Gastrointestinal Nerves, Hormones and Autacoids in Relation to Human Gastrointestinal Motility

  • Alan Bennett
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (volume 80)


Excellent reviews of the topics in this chapter have been written by various authors in the volumes edited by Bertaccini (1982). The work here is confined mainly to the human gastrointestinal tract, and discusses both older and recent research.


Gastric Emptying Circular Muscle Gastrointestinal Motility Gastric Motility Pancreatic Polypeptide 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adlercreutz, E., Pettersson, T., Adlercreutz, H., Gribbe, P. & Wegelius, C- (1960). Effect of cholecystokinin on duodenal tonus and motility. Acta Med Scand 167: 339–342.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Adrian, T.E., Bloom, S.R., Besterman, H.S. & Bryant, M.G. (1978). PP-physiology and pathology. In: Bloom, S.R. (ed) Gut Hormones. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh pp254–260.Google Scholar
  3. Bachrach, W.H. (1953). Action of insulin hypoglycemia on motor and secretory functions of the digestive tract. Physiol Rev 33: 566–592.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bennett, A. (1968). The biological effects of gastrin. J. Roy. Coll. Physns., Lond. 2: 269–273.Google Scholar
  5. Bennett, A. (1968). The relationship between in vitro studies of gastrointestinal muscle and motility of the gastrointestinal in vivo. Am J Dig Dis 13, 410–414.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bennett, A. (1970). Control of gastrointestinal motility by substances occurring in the gut wall. Rendic. R. Gastroenterol. 2: 133–142.Google Scholar
  7. Bennett, A (1975). Pharmacology of colonic muscle. Gut 16: 307–311.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bennett, A., Misiewicz, J.J. & Waller, S.L. (1967). Analysis of the motor effects of gastrin and pentagastrin on the human alimentary tract in vitro. Gut 8: 470–474.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bennett, A. & Sanger, G.J. (1982). Prostaglandins, Mediators and Drugs in astrointestinal Motility II. Handb. Exp. Pharm. 59/11, ed G. Bertaccini, Springer Verlag, Berlin, pp 219–248.Google Scholar
  10. Bennett, A. & Stockley, H.L. (1975). The innervation of the human alimentary tract and its relation to function. Gut 16: 443–453.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bennett, A. & Whitney, B. (1966). A pharmacological study of the motility of the human gastrointestinal truact. Gut 7: 307–316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bertaccini, G. (1973). Action of caerulein on the motility of the biliary system and the gastrointestinal tract in man. Med. Chir Dig 2: 133–138.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bertaccini, G. (1982). In: Mediators and Drugs in Gastrointestinal I Motility II Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology 59/II, ed; G. Bertaccini, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  14. Bertaccini, G., Agosti, A. (1971). Action of caerulein on intestinal motility in man. Gastroenterology 60: 55–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bertaccini, G. Agosti, A. & Impicciatore, M. (1971). Caerulein and gastrointestinal motility in man. Rend. Gastroenterol. 3: 23–27.Google Scholar
  16. Bertaccini, G., Impicciatore, M., Molina, E. & Zappia, L. (1974a). Action of some natural and synthetic peptides on the motility of human gastrointestinal tract in vitro. In: Daniel, E.E. (ed) Fourth Int.Symp.Gastrointest. Motility. Mitchell, Vancouver, pp287–292.Google Scholar
  17. Bertaccini, G., Impicciatore, H., Molina, E. & Zappia, L. (1974b). Action of bombesin on human gastrointestinal motility. Rend. Gastroenterol. 6: 45–51.Google Scholar
  18. Bertaccini, G., Scarpignato, C. & Coruzzi, G. (1980). Histamine receptors and gastrointestinal motility. In: Torsoli, A., Lucchelli, P.E & Brimblecombe, R.W. (eds). European symposium of further experience with H2-receptor antagonists in peptic ulcer disease and progress in histamine research. Excerpta Medica., Amsterdam, pp251–261.Google Scholar
  19. Bertaccini, G., Zappia, L. & Molina, E. (1979). ‘In vitro’ duodenal muscle in the pharmacological study of natural compounds. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. (Suppl 54) 14: 87–93.Google Scholar
  20. Blackburn, A.M., Bloom, S.R., Long, R.G., Fletcher, D.R., Christofides, N.D., Fitzpatrick, M.L. & Baron, J.H. (1980). Effect of neurotensin on gastric function in man. Lancet 1: 987–989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Bloom, S.R., Christofides, N.D., Modlin, I. & Fitzpatrick, M.L. (1978). Effect of motilin on gastric emptying of solid meals in man. Gastroenterology 74: A1010.Google Scholar
  22. Boesby, S. & Pedersen, S.A. (1974). The effect of vasopressin on resting gastroesophageal sphincter pressure in man. Scand. J. Gastroenterol, 9: 587–590.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Bortolotti, M., Miglioli, M., Lanfranchi, G.A. & Barbara, L. (1970). L’azione della caeruleine sull attivita elettrica emeccanica dello stomaco nelluomo. Gastroenterologia 22: 147–179.Google Scholar
  24. Bortolotti, M., Sanavio, C., Sansone, G. & Labo, G. (1975). Modifications in human gastric motility induced by secretin and by glucagon. Rend Gastroenterol. 7:240.Google Scholar
  25. Bortolotti, M., Sansone, G. & Sanavio, C. (1975). Effects of some gut hormones on gastric myoelectric and mechanical activity in man. Rend Gastroenterol. 7:135.Google Scholar
  26. Brazeau, P. (1975). Agents affecting the renal conservation of water. Goodman, L.S. & Gilman, A. (eds) The Phamacolo gical basis of therapeutics. Macmillan, New York, pp 848–859.Google Scholar
  27. Burleigh, D.E. (1979). The effects of drugs and electrical field stimulation on the human lower oesophageal sphincter. Arch. Int. Pharmacodyn Ther. 240: 169–176.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Burnstock, G. (1978). Do some sympathetic neurones release both noradrenaline and acetylcholine? Progr Neurpbiol 11: 205–222.Google Scholar
  29. Cameron, A.J., Phillips, S.F. & Simmerskill, W.H.J. (1967). Effect of cholecystokinin on motility of human stomach and gallbladder muscle "in vitro’. Clin Res 15: 416–420.Google Scholar
  30. Cameron, A.J., Phillips, S.F. & Summerskill, W.H.J. (1970). Comparison of effects of gastrin, cholecystokinin-pancreozymin, secretin, and glucagon on human stomach muscle in vitro. Gastroenterology 59: 539–545.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Castell, D.O. (1971). Changes in lower esophageal sphincter pressure during insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Gastroenterology 61: 10–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Chan-Palay, V., Jonsson, G. & Palay, S.L. (1978). Serotonin and substance P co-exist in neurons of the rat’s central nervous system. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 75: 1582–1586.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Chernish, S.M., Miller, R.E., Rosenak, B.D. & Schulz, N.E. (1972). Hypotonic duodenography with the use of glucagon. Gastroenterology 63: 392–398.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Chernish, S.M., Brunelle, R.R., Rosenak, B.D. & Ahmadzai, S. (1978). Comparison of the effects of glucagon and atropine sulfate on gastric emptying. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 70: 581–586.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Chey, W.Y., Lorber, S.H., Kusakcioglu, O. & Hendricks, J. (1967). Effect of secretin and pancreozymin-cholecystokinin on motor function of stomach and duodenum. Fed. Proc. 26: 383, A710.Google Scholar
  36. Chey, W.Y., Hitanant, S., Hendricks, J. & Lorber, S.H. (1970). Effect of secretin and cholecystokinin on gastric emptying and gastric secretion in man. Gastroenterology 58: 820–827.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Christensen, J. (1975). Pharmacology of the esophageal motor function. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 15: 243–258.Google Scholar
  38. Christiansen, J. & Borgeskov, S. (1974). The effect of glucagon and the combined effect of glucagon and secretin on lower esophageal sphincter pressure in man. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 9: 615–618.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Christiansen, J., Lauritzen, K., Moesgaard, J. & Hoist, J.J. (1977). Effect of endogenous and exogenous glucagon on pentagastrin-stimulated lower esophageal sphincter pressure in man. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 12: 33–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Christofides, N.D., Long, R.G., Fitzpatrick, M.L. & Bloom, S.R. (1979a). Motilin increases the rate of gastric emptying of glucose. Gut 20: A924.Google Scholar
  41. Christofides, N.D., Modlin, I.M., Fitzpatrick, M.L. & Bloom, S.R. (1979b). Effect of motilin on the rate of gastric emptying and gut hormone release during breakfast. Gastroenterology 76: 903–907.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Cohen, S. & Lipshutz, W.H. (1971). Hormonal regulation of human lower esophageal sphincter competence: interaction of gastrin and secretin. J. Clin. Invest. 50: 449–454.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Cohen, S., Lipshutz, W. & Hughes, W. (1971). Role of gastrin supersensitivity in the pathogenesis of lower esophageal sphincter hypertension in achalasia. J.Clin.Invest.50:1241–1247.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Cook, R.D. & Burnstock, G. (1976). The ultrastructure of Auerbach’s plexus in the guinea-pig. I. Neuronal elements. J. Neurocytol. 5: 171–194.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Corazziari, E. (1976). Mechanical activity of the second portion of human duodenum. Rend. Gastroenterol. 8: 64.Google Scholar
  46. Corazziari, E., Pozzessere, C., Dani, S., Anzini, F. & Torsoli, A. (1978). Lower oesophageal sphincter response to intravenous infusions of pentagastrin in normal subjects, antrectomized and achalasic patients. Gut 19: 1121–1124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Corazziari, E., Tonelli, F., Pozzessere, C., Dani, S., Anzini, F. & Torsoli, A. (1976). The effects of graded dosed of caerulein on hijman jejunal motor activity. Rend. Gastroenterol. 8: 190–193.Google Scholar
  48. Corazziari, E., Torsoli, A., Delle Fave, G.F., Melchiorri, P., Habib, I. & Fortunee (1974). Effects of bombesin on the mechanical activity of the human duodenum and jejunum. Rend. Gastroenterol. 6: 55–59.Google Scholar
  49. Dahlgren, S. (1967), The effect of cholecystokinin on duodenal motility. Acta. Chir. Scand. 133: 403–405.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Debas, H.T., Farooq, O. & Grossman, M.I. (1975). Inhibition of gastric emptying is a physiological action of cholecystokinin. Gastroenterology 68: 1211–1217.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Debat, J., Couturier, D., Roze, C. & Debray, C. (1976). Effects of thyrocalcitonin on pentagastrin induced contraction of the lower esophageal sphincter in normal and in patients with achalasia. Gastroenterology 70: 876.Google Scholar
  52. De Magistris, L., Delle Fave, G., Khon, A. & Schwartz, T.W. (1979). Stimulation of pancreatic polypeptide and gastrin secretion by bombesin in man. Ital. J. Gastroenterol. 11: 139A.Google Scholar
  53. Dent, J., Dodds, W.J., Hogan, W.J. & Arndorfer, R.C. (1978). CCK- OP: a useful agent for evaluating lower esophageal sphincter (LES) denervation in human. Gastroenterology 74: A1025.Google Scholar
  54. Dinoso, V., Chey, W.Y., Hendricks, J. & Lorber, S.H. (1969). Intestinal mucosal homones and motor function of the stomach in man. J. Appl. Physiol. 26: 326–329.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Dinoso, V.P., Meshkinpour, H., Lorber, S.H., Gutierrez, J.G. & Chey, W.Y. (1973). Motor responses of the sigmoid colon and rectum to exogenous cholecystokinin and secretin. Gastroenterology 65: 438–444.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Dollinger, H.C., Berz, R., Raptis, S., Jexkull, T. Von, & Goebell, H. (1975). Effects of secretin and cholecystokinin on motor activity of human jejunum. Digestion 12: 9–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Dolva, L.O., Stadaas, J.O. (1979). Action of thyrotropin-releasing hormone on gastrointestinal functions in man. III. Inhibition of gastric motility in response to distension. Scand. J. gastroenterol. 14: 419–423.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Dolva, L.O., Hanssen, K.F., Stadaas, J. & Berstad, A. (1978). Thyrotropin releasing hormone inhibits the pentagastrin stimulated gastric secretion and gastric motility in man. Scand. J. Gastroenterol (Suppl 49) 13: 49.Google Scholar
  59. Doteval, G. & Koch, N.G. (1963). The effect of glucagon on intestinal motility in man. Gastroenterology 45: 364–367.Google Scholar
  60. Dubois, A. & Castell, D.O. (1978). Abnormal gastric emptying response to pentagastrin in duodenal ulcer. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. (Suppl 49) 13: 50.Google Scholar
  61. Dubois, A., Hamilton, B. & Castell, D.O. (1977). Histamine H2 receptor involved in gastric emptying. Gastroenterology 72: A1051.Google Scholar
  62. Dubois, A., Nompleggi, D., Myers, L. & Castell, D.O. (1978). Histamine H2 receptor stimulation increases gastric emptying. Gastroenterology 74: A1028.Google Scholar
  63. Egberts, E-H. & Johnson, A.G. (1977). The effect of cholecysto- kinin on human taenia coli. Digestion 15: 217–222.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Fiddian-Green, R.G. & Quinn, T.S. (1978). Physiological actions of luminal gastrin in human gastric juice. Gut 19: A435.Google Scholar
  65. Fisher, R.S. & Boden, G. (1976). Gastrin inhibition of the pyloric sphincter. Am. J. Dig. Dis. 21: 468–472.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Fisher, R.S. & Cohen, S. (1973). Pyloric sphincter dysfunction in patients with gastric ulcer. N. Engl. J Med. 288: 273–276.Google Scholar
  67. Fisher, R.S. & Cohen, S. (1980). Effects of gut hormones on gastrointestinal sphincters. In: Jerzy Glass G. (ed) Gastrointestinal hormones. Raven, New York, pp 613–638.Google Scholar
  68. Fisher, R.S. Lipshutz, W. & Cohen, S. (1973). The hormonal regulation of pyloric sphincter function. J. Clin. Invest. 52: 1289–1296.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Fisher, R.S., Lipshutz, W. & Cohen S. (1973). The hormonal regu- small and large intestine. Nature, 212: 1533–1535.Google Scholar
  70. Fishlock, D.J. & Gunn, A. (1970). The action of angiotensin on the human colon "in vitro". Br. J. Pharmacol. 39: 34–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Fleckenstein, P. & Oigaard, A. (1977). Effects of cholecystokinin on the motility of the distal duodenum and the proximal jejunum in man. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 12: 375–378.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Floyd, J.C., Fajans, S.S. Pek, S. & Chance, R.E. (1977). A newly recognised pancreatic polypeptide; plasma levels in health and disease. Ree. Prog. Horm. Res. 33: 519–570.Google Scholar
  73. Furness, J.B. & Costa, M. (1982). Identification of gastrointestinal neurotransmitters. Mediators and Drugs in Gastrointestinal Motility I. Handb. Exp. Pharmacol, ed G Bertaccini, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp383–462.Google Scholar
  74. Gabella, G. (1972). Fine structure of the myenteric plexus in the guinea-pig ileum. J. Anat. III: 69–97.Google Scholar
  75. Gamblin, G.T., Dubois, A. & Castell, D.O. (1977). Contrasting effect of pentagastrin on gastric emptying in normals and patients with gastric ulcer. Clin.Res. 25: A17.Google Scholar
  76. Gothlin, J. (1972). Vasopressin in the elimination of intestinal gas. Acta. Radiol. Diagn. 12: 100–112.Google Scholar
  77. Goyal, R.K. & Rattan, S. (1978). Neurohumoral, hormonal, and drug receptors for the lower esophageal sphincter. Gastroenterology 74: 598–619.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Grossi, F., Del Duca, T., Spada, S. & Grassi, M. (1970). Influenze della caeruleina sulla motilita gastrointestinale nell’uomo. Clin. Ter. 54: 321–327.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Gutierrez, J.G., Chey, W.Y. & Dinoso, V.P. (1974a). Actions of cholecystokinin and secretin on the motor activity of the small intestine in man. Gastroenterology 67: 35–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Gutierrez, J.G., Chey, W.Y., Shah, A. & Holzwasser, G. (1974b). Use of secretin in hypotonic duodenography. Radiology, 113: 563–566.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Hamilton, S.G., Sheiner, H.J. & Quinlan, M.F. (1976). Continuous monitoring of the effect of pentagastrin on gastric emptying of solid food in man. Gut, 17: 273–279.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Kara, Y. (1980). Actions of tetragastrin on smooth muscles of human stomach. Eur. J. Physiol. 386: 127–134.Google Scholar
  83. Haulica, I., Stanciu, C.W., Frasin, M., Cijevschi, C., Balan, G. & Pancu, D. (1980). Effects of angiotensin on the human lower esophageal sphincter. Abstr. XI Int. Congr. Gastroenterol. Thieme, Stuttgart, p28.Google Scholar
  84. Hedner, P. & Rorsman, G. (1972). Acceleration of the barium meal through the small intestine by the C-terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin. Am. J. Roentgenol, 116: 245–248.Google Scholar
  85. Henderson, J.M., Lidgard, G., Osborne, D.H., Carter, D.C. & Heading, R.C. (1978). Lower oesophageal sphincter response to gastrin Pharmacological or physiological? Gut 19: 99–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Hicks, T. & Turnberg, L.A. (1974). Influence of glucagon on the hjiman jejunum. Gastroenterology, 67: 1114–1118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Hogan, W.J., Dodds, W.J., Hoke, S.E., Reid, D.P., Kalkhoff, R.K. & Arndorfer, R.C. (1975). Effect of glucagon on esophageal motor function. Gastroenterology 69: 60–65.Google Scholar
  88. Hradsky, M., Stockbrugger, R. & Oestberg, H. (1973). The effect of glucagon on gastric motility, the pylorus and reflux of bile into the stomach during gastroscopic examination. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. (Suppl 20) 8: 26.Google Scholar
  89. Hunt, J.N. & Ramsbottom, N. (1967). Effect of gastrin II on gastric emptying and secretion during a test meal. Br. Med. J. 4: 386–387.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Jaffer, S.S., Makhlouf, G.M., Schorr, B.A. & Zfass, A.M. (1974). Nature and kinetics of inhibition of lower esophageal sphincter pressure by glucagon. Gastroenterology 67: 42–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Jennewein, H.M., Waldeck, F., Siewert, R., Weiser, F. & Thimm, R. (1973). The interaction of glucagon and pentagastrin on the lower oesophageal sphincter in man and dog. Gut 14: 861–864.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Jensen, D.M., McCallum, R.W. & Walsh, J.H. (1978). Failure of atropine to inhibit gastrin-17 stimulation of the lower esophageal sphincter in man. Gastroenterology 75: 825–827.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Johnson, L.P., Brown, J.C. & Magee, D.F. (1966). Effect of secretin and cholecystokinin-pancreozymin extracts on gastric motility in man. Gut 7: 52–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Killenberg, P.G. & Cornwell, G.G. (1964). Effect of insulin hypoglycemia on the human sigmoid colon. Am. J. Dig. Dis. 9:221–228.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Kwong, N.K., Brown, B.H., Whittaker, G-E. & Duthie, H.L. (1972). Effect of gastrin I, secretin and cholecystokinin-pancreozymin on the electrical activity, motor activity, and acid output of the stomach in man. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 7: 161–170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Labo, G. & Bortolotti, M. (1976). Effect of gut hormones on myoelectric and manometric activity of the duodenum in man. Rend. Gastroenterol. 8: 64.Google Scholar
  97. Labo, G., Barbara, L., Lanfranchi, G.A., Bortolotti, M. & Miglioli, M. (1972). Modification of the electrical activity of the human intestine after serotonin and caerulein. Dig. Dis. Sci. 17: 363–373.Google Scholar
  98. Lane, W.H., Ippoliti, A.F. & McCallum, R.W. (1979). Effect of gastrin heptadecapeptide (Gl7) on oesophageal contractions in patients with diffuse oesophageal spasm. Gut, 20: 756–759.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Levant, J.A., Kun, L., Jachna, J., Sttirdevant, R.A.L. & Isenberg, J.I. (1974). The effects of graded doses of C-terminal octa-peptide of cholecystokinin on small intestinal transit time in man. Am. J. Dig. Dis. 19: 207–209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Liljedahl, S.O., Mattsson, O. & Pernow, B. (1958). The effect of substance P on intestinal motility in man. Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. 10: 16–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Lipshutz, W.H. (1976). Physiology of the gastro-oesophageal junction and hiatus hernia. In: Bouchier, I.D. (ed) Recent Advances in Gastroenterology, vol 3, Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, London, ppl-26.Google Scholar
  102. Lipshutz, W., Gaskins, R.D., Lukash, W.M. & Sode, J. (1973). Pathogenesis of lower esophageal sphincter incompetence. N. Engl. J. Med. 289: 182–184.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Logan, C.J.H. & Connell, A.M. (1966). The effect of a synthetic gastrin-like pentapeptide (I.C.I. 50, 123) on intestinal motility in man. Lancet I: 996–999.Google Scholar
  104. Lorber, S.H. (1980). Small bowel transit time. Am. J. Roentgenol. 135: 648–649.Google Scholar
  105. Lux, G., Rösch, W., Domschke, S., Domschke, W., Wünsch, E., Jaeger, E. & Demling, L. (1976). Intravenous 13-Nle-motilin increases the human lower esophageal sphincter pressure. Scand. J. Gastroenterol (Suppl 39) 11: 75–79.Google Scholar
  106. Lux, G. Strunz, U., Domschke, S., Femppel, J., Rosch, W. & Domschke, W. (1978). 13-Nle-motilin and interdigestive motor and electrical activity of hjiman small intestine. Gastroenterology, 74: A1058.Google Scholar
  107. MacGregor, I.L., Wiley, Z.D. & Martin, P.M. (1978). Effect of penta-gastrin infusion on gastric emptying rate of solid food in man. Am. J. Dig. Dis. 23: 72–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Manville, I.A. & Chuinard, E.G. (1934). Studies on gastric hunger mechanisms. Am. J. Dig. Dis. 1: 688–693.Google Scholar
  109. Meves, M., Beger, H.G. & Hüthwohl, B. (1975). The effect of some gastrointestinal hormones on gastric evacuation in man. In: Vantrappen, G (ed) Fifth International Symposium on Gastrointestinal Motility. Typoff, Herentals, pp 327–332.Google Scholar
  110. Miller, R.E., Chernish, S.M., Skucas, J., Rosenak, B.D. & Rodda, B.E. (1974). Hypotonie roentgenography with glucagon. Äm. J. Roentgenol. Radiiam. Ther. Nuc. Med. 121:264–274.Google Scholar
  111. Miller, R.E., Chernish, S.M., Brunelle, R.L. & Rosenak, B.D. (1978a). Dose response to intramuscular glucagon during hypotonic radiography. Radiology 127:49–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Miller, R.E., Chernish, S.M., Brunelle, R.L. & Rosenak, B.D. (1978b). Double-blind radiographic study of dose-response to intravenous glucagon for hypotonic duodenography. Radiology, 127: 55–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Misiewicz, J.J., Holdstock, D.J. & Waller, S.L. (1967). Motor responses of the human alimentary tract to near-maximal infusions of pentagastrin. Gut 8: 463–469.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Monges, H. & Salducci, J. (1972). Variations of the gastric electrical activity in man produced by administration of pentagastrin and by introduction of water or liquid nutritive substance into the stomach. Äm. J. Dig. Dis. 17: 333–338.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Monod, E. (1964). Action entero-kinetique de la cecekine. Arch. Mai. Appar. Dig. 53: 607–608.Google Scholar
  116. Morin, G., Besancon, F., Grail, A., Jouve, R., Garat, J.P. & Debray, C. (1966). La cholecystokinine appliquee au radio- diagnostique de 1’intestine grele: nouvelle technique de radiocinematographie complete en quelques minutes, avec 62 observations. Entret Bichat Radiol. 247–250.Google Scholar
  117. Münk, J.F., Hoare, M. & Johnson, A.G. (1978). Hormonal influence of pyloric diameter and antral motility in man. Gut 19: A435.Google Scholar
  118. Murrell, T.G.C. & Deller, D.J. (1967). Intestinal motility in man: the effect of bradykinin on the motility of the distal colon. Dig. Dis. Sei. 12: 568–576.Google Scholar
  119. Müsch, M.W., Miller, R.J., Field, M. & Siegel, M.I. (1982). Stimulation of colonic secretion by lipoxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid. Science 217: 1255–1256.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Necheles, H., Sporn, J. & Walker, L. (1966). Effect of glucagon on gastrointestinal motility. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 45: 34–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Neely, J. & Catchpole, B.N. (1971). Ileus: the restoration of alimentary tract motility by pharmacological means. Br. J. Surg. 58: 21–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Novak, D. (1975). Beschleunigung der Dünndarmpassage mit Caerulein. Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr. 100: 2488–2491.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Oigaard, A., Dorph, S., Christensen, K.C. & Christiansen, L. (1975). The effect of cholecystokinin on electrical spike potentials and intraluminal pressure variations in the human small intestine. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 10: 257–262.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Osnes, M. (1975). The effect of secretin and cholecystokinin on the duodenal motility in man. Scand. J. Gastroenterol (Suppl 35) 10: 22–26.Google Scholar
  125. Orlando, R.C. & Bozymski, E.M. (1979). The effects of pentagastrin in achalasia and diffuse esophageal spasm. Gastroenterology 77: 472–477.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Pandolfo, N., Bortolotti, M., Nebiacolombo, G., Sansone, G. & Mattioli, F. (1977). Action of caerulein on lower oesophageal sphincter pressure. In: Speranza V, Basso N, Lezoche E. (eds) Symp. Gastrointestinal Horm, and Pathol, of the Dig. System. Rome, June 13–15. Arti. Grafiche. Tris, Rome.Google Scholar
  127. Parker, J.G. & Beneventano, T.C. (1970). Acceleration of small bowel contrast study by cholecystokinin. Gastroenterology 58: 679–684.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Pernow, B. (1960). Effect of substance P on smooth muscle. In: Polypeptides Which Affect Smooth Muscles and Blood Vessels. Ed M. Schachter, Pergamon Press, Oxford pp 171–178.Google Scholar
  129. Pernow, B. (1963). Pharmacology of substance P. Ann. NY. Acad. Sci. 104: 393–402.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Pittinger, G. Kothary, P. & Fiddian-Green, R.G. (1978). The effect of luminal gastrin on the rate of gastric emptying. Clin. Res. 26: A665.Google Scholar
  131. Quigley, J.P. (1928/1929). Action of insulin on the gastric motility of man. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 26: 769–770.Google Scholar
  132. Ramorino, M.L., Ammaturo, M.V. & Anzini, F. (1970). Effects of caerulein on small and large bowel motility in man. Rend. Gastroenterol. 2: 172–175.Google Scholar
  133. Rapela, R.O., Gutstein, D., Naveiro, J.J. & Morel, J. (1976). Accion de la ceruleina sobre la motilidad intestinal. Rev. Argent. Chir. 30: 14–16.Google Scholar
  134. Rennie, J.A., Christofides, N.D., Ellis, M.R., Michener, P., Johnson, A.G. & Bloom, S.R. (1980). Effect of motilin on human colonic activity. Clin. Sci. 58: 12.Google Scholar
  135. Robbins, A.H., Wetzner, S.M. & Landy, M.D. (1980). Ceruletideassisted examination of the small bowel. Am. J. Roentgenol. 134: 343–347.Google Scholar
  136. Robert, A. & Ruart, M.J. (1982). Effects of prostaglandins on the digestive system. In: Prostaglandins. Ed J.B. Lee, Elsevier, New York, pp 113–176.Google Scholar
  137. Rosch, W., Lux, G., Domschke, S., Domschke, W., Wünsch, E., Jaeger, E. & Demling, L. (1976). Effect of 13-NLE-motilin on lower esophageal sphincter pressure in man. Gastroenterology 70: A931.Google Scholar
  138. Ruppin, H., Domschke, S., Domschke, W., Wunsch, E., Jaeger, E. & Demling, L. (1975). Effects of 13-Nile-motlin in man - inhibition of gastric evacuation and stimulation of pepsin secretion. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 10: 199–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Ruppin, H., Sturm, G., Westhoff, D., Domschke, S., Domschke, W., Wünsch, E. & Demling, L. (1976). Effect of 13-Nle-motilin on small intestinal transit time in healthy subjects. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. (Suppl 39) 11: 85–88.Google Scholar
  140. Ruppin, H., Soergel, K.H., Dodds, J.W., Wood, C.M. & Domschke, W. (1979). Effects of the inter-digestive motor complex (IMC) and 13-norleucine motilin (NLEM) on fasting intestinal flow rate and velocity in man. Gastroenterology, 76: 1231.Google Scholar
  141. Sanger, G.J., Jackson, A. & Bennett, A. (1982), unpublished.Google Scholar
  142. Sargent, E.N., Halls, J.M., Colletti, P. & Wieler, M. (1980). Efficacy and tolerance of ceruletide in radiography of the small intestine. Radiology, 136: 57–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Scarpignato, C., Loruzzi, G. & Bertaccini, G. (1981). The effect of histamine and related compounds on gastric emptying of the rat. Pharmacology, 23: 185–191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Schapiro, H. & Woodward, E.R. (1959). The action of insulin hypoglycemia on the motility of the human gastrointestinal tract. Am. J. Dig. Dis. 4: 787–791.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Scheurer, U. & Halter, F. (1976). Lower esophageal sphincter reflux in reflux esophagitis. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 11: 629–634.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Siewert, R., Weiser, F., Jennewein, H.M. & Waldeck, F. (1974). Clinical and manometric investigations of the lower esophageal sphincter and its reactivity to pentagastrin in patients I with hiatus hernia. LES-pentagastrin-test. Digestion, 10: 287–297.Google Scholar
  147. Smith, A.N. & Hogg, D. (1966). Effect of gastrin II on the motility of the gastrointestinal tract. Lancet 1: 403–404.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Sterz, P., Guth, P. & Sturdevant, R. (1974). Gastric emptying in man: delay by octapeptide of cholecystokinin and L-tryptophan. Clin. Res. 22: A174.Google Scholar
  149. Stockley, H.L. & Bennett, A. (1977). Relaxations mediated by adrenergic and non-adrenergic nerves in human isolated taenia coli. J. Pharm. Pharmac. 29: 533–537.Google Scholar
  150. Strunz, D., Domschke, W., Mitznegg, P. et al (1975). Analysis of the motor effects of 13-norleucine motilin on the rabbit, guineapig, rat, and human alimentary tract in vitro. Gastroenterology, 68: 1485–1491.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Strunz, D., Domschke, W., Domschke, S., Mitznegg, P., Wunsch, E., Jaeger, E. & Demling, L. (1976). Gastroduodenal motor response to natural motilin and synthetic position 13-substituted motilin analogues: a comparative in vitro study. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. (Suppl 39) 11: 199–203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Strunz, D., Mitznegg, P., Domschke, S., Domschke, W., Wunsch, E. & Demling, L. (1978). VIP antagonizes motilin-induced antral contractions in vitro. In: Duthie, H.L. (ed) Gastrointestinal motility in health and disease. MTP Press, Lancaster, pp 124–131.Google Scholar
  153. Stunkard, S.J., Van Itallie, T.B. & Reis, B.B. (1955). The mechanism of satiety. Effect of glucagon on gastric hunger contraction in man. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 89: 258–261.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Sturdevant, R.A.L. & Kun, T. (1974). Interaction of pentagastrin and the octapeptide of cholecystokinin on the human lower oesophageal spincter. Gut 15: 700–702.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Szekely, A., Major, T. & Romvari, H. (1975). Rontgenkymographische Dntersuchung der die Magenperistaltik steigernden Wirkung von intravenos gegebenem Caerulein. Fortschr Roentgenstr 122: 167–169.Google Scholar
  156. Szekely, A., Major, T. & Romvari, H. (1969). Dber die Wirkung von Pentagastrin auf die Magenmotilitat. Fortsch. Geb. Roentgenstr. Ver. Roentgenprax. 111: 841–846.Google Scholar
  157. Taylor, I., Duthie, H.L., Cumberland, D.C. & Smallwood, R. (1975). Glucagon and the colon. Gut 16: 973–978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Thor, K., Rosell, S., Rokaeus, A., Nyquist, O., Levenhaupt, A., Kager, L. & Folkers, K. (1980a). Plasma concentrations of neurotensin-like immunoreactivity (NTLI) and lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure in man following infusion of (Gln4)neurotensin. Abstr. Xlth Int. Congr. Gastroenterol. Thieme, Stuttgart, p 28.Google Scholar
  159. Thor, K., Rokaeus, A., Kager, L., Folkers, K. & Rosell, S. (1980b). (Gln4)-neurotensin inhibits the interdigestive migrating motor complex in man. In: Bloom S.R., Polak, J.M. (eds) Regulatory peptides, suppl 1. Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical. Amsterdam, Oxford, New York, p Sl14.Google Scholar
  160. Torsoli, A., Ramorino, M.L. Colagrande, C. & Demaio, G. (1961). Experiments with cholecystokinin. Acta. Radiol. (Stockh) 55: 193–206.Google Scholar
  161. Vagne, M. & Andre, C. (1971). The effect of secretin on gastric emptying in man. Gastroenterology, 60: 421–424.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Vantrappen, G., Janssens, J., Peeters, T.L., Bloom, S.R., Christofides, N.D. & Hellemans, J. (1979). Motilin and the interdigestive migrating motor complex in man. Dig. Dis. Sci. 24: 497–500.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Vizi, S.E., Bertaccini, G., Impicciatore, M. & Knoll, J. (1973). Evidence that acetylcholine released by gastrin and related polypeptides contributes to their effect on gastrointestinal motility. Gastroenterology, 64: 268–277.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Waldeck, F., Sievert, R., Jennewein, H.M. & Weiser, F. (1973). Das Druckprofil im unteren Osophagussphinkter beim Menschen und seine Beeinflussung durch Gastrin, Calcitonin und Glucagon. Dtsch. Med Wochenschr. 98: 1059–1063.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Walker, C.O., Frank, S.A., Manton, J. & Fordtran, J.S. (1975). Effect of continuous infusion of pentagastrin on lower esophageal sphincter pressure and gastric acid secretion in normal subjects. J. Clin. Invest. 56: 218–225.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Waterfall, W.E., Brown, B.H., Duthie, H.L. & Whittaker, G.E. (1972). The effects of humoral agents on the myoelectrical activity of the terminal ileum. Gut, 13: 528–534.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Weiss, S.M., Hughes, S.R., Paskin, D.L. & Lipshutz, W.H. (1976). Effects of drugs and hormones on human colon muscle. Clin. Res. 24: A293.Google Scholar
  168. Whalen, G.A. (1974). Glucagon and the small gut. Gastroenterology 67: 1284–1286.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. White, C.M. & Keighley, M.R.B. (1978). An explanation of the paradoxical effect of pentagastrin on gastric motility. Gut, 19: A434-A435.Google Scholar
  170. Yamagishi, T. & Debas, H.T. (1978). Cholecystokinin inhibits gastric emptying by acting on both proximal stomach and pylorus. Am. J. Physiol. 234: E375-E378.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alan Bennett
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Surgery, The Rayne InstituteKing’s College School of Medicine and DentistryLondonUK

Personalised recommendations