Liposomes in Leishmaniasis: The Lysosome Connection

  • Carl R. Alving
  • John S. Weldon
  • John F. Munnell
  • William L. Hanson


Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by protozoan parasites that live almost exclusively in macrophages in the reticuloendothelial (RE) system. Depending on the species of parasite, the area of the world, and the site of infection, three different clinical presentations, are generally recognized: cutaneous (“oriental sore”, “chiclero ulcer”), mucocutaneous (“espundia”), and visceral leishmaniasis (“kala azar”). The visceral disease, which affects RE cells in the liver, spleen, and bone marrow, is the most severe. In its untreated state, over a short or long period of time, visceral leishmaniasis is thought to be virtually 100% fatal. (See Faust et al., 1968 and Lainson and Shaw, 1978 for complete descriptions of the various forms of leishmaniasis.) The disease in all of its forms afflicts as many as 100 million people in tropical and subtropical areas throughout the world, and research on leishmaniasis is included as part of the “Six Diseases Program” of the World Health Organization (along with malaria, schistosomiasis, filariasis, trypanosomiasis, and leprosy).


Visceral Leishmaniasis Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Parasitophorous Vacuole Antileishmanial Activity Leishmania Donovani 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carl R. Alving
    • 1
  • John S. Weldon
    • 2
  • John F. Munnell
    • 2
  • William L. Hanson
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Membrane BiochemistryWalter Reed Army Institute of ResearchUSA
  2. 2.Department of Anatomy and Radiology, College of Veterinary MedicineUniversity of GeorgiaAthensUSA
  3. 3.Department of Parasitology, College of Veterinary MedicineUniversity of GeorgiaAthensUSA

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