Advertisement

Genetic Perspectives on Brain Development and Complexity

  • William E. Hahn
  • Nirupa Chaudhari
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 181)

Abstract

The detection and identification of macromolecular species amidst a vastly complex background is a major problem in neurobiology. Therefore, we wish to begin by making a few introductory remarks pertaining to present estimates of macromolecular complexity of the brain. Genes and their transcripts are the first and second orders respectively of the vast molecular complexity of the brain. The first measurements relevant to estimating the extent to which “single” copy DNA (scDNA or DNA which encodes most of the different proteins) is transcribed in mammalian organs were made about 14 years ago (Hahn, 1970; Hahn & Laird, 1971). These initial measurements, although confirmed by others (Brown & Church, 1971; Grouse, Chilton, & McCarthy, 1972; reviewed by Kaplan & Finch, 1982), were underestimates. But they nonetheless showed that very complex arrays of RNA species are present in eukaryotic cells and organs. We now know that in the mammalian brain (mouse and rat) at least 18–20% of the scDNA is transcribed as nuclear RNA (=~40% of the haploid coding capacity) (Bantle & Hahn, 1976; Chikaraishi, Deeb & Sueoka, 1978). Most of these different transcripts apparently reside in the nuclear RNA of neurons (Ozawa, Kushiya & Takahashi, 1980).

Keywords

Sequence Complexity mRNA Species Postnatal Development Rare Class Class Poly 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Arnon, R., 1980, Chemically defined antiviral vaccines, Ann. Rev. Microbiol., 34:593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bantle, J. A., Courchesne, C. L., and Couch, M., 1980, Complexity and complexity overlap in mouse liver polyadenylated and nonadenylated messenger RNA fractions, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 95:1710.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bantle, J. A., and Hahn, W. E., 1976, Complexity and characterization of polyadenylated RNA in the mouse brain, Cell, 8:139.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brown, J. R., and Church, R. B., 1971, RNA transcription from nonrepetitive DNA in the mouse, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 42:850.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chaudhari, N., and Hahn, W. E., 1983, Genetic expression in the developing brain. Science, 220:924.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chikaraishi, D. M., 1979, Complexity of cytoplasmic polyadenylated and nonpolyadenylated rat brain ribonucleic acids, Biochem., 18:3249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chikaraishi, D. M., Deeb, S. S., and Sueoka, N., 1978, Sequence complexity of nuclear RNAs in adult rat tissues, Cell 13:111.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Davidson, E. H., and Britten, R. J., 1979, Regulation of gene expression: Possible role of repetitive sequences, Science, 204:1052.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Grouse, L. D., Chilton, M. D., and McCarthy, B. J., 1972, Hybridization of ribonucleic acid with unique sequences of mouse deoxyribonucleic acid, Biochem. 11:798.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Grouse, L. D., Omenn, G. S., and McCarthy, B. J., 1973, Studies by DNA-RNA hybridization of transcriptional diversity in human brain, J. Neurochem., 30:191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hahn, W. E., 1970, Transcription of non repeated DNA in brain, J. Cell Biol., 10:31.Google Scholar
  12. Hahn, W. E., Chaudhari, N., Beck, L., Wilber, K., and Peffley, D., 1983, Genetic expression and postnatal development of the brain: Some characteristics of nonpolyadenylated mRNAs, Cold Spring Harbor Symposia, Vol. 48, Chap. 24, Cold Spring Harbor, NY.Google Scholar
  13. Hahn, W. E., and Laird, C. D., 1971, Transcription of non repeated DNA in mouse brain. Science 173:158.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hahn, W. E., Pettijohn, D. E., and Van Ness, J., 1977, One strand equivalent of the Escherichia coli genome is transcribed: Complexity and abundance classes of mRNA, Science, 197:582.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kaplan, B. B., and Finch, C. E., The sequence complexity of brain ribonucleic acids. IN: “Molecular Approaches to Neurobiology,” I. R. Brown, ed., Academic Press, N.Y., (1982).Google Scholar
  16. Lerner, R. A., 1982, Tapping the immunological repertoire to produce antibodies of predetermined specificity, Nature, 299:592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lumsden, C. J., and Wilson, E. O., 1981, Genes, mind and culture, Harvard University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  18. Martin, S. L., Zimmer, E. A., Davidson, W. S., Wilson, A. C., and Kan, Y. W., The untranslated regions of β-globin mRNA evolve at a functional rate in higher primates, Cell, 25:737.Google Scholar
  19. Maxwell, I. H., Maxwell, F., and Hahn, W. E., 1980, General occurrence and transcription of intervening sequences in mouse genes expressed via polyadenylated mRNA, Nuc. Acids Res., 8:5875.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Milner, R. J., and Sutcliffe, J. G., 1983, Gene expression in rat brain, Nuc. Acids Res., 11:5497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Morrison, M. R., Pardue, S., & Griffin, W. S. T., 1981, Developmental alterations in the levels of translationally active mRNAs in the postnatal rat cerebellum, J. Biol. Chem., 256(7):3550.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. O’Brien, S. J., 1973, On estimating functional gene numbers in eukaryotes, Nature, 242:52.Google Scholar
  23. Ohno, S., 1971, Simplicity of mammalian regulatory systems inferred by single gene determinations of sex phenotypes, Nature, 234:134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ouellette, A. J., Ordahl, C. P., Van Mess, J., and Malt, R. A., 1982, Mouse kidney nonpolysomal messenger RNA: Metabolism, coding function and translational activity, Biochem., 21:1169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ozawa, H., Kushiya, E., and Takahashi, Y., 1980, Complexity of RNA from the neuronal and glial nuclei, Neurosci. Lett., 18:191.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Rosbash, M., Campo, M.S., and Gummerson, K. S., 1975, Conservation of cytoplasmic poly (A)-containing RNA in mouse and rat, Nature, 258:582.Google Scholar
  27. Savage, M. J., Sala-Trepat, J. M., and Bonner, J., 1978, Measurement of the complexity and diversity of poly (adenylic acid) containing messenger RNA from rat liver, Biochem., 17:462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Seidman, J. G., and Leder, P., 1978, The arrangement and rearrangement of antibody genes, Nature, 276:790.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Shepherd, G. W., and Nemer, M., 1980, Developmental shifts in frequency distibution of polysoma 1 mRNA and their posttranscriptional regulation in the sea urchin embryo, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA, 77:4653.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Shinnick, T. M., Sutcliffe, J. G., Green, N., and Lerner, R. A., 1983, Synthetic peptide immunogens as vaccines, Ann. Rev. Microbiol., 37:425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Sutcliffe, J. G., Milner, R. J., Shinnick, T. M., and Bloom, F. E., 1983, Identifying the protein products of brain-specific genes with antibodies to chemically synthesized peptides, Cell, 33:671.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sutcliffe, J. G., Milner, R. J., Bloom, F. E., and Lerner, R. A., 1982, Common 82-nucleotide sequence unique to brain RNA, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 79:4942.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Van Ness, J., and Hahn, W. E., 1980, Sequence complexity of cDNA transcribed from a diverse mRNA population, Nuc. Acids Res., 8:4259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Van Ness, J., and Hahn, W. E., 1983, Physical parameters affectingthe rate and completion of RNA driven hybridization of DNA: New measurements relevant to quantitation based on kinetics, Nuc. Acids Res., 10:8061.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Van Ness, J., Maxwell, I. H., and Hahn, W. E., 1979, Complex population of nonpolyadenylated messenger RNA in mouse brain, Cell, 8:1341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Weigert, M., Gatmaitan, L., Loh, E., Schilling, J., and Hood, L., 1978, Rearrangement of genetic information may produce immunoglobulin diversity, Nature, 276:2785.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Xin, J., Brandhorst, B. P., Britten, R. J., and Davidson, E. H., 1982, Cloned embryo mRNAs not detectably expressed in adult sea urchin coelomocytes, Devel. Biol., 89, 527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Young, B. D., Birnie, G. D., and Paul, J., 1976, Complexity and specificity of polysoma1 poly(A) mRNA in mouse tissues, Biochem., 15:2823.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • William E. Hahn
    • 1
  • Nirupa Chaudhari
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Medicine, B-111University of ColoradoDenverUSA

Personalised recommendations