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Impact of Seabirds on Marine Resources, Especially Krill, of South Georgia Waters

  • John P. Croxall
  • Christopher Ricketts
  • Peter A. Prince

Abstract

Quantitative assessments of the energy and food requirements of seabird communities are few and mainly recent (Wiens and Scott, 1975; Furness, 1978; Croxall and Prince, 1982a; Ford et al., 1982; Schneider and Hunt, 1982; Sanger, 1972, 1983). Most have concerned northern hemisphere sites, particularly those of northwest Alaska. Such communities, and also that of the South African Benguela system (Furness and Cooper, 1982), are mainly dominated by species that feed inshore (usually within 50–100 km of, and often much closer to, their breeding colony), such as auks Alcidae, gulls Larus, kittiwakes Rissa and shags Phalacrocorax. This situation confers some useful advantages. First, inshore feeding birds can easily be observed and their distribution and density at sea often realistically assessed. Second, most species feed mainly diurnally and feeding ranges may be determined by direct observation from land or sea, and it may even be possible to estimate general activity budgets. Third, there is extensive information available on the biology, ecology and sometimes breeding numbers and demography of many species. Disadvantages stem principally from, first, inaccessibility because of cliff nesting habits, making handling (for collecting food samples, growth data, bioenergetic research) difficult; second, offspring of some species are precocial, departing to sea in the early stages of growth; and third, many species have broods of more than one chick, complicating studies of chick energy budgets, meal size and feeding frequency.

Keywords

Gentoo Penguin King Penguin Chinstrap Penguin Giant Petrel South Orkney Island 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • John P. Croxall
    • 1
  • Christopher Ricketts
    • 1
  • Peter A. Prince
    • 1
  1. 1.British Antarctic SurveyNatural Environment Research CouncilCambridgeUK

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