Advertisement

Plasticity of the Developing Synapse

  • Mark C. Fishman
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 181)

Abstract

“Plasticity” is a term that describes the anatomical, cellular, and molecular reorganizations of the nervous system that occur in response to experience. It serves as a useful rubric to distinguish processes that are environmentally regulated from those that unfold from a rigidly programmed read-out of the genome. Thus, some connections might be termed “plastic” and others “hard-wired”. The experience that modifies connections is, of course, ultimately enforced at the molecular level, often through modification of neuronal activity. However, the experimental paradigm may utilize manipulations at a site distant from the actual neurons of interest. Analysis of changes in connections to the cortex during visual deprivation provide one elegant example of the power of this approach1. Plasticity of the nervous system is prominent in developing animals, where even transient deprivation may have permanent sequelae.

Keywords

Nerve Growth Factor Postsynaptic Cell Presynaptic Cell Permanent Sequela Cell BioI 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Wiesel, T.J. and Hubel, D. (1965). Comparison of the effects of unilateral and bilateral eye closure on cortical unit responses in kittens. J. Neurophysiology. 28: 1029–1040.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Brown, M., Jansen, J. and Van Essen, D. (1976). Polyneuronal innervation of skeletal muscle in newborn rats and its elimination during maturation. J. Physiol. (Lond). 26: 387–422.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Landmesser, L. (1980). The generation of neuromuscular specificity. Ann. Rev. Neurosci. 3: 279–302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sperry, R.W. (1943). Visuomotor coordination in the newt (triturus viridescens) after regeneration of the optic nerve. J. Comp. Neurol. 79: 33–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kuwada, J. and Kramer A. (1983). Embryonic development of the leech nervous system: primary axon outgrowth of identified neurons. J. Neurosci. 3: 2098–2111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lumsden, A. and Davies, A. (1983). Earliest sensory nerve fibers are guided to peripheral targets by attractants other than nerve growth factor. Nature. 306: 786–788.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Trisler, G.D., Schneider, M. and Nirenberg, M. (1981). A topographic gradient of molecules in retina can be used to identify neuron position. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 78: 2145–2149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chaudhari, N. and Hahn, W.E. (1983). Genetic expression in the developing brain. Science. 220: 924–928.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Matthew, W.D., Tsavaler, L. and Reichardt, L.F. (1981). Identification of a synaptic vesicle-specific membrane protein with a wide distribution in neuronal and neurosecretory tissue. J. Cell Biol. 91: 257–269.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    DeCamilli, P., Harris, S., Huttner, W. and Greengard, P. (1983). Synapsin 1 (Protein 1), a nerve-terminal-specific phosphoprotein II: its specific association with synaptic vesicles demonstrated by immunocytochemistry in agarose-embedded synaptosomes. J. Cell Biol. 96: 1355–1373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Morel, N., Manaranche, R., Israel, M. and Gulik-Krzywicki. (1982). Isolation of a presynaptic plasma membrane fraction from Torpedo cholinergic synaptosomes: evidence for a specific protein. J. Cell Biol. 93: 349–356.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mijanich, G.P., Porasier, A.R. and Kelly, R.B. (1982). Partial purification of presynaptic plasma membrane by immunoabsorption. J. Cell Biol. 94: 88–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sanes, J.R. (1983). Roles of extracellular matrix in neural development. Ann. Rev. Physiol. 45: 581–600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Burden, S. (1981). Monoclonal antibodies to the frog nerve-muscle synapse. In — Monoclonal Antibodies to Neural Antigens (eds — McKay, R., Raff, M., Reichardt, L.F.) p. 247–257. Cold Spring Harbor.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Henderson, C., Huchet, M. and Changeux, J.P. (1983). Denervation increases a neurite-promoting activity in extracts of skeletal muscle. Nature. 302: 609–611.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Christian, C.N., Daniels, M.P., Sugiyama, H., Vogel, Z., Jacques, L. and Nelson, P.G. (1978). A factor from neurons increases the number of acetylcholine receptor aggregates in cultured muscle cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA. 75: 4011–4015.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ip, N., Perlman, R. and Zigmond, R.E. (1983). Acute transsynaptic regulation of tyrosine 3-monooxygenase activity in the rat superior cervical ganglion: evidence for both cholinergic and noncholinergic mechanisms. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA. 80: 2081–2085.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Patterson, P.H. and Chun, L.L.Y. (1974). The influence of non-neuronal cells on catecholamine and acetylcholine synthesis and accumulation in cultures of dissociated sympathetic neurons. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA. 71: 3607–3610.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    O’Brien, R., Ostberg and A. Vrbova. (1978). Observations on the elimination of polyneuronal innervation in developing mammalian skeletal muscle. J. Physiol. 282: 571–582.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Fishman, M.C. and Nelson, P.G. (1981). Depolarization-induced synaptic plasticity at cholinergic synapses in tissue culture. J Neurosci. 1: 1043–1051.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Thompson, W., Kuffler, D. and Jansen, J. (1979). The effect of prolonged, reversible block of nerve impulses on the elimination of polyneural innervation of newborn rat skeletal muscle fibers. Neuroscience. 4: 271–281.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Purves, D. and Hume, R. (1981). The relation of postsynaptic geometry to the number of presynaptic axons that innervate autonomic ganglion cells. J. Neurosci. 1: 441–452.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Miyata, Y. and Yoskioka. (1980). Selective elimination of motor nerve terminals in the rat soleus muscle during development. J. Physiol. (Lond). 309: 631–646.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Korneliussen, H. and Jansen, J. (1976). Morphological aspects of the elimination of polyneuronal innervation of skeletal muscle fibers in newborn rats. J. Neurocytol. 5: 591–604.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark C. Fishman
    • 1
  1. 1.Section on Neurobiology, Developmental Biology LaboratoryMassachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School Howard Hughes Medical InstituteBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations