiffmann, E., and Martin, G. R., 1982, Platelet derived growth factor in chemotactic for fibroblasts, J. Cell Biol. 92:584–588.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Shipley, G. D., Tucker, R. F., and Moses, H. L., 1984, Platelet transforming growth factor activity on AKR-2B cells in serum-free medium.Fed. Proc. 43:373.Google Scholar
  84. Skaer, R. J., 1981, Platelet degranulation, in: Platelets in Biology and Pathology, Volume 2 (J. L. Gordon, ed.), Elsevier/North Holland, Amsterdam, pp. 321–348Google Scholar
  85. Slot, J. W., Bouma, B. N., Montgomery, R., and Zimmerman, T. S., 1978, Platelet factor VIII-related antigen: Immunofluorescent localization,Thromb. Res. 13:871–881.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Stenberg, P. E., Shuman, M. A., Levine, S. P., and Bainton, D. F., 1984, Redistribution of alpha-granules and their contents in thrombin-stimulated platelets, J. Cell Biol. 98:748–760.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Tanzer, J. P., DaPrada, M., and Pletscher, A., 1966, Nature (London) Ultrastmctural localization of 5- hydroxy-tryptamine in blood platelets, 212:1574–1575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Tracy, P. B., and Mann, K. G., 1983, Prothrombinase complex assembly on the platelet surface is mediated through the 74,00 dalton component of factor Va, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 80:2380–2384.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Van der Meulen, J., Furuyo, W., and Grinstein, S., 1983, Isolation and partial characterization of platelet α- granule membranes, J. Membr. Biol. 71:47–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Wagner, D. D., Olmsted, J. B., and Marder, V. J., 1982, Immunolocalization of von Willebrand protein in Weibel-Palade bodies of human endothelial cells, J. Cell Biol. 95:355–360.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Weiss, H. J., Witte, L. D., Kaplan, K. L., Lages, B. A., Chemoff, A., Nossel, H. L., Goodman, D. S., and Baumgartner, H. R., 1979, Heterogeneity in storage pool deficiency: Studies on granule-bound substances in 18 patients including variants deficient in a-granules, platelet factor 4, b-thromboglobulin and platelet-derived growth factor, Blood 54:1296–1319.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Wenzel-Drake, J. D., Plow, E. F., Zimmerman, T. S., Painter, R. G., and Ginsberg, M. H., 1984, Immunofluorescent localization of adhesive glycoproteins in resting and thrombin-stimulated platelets. Am. J. Pathol. 115:156–164.Google Scholar
  93. White, J. G., 1983, The ultrastructure and regulatory mechanisms of blood platelets, in: Blood Platelet Function and Medicinal Chemistry (A. Lasslo, ed.), Elsevier Biomedical, New York, pp. 15–59.Google Scholar
  94. White, J. G., and Estensen, R., 1974, Cytochemical electron microscopic studies of the action of phorbol myristate acetate on platelets. Am. J. Pathol. 74:453–466.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. White, J. G., Rao, G. H. R., and Estensen, R. D., 1974, Investigation of the release reaction in platelets exposed to phorbol myristate acetate, Am. J. Pathol. 75:301–314.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Young, B. R., Lambrecht, L. K., Mosher, D. F., and Cooper, S. L., 1982a, Plasma proteins: Their role in initiating platelet and fibrin deposition on biomaterials, Adv. Chem. Ser. 199:317–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Young, B. R., Doyle, M. J., Collins, W. E., Lambrecht, L. K., Jordan, C. A., Albrecht, R. M., Mosher, D. F., and Cooper, S. L., 1982b, Effect of thrombospondin and other platelet a-granule proteins on artificial surface-induced thrombosis. Trans. Am. Soc. Artif. Intern. Organs 28:498–503PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Zucker, M. B., Mosesson, M. W., Broekman, M. J., and Kaplan, K. L., 1979, Release of platelet fibronectin (cold-insoluble globulin) from alpha granules induced by thrombin or collagen; lack of requirement of plasma fibronectin in ADP-induced platelet aggregation.Blood 54:8–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press New York and London 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Deane F. Mosher
    • 1
  • Donna M. Pesciotta
    • 1
  • Joseph C. Loftus
    • 2
  • Ralph M. Albrecht
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of MedicineUniversity of WisconsinMadisonUSA
  2. 2.School of PharmacyUniversity of WisconsinMadisonUSA

Personalised recommendations