Energetics of Walking in Penguins

  • Yvon Le Maho
  • Gérard Dewasmes


It is of a particular interest to study the energy budget of penguins since they represent 75 to 85% of the bird biomass of the southern ocean (Croxall, 1984). When considering only Antarctica, the population size of penguins represents 66% of the total bird population — about 180 million birds; however, because penguins are in general birds of a large body mass, their biomass reaches as much as 98% of total bird biomass (see Mougin, 1984).


Energy Budget Adelie Penguin Energetic Cost Stride Frequency Antarctic Continent 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Cahill, G.F., Jr., 1970, Starvation in man, New Engl. J. Med., 282: 668.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Croxall, J.P., 1984, Seabird ecology, in: “Ecology of the antarctic”, R.M. Laws, ed., Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  3. Dewasmes, G., Le Maho, Y., Cornet, A. and Groscolas, R., 1980, Resting metabolic rate and cost of locomotion in long-term fasting emperor penguins, J. Appl. Physiol.: Respirat. Environ. Exercise Physiol., 49: 888.Google Scholar
  4. Fedak, M., Pinshow, B., and Schmidt-Nielsen, K., 1974, Energy cost of bipedal running, Am. J. Physiol., 227: 1038.Google Scholar
  5. Grande, F., 1964, Man under caloric deficiency, in: “Handbook of Physiology. Adaptation to the environment Am. Physiol. Soc., Washington D.C., sect. 4, p. 911.Google Scholar
  6. Groscolas, R., and Clément, C., 1976, Utilisation des réserves énergétiques au cours du jeûne de la reproduction chez le manchot empereur, Aptenodytes forsteri, C.R. Acad. Sci., 282: 297.Google Scholar
  7. Isenmann, P., 1971, Contribution à l’éthologie et à l’écologie du manchot empereur (Aptenodytes forsteri Gray) à la colonie de Pointe Géologie (Terre Adélie), L’Oiseau et R.F.O., 41: 9.Google Scholar
  8. Johnson, S.R. and West, G.C., 1973, Fat content, fatty acid composition and estimates of energy metabolism of Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis Adéliae) during the early breeding season fast, Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 45 B: 709.Google Scholar
  9. Johnston, D.W., 1970, Caloric density of avian adipose tissue, Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 34: 827.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Le Maho, Y., 1977, The emperor penguin: a strategy to live and breed in the cold, Am. Sci., 65: 680.Google Scholar
  11. Mougin, J.L., 1984, Ecology of the emperor penguin, in: “The emperor penguin”, Y. Le Maho, ed., Yale Univ. Press, Newhaven.Google Scholar
  12. Nelson, R.A., Wahner, H.W., Jones, J.D., Ellefson, R.D., and Zollman, P.E., 1973, Metabolism of bears before, during, and after winter sleep, Am. J. Physiol., 224: 491.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Odum, E.P., Rogers, D.T., and Hicks, D.L., 1964, Homeostasis of the nonfat components of migrating birds, Science, 143: 1037.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Pinshow, B., Fedak, M.A., and Schmidt-Nielsen, K., 1977, Terrestrial locomotion in penguins: it costs more to waddle, Science, 195: 592.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Schmidt-Nielsen, K., 1972, Locomotion: energy cost of swimming, flying and running, Science, 177: 222.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Sladen, W.J.L., 1958, The Pygoscelids penguins. I. Methods of study; II. The Adélie penguin, Pygoscelis Adeliae (Hombron and Jacquinot), Falkland Isl. Depend. Surv. Sci. Rep., 17: 1.Google Scholar
  17. Sladen, W.J.L., and Ostenso, N.A., 1960, Penguin tracks far inland in the Antarctic, Auk, 77: 466.Google Scholar
  18. Williams, A.J., Siegfried, W.R., Burger, A.E., and Berruti, A., 1977, Body composition and energy metabolism of moulting Eudyptid penguins, Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 56 A: 27.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yvon Le Maho
    • 1
  • Gérard Dewasmes
    • 2
  1. 1.Laboratoire de Physiologie RespiratoireCNRS, Associé Université Louis PasteurStrasbourgFrance
  2. 2.Laboratoire de ThermorégulationCNRS, Université Claude BernardLyonFrance

Personalised recommendations