Distribution of Gut Peptides and Their Actions
Secretin was the first peptide to be identified within the gastrointestinal tract, and provided the prototype for the classical hormones, in that it is released by acid from endocrine cells in the duodenum and passes via the circulation to its effector organ, the exocrine pancreas1. The discovery of gastrin was soon to follow, but it was some twenty years later before further active components were identified from gut extracts. The major limitation of these studies,which showed that intravenous gut extracts could mimic the biological actions normally induced by enteric stimuli,such as acid or food, was the inability at that time to isolate the active substances from the crude extracts. It was not until the 1960s that the techniques of purification and structural analysis pioneered by Gregory and Mutt, allowed investigation of the active substances extracted from the gut, to advance3,4, Many of the classical hormones and a continuing stream of new peptides have now been purified and sequenced by these methods 5,6.
KeywordsEndocrine Cell Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide Enteric Nervous System Pancreatic Polypeptide Glucose Dependent Insulinotropic Peptide
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.W.M. Bayliss and E.H. Starling, On the causation of the so called peripheral reflex secretion of the pancreas, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 69: 352 (1902).Google Scholar
- 12.V. Mutt, Gastrointestinal hormones: A field of increasing complexity, Scand. J. Gastroenterol. Supp 77: 133 (1982).Google Scholar
- 14.T. Fujita, and S. Kobayashi, The cells and hormones of the gastroenteropancreatic endocrine system, Gastro-entero-pancreatic endocrine. A cell biological approach, T. Fujita, ed., Igaku Shoin, Tokyo (1973).Google Scholar
- 15.E. Solcia, J.M. Polak, L.I. Larsson, A.M.J. Buchan and C. Capella, Update on Lausanne classification of endocrine cells, Gut Hormones. Bloom S.R. and Polak J.M. ed., Churchill Livingstone, London (1981).Google Scholar
- 16.J.H. Walsh, Nature of gut peptides and their possible function, in: Cellular basis of chemical messengers in the digestive tract. J. Lechago, M.I. Grossman, Walsh J.M. ed., Academic Press, New York (1980).Google Scholar
- 18.J.B. Furness, M. Costa, R. Franco, and J.J. Llewellyn-Smith, Neuronal peptides in the intestine: distribution and possible function in: Advances in biochemical psychopharmacology, neural peptides and neuronal communications. E. Costa, M. Trabucchi eds. Raven Press, New York (1980).Google Scholar
- 19.A.E. Bishop, G.L. Ferri, L. Probert, S.R. Bloom and J.M. Polak, Peptidergic nerves, Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 17 Supp 71: 43 (1982).Google Scholar
- 22.J.B. Furness, M. Costa, R. Murphy, A.M. Beardsley, J.R. Oliver, I.J. Llewellyn-Smith, R.L. Eskay, A.A. Shulkes, T.W. Moody, and K.K. Meyer, Detection and characterisation of neurotransmitters, particularly peptides, in the gastrointestinal tract, Scand.J. Gastroenterol. 17, Supp 71: 61 (1981).Google Scholar
- 24.A.V. Edwards, and S.R. Bloom, Recent physiological studies of the alimentary autonomic innervation, Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 17, Supp 71: 78 (1981).Google Scholar