CNS Hypomyelinated Mutant Mice (Jimpy, Shiverer, Quaking): In Vitro Evidence for Primary Oligodendrocyte Defects

  • Merrill K. Wolf
  • Susan Billings-Gagliardi
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 181)

Abstract

Myelin is the protein and lipid sheath, consisting of consecutive, spirally wrapped, compacted segments of cell membrane, which surrounds each large axon in vertebrates and causes saltatory conduction of the action potentials. Nerve fiber sheaths with certain features of myelin are found in other animals, notably in some arthropods. True myelin, however, seems to be confined to true vertebrates, from the elasmobranchs up, and is strongly conserved in vertebrate evolution. Myelin has unique ultrastructural and biochemical components; it is formed by unique cells (in the CNS of warm-blooded vertebrates, by the oligodendrocytes); and it has a unique relationship to another cell, for normally it only forms around part of a neuron, almost always the axon. All this implies the existence of numerous DNA sequences which encode, not only for the structural components of adult myelin, but also for various steps of its development. Because myelin is strongly conserved, information about this DNA obtained from any mammal is likely to be directly applicable to other mammals including man.

Keywords

Compaction Sine Tate Cytosine Arabinoside 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Billings-Gagliardi, S., and Adcock, L. H., 1981, Hypomyelinated mutant mice IV: PNS myelin of jpMSQ is normal in quantity and ultrastructure, Brain Res., 225:309.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Billings-Gagliardi, S., and Wolf, M. K., 1982, CNS hypomyelinated mutant mice: Morphological and tissue culture studies, in: “Advances in Cellular Neurobiology,” Vol. 3, S. Fedoroff and L. Hertz, ed., Academic Press, New York, 275.Google Scholar
  3. Billings-Gagliardi, S., Adcock, L. H., Lamperti, E., Schwing-Stanhope, G. and Wolf, M. K., 1983, Myelination of jp jpms , and jgk axons by normal glia in vitro: Ultrastructural and autoradiographic evidence, Brain Res., 268: 255.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Billings-Gagliardi, S., Hall, A. L., Stanhope, G. B., Altschuler, R. J., Sidman, R. L., and Wolf, M. K., Cultures of shiverer mutant cerebellum injected with normal oligodendrocytes make both normal and shiverer myelin, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, in press.Google Scholar
  5. Bologa, L., Moll, C., and Herschkowitz, N., 1983, Normal proliferation rate of galactocerebroside positive oligodendrocytes in brain cell cultures of the hypomyelinated mouse mutant jimpy, Brain Res., 275:369.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bunge, R. P., Moya, F., and Bunge, M. B., 1981, Observations on the role of Schwann cell secretion in Schwann-cell-axon interaction, in: “Neurosecretion and Brain Peptides”, J. B. Martin, S. Reichlin, and K. L. Bick, eds., Raven Press, New York, 229.Google Scholar
  7. Friedrich, V. L., and Sternberger, N. H., 1983, The “lacy” oligodendrocyte: an immature form revealed by immunocytochemical staining, Anat. Rec., 205:58A.Google Scholar
  8. Hogan, E. L., 1977, Animal models of genetic disorders of myelin, in: “Myelin,” P. Morell, ed., Plenum Press, New York and London, 489.Google Scholar
  9. Meier, C., and Bischoff, A., 1977, Dysmyelination in jimpy mouse due to astroglial hyperplasia? Nature (Lond.), 268:177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Nagara, H., and Suzuki, K., 1981, Chronological study of oligo-dend.roglial alterations and myel i nation in quaking mice, Neuropath. Appl. Neurobiol., 7:135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Privat, A., Drian, M. J., and Escaig, J., 1979, Jimpy mouse myelin revisited with freeze-fracture, Acta Neuropath., 45:129.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Schwing-Stanhope, G., and Wolf, M. K., 1982, Myelination of cytosine arabinoside-treated cerebellum cultures by oligodendrocytes from normal optic nerve, Soc. Neurosei. Abst., 8:231.Google Scholar
  13. Seil, F. J., Leiman, A. L., and Woodward, W. R., 1980, Cytosine arabinoside effects on developing cerebellum in tissue culture, Brain Res., 186:393.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Seil, F. J., and Blank, N. K., 1981, Myelination of central nervous system axons in tissue culture by transplanted oligodendrocytes, Science, 212:1407PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Shen, X-Y., Hall, A. L., Wolf, M. K., and Billings-Gagliardi, S., 1983, Myelin-deficient mouse mutation: comparison with allelic shiverer mutation in situ and in vitro, Soc. Neurosci. Abst., 9:6.Google Scholar
  16. Skoff, R. P., 1976, Myelin deficit in the jimpy mouse may be due to cellular abnormalities in astroglia, Nature (Lond.), 264: 560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Skoff, R. P., 1982, Increased proliferation of oligodendrocytes in the hypomyelinated mouse mutant — jimpy, Brain Res., 248: 19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Trapp, B. D., Itoyama, Y., Sternberger, N. H., Quarles, R. H., and Webster, H. de F., 1981, Immunocytochemical localization of P. protein in Golgi complex membranes and myelin of developing rat Schwann cells, J. Cell Biol., 90:1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Wolf, M. K., and Billings-Gagliardi, S., 1982, A tissue culture strategy for studying mutant mice with CNS hypomyelination, in: “Neuroseience Approached through Cell Culture,” Vol. II, S. Pfeiffer, ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, 141.Google Scholar
  20. Wolf, M. K., Kardon, G. B., Adcock, L. H., and Billings-Gagliardi, S., 1983a, Hypomyelinated mutant mice V: Relationship between jp msd and jp re-examined on identical genetic backgrounds, Brain Res., 271:121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Wolf, M. K., Schwing-Stanhope, G., Hall, A. L., and Billings-Gagliardi, S., 1983b, Cytosine arabinoside selectively eliminates myelinating oligodendrocytes from cultures of cerebellum, Anat. Rec, 205:218A.Google Scholar
  22. Wolf, M. K., Schwing-Stanhope, G., Hall, A. L., and Billings-Gagliardi, S., 1983c, Shiverer oligodencrocytes form shiverer myelin around normal axons, Soc. Neurosci. Abst. 9: 6.Google Scholar
  23. Wood, P. M., 1976, Separation of functional Schwann cells and neurons from normal peripheral nerve tissue, Brain Res., 115:351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Merrill K. Wolf
    • 1
  • Susan Billings-Gagliardi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AnatomyUniversity of Massachusetts Medical SchoolWorcesterUSA

Personalised recommendations