Cardiac Perfusion, Past and Present

  • R. J. Bing


In its early phase cardiac metabolism was exclusively concerned with the nutrition of the heart. The isolated perfused organ appeared to be ideally suited for that purpose. Most of this work has been admirably summarized in 1926 in “A Text Book of Physiology” by Robert A. Tigerstedt, the discoverer of the enzyme renin (1). One section of this book deals with the “chemical conditions for the beating heart.” Prominent amongst the frequently quoted pioneers are Ludwig, Langendorff, Kronecker, Howell, Martin, Greene, Gaskell, Bowditch. Clark, Loewi, Locke, and particularly Ringer (1). Starling and Evans play a predominant role in the investigation of the use of organic material by the heart (2). In 1983 as we celebrate Ringer’s centennial, the work of Ringer is particularly pertinent. It is amusing to read that Ringer, investigating the role of calcium in cardiac contraction was first misled by using tap water for perfusion. Tap water, as he discovered later, contained not only CaCl but also KCl which antagonized the calcium effect (1). One year later Ringer discovered that the arrested heart could be made to beat again by the addition of calcium chloride. In 1883 he concluded that calcium is essential for maintenance of cardiac contraction (1).


Coronary Flow Creatine Phosphate Myocardial Oxygen Consumption Cardiac Contraction Coronary Spasm 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Tigerstedt, R.A. (1923): Die Physiologie des Kreislaufes. Vol. I, 2nd edition, Berlin and Wien, publisher, W. De Gruyter, p. 245.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Starling, E.H., & Evans, C.L. (1914): J. Physiol. 49: 67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bing, R.J. (1954): Harvey Lect. 50: 27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Opie, L.H. (1969): Am. Heart J. 77: 383.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Neely, J.R., & Rovetto, M.J. (1975): Methods Enzymol. 39: 43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rovetto, M.J., Lambeston, W.F., & Neely, J.R. (1975): Circ. Res. 37: 742.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kubier, W., & Spieckermann, P.G. (1970): J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 1: 351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Opie, L.H. (1976): Circ. Res. 38: 1–52.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Clark, L.C. Jr., & Gollan, F. (1966): Science 152: 1755.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Tomera, J.F., & Geyer, R.P. (1982): J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 14: 573.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kino, M., Hirota, Y., Yamamoto, S., Sawada, K., Moriguchi, M., Kotaka, M., Kubo, S., & Kawamura, K. (1983): Am. J. Cardiol. 51: 802.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Green Cross Corp. (1976): Green Cross Tech. Info., Ser. 3, Osaka, Japan.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bergmeyer, H.U. (1974): Methods in Envzmatic Analysis. Deerfield Beach, Verlag Chemie International.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wollenberger, A. (1947): Am. J. Physiol. 150: 733.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lane, R.F., Hess, M.L., Gertz, E.W., & Briggs, F.N. (1968): Circ. Res. 23: 597.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bing, R.J., Sugihara, J., & Metz, M. (Submitted for publication).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Fenton, J.C., Gudbjarnason, S., & Bing, R.J. (1962): Am. Heart Assoc., Monograph No. 1, second edition.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bing, R.J. (1978): Circ. Res. 58: 965.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Yohoyama, M., & Henry, P.D. (1979): Circ. Res. 45: 479.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. J. Bing
    • 1
  1. 1.Huntington Medical Research InstitutesHuntington Memorial HospitalPasadenaUSA

Personalised recommendations