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Free-Ranging Energetics of Penguins

  • Randall W. Davis
  • Gerald L. Kooyman

Abstract

Penguins exhibit the greatest degree of adaptation to the aquatic environment of all seabirds. They are powerful swimmers that pursue their prey at depth allowing them to exploit the water column more than any other seabird. Dives 240 m deep have been recorded for King Penguins (Kooyman et al., 1982) and as deep as 265 m for Emperor Penguins (Kooyman et al., 1971). Intermediate sized Gentoo and Chinstrap Penguins dive from 70–100 m (Conroy and Twelves, 1972; Lishman and Croxall, in prep) and even the smallest species, the Fairy Penguin, can dive to 60 m (Montague, 1982). How does swimming as a primary mode of locomotion at sea influence the average daily metabolic rate (ADMR) and foraging energetics of penguins relative to seabirds that fly to and from feeding areas?

Keywords

Standard Metabolic Rate Tritiated Water Gentoo Penguin Diving Behavior Diving Depth 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Randall W. Davis
    • 1
  • Gerald L. Kooyman
    • 1
  1. 1.Physiological Research LaboratoryScripps Institution of OceanographyLa JollaUSA

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