Advertisement

Reproduction pp 229-298 | Cite as

Maternal Behavior among the Nonprimate Mammals

  • Jay S. Rosenblatt
  • Anne D. Mayer
  • Harold I. Siegel
Part of the Handbook of Behavioral Neurobiology book series (HBNE, volume 7)

Abstract

The aims of this chapter are to present an overview of the research on maternal behavior among the nonprimate mammals, the theoretical issues that exist in this field of study, and the problems that are currently being investigated. Our emphasis is on the causal mechanisms underlying the various phases of maternal behavior rather than on the adaptive radiations in this principal line of evolutionary specialization (Eisenberg, 1981). Although the problems that are being investigated in this area are drawn from whatever knowledge we have of the natural history of species, in order to gain adequate control over the many factors that contribute to the regulation of maternal behavior, it has been found necessary to study laboratory species and domesticated animals. This necessity is determined by our need for precise descriptions of mother—young interactions, on the basis of which analysis of these interactions can proceed, and for accurate measurements of circulating levels of hormones during pregnancy and lactation, which enable us to remove and introduce hormones in order to study their effects on maternal behavior. Fortunately, whatever studies exist comparing laboratory and domesticated species with wild representatives of the same species suggest that maternal behavior has not been substantially altered by these more constrained living conditions. This suggestion holds out hope that our studies will be relevant to natural populations not only of the species that are being studied but also to populations that have not yet come under laboratory study.

Keywords

Physiological Psychology Estrous Cycle Maternal Care Maternal Behavior Estradiol Benzoate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alberts, J. R., and Brunjes, P. C. Ontogeny of thermal and olfactory determinants of huddling in the rat. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1978, 92, 897–906.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Alberts, J. R., and Gubernick, D. J. Reciprocity and resource exchange: A symbiotic model of parent-offspring relations. In H. Moltz and L. Rosenblum (Eds.), Symbiosis in parent-young interactions. New York: Plenum, 1983.Google Scholar
  3. Alexander, G. Maternal behaviour in the Merino ewe. Proceedings of the Australian Society of Animal Production, 1960, 3, 105–114.Google Scholar
  4. Amoroso, E. C., Heap, R. B., and Renfree, M. B. Hormones and the evolution of viviparity. In E. J. W. Barrington (Ed.), Hormones and Evolution, Vol. 2. New York: Academic Press, 1979.Google Scholar
  5. Anderson, C. O., Zarrow, M. X., Fuller, G. B., and Denenberg, V. H. Pituitary involvement in maternal nest-building in the rabbit. Hormones and Behavior, 1971, 2, 183–189.Google Scholar
  6. Arman, P. A note on parturition and maternal behavior in captive red deer (Cerous elaphus L.). Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, 1974, 37, 87–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Arman, P., Hamilton, W. J., and Sharman, G. A. M. Observations on the calving of free-ranging tame red deer (Cerous elaphus). Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, 1978, 54, 279–283.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Babicky, A., Ostadolova, I., Parizek, J., Kolar, J., and Bibr, B. Use of radioisotope techniques for determining the weaning period in experimental animals. Physiologia Bohemoslovaca, 1970, 19, 457–467.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Babicky, A., Parizek, J., Ostadalova, I., and Kolar, J. Initial solid food intake and growth of young rats in nests of different sizes. Physiologia Bohemoslovaca, 1973, 22, 557–566.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Baranczuk, R., and Greenwald, G. S. Plasma levels of oestrogen and progesterone in pregnant and lactating hamsters. Journal of Endocrinology, 1974, 63, 125–135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bast, J. D., and Greenwald, G. S. Daily concentrations of gonadotrophins and prolactin in the serum of pregnant or lactating hamsters. Journal of Endocrinology, 1974, 63, 527–532.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bauer, J. H. Effects of maternal state on the responsiveness to nest odors of hooded rats. Physiology and Behavior, 1983, 30, 229–232.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Baum, M. J. Failure of pituitary transplants to facilitate the onset of maternal behavior in ovariectomized virgin rats. Physiology and Behavior, 1978, 20, 87–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Beniest-Noirot, E. Analyse du comportement dit “maternel” chez la souris. Monographies Françaises Psychologie, 1958, 1, Centre National de Recherche Scientifique, Paris.Google Scholar
  15. Berger, P. J. The Reproductive Biology of the Tammar Wallaby, Macropu eugenii Desmarest (Marsupiala). Doctoral dissertation, 1970, Tulane University.Google Scholar
  16. Bintarningsih, Lyons, W. R., Johnson, R. E., and Li, C. H. Hormonally-induced lactation in hypophysectomized rats. Endocrinology, 1958, 63, 540–547.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Bonney, R. C., Moore, H. D. M., and Jones, D. M. Plasma concentrations of oestradiol-17 beta and progesterone, and laparoscopie observations of the ovary in the puma (Fells concolor) during oestrus, pseudopregnancy and pregnancy. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, 1981, 63, 523–531.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Brewster, J., and Leon, M. Facilitation of maternal transport by Norway rat pups. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1980, 94, 80–88.Google Scholar
  19. Bridges, R. S. Long-term effects of pregnancy and parturition upon maternal responsiveness in the rat. Physiology and Behavior, 1975, 14, 245–249.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Bridges, R. S. Parturition: Its role in the long term retention of maternal behavior in the rat. Physiology and Behavior, 1977, 18, 487–490.Google Scholar
  21. Bridges, R. S. Retention of rapid onset of maternal behavior during pregnancy in primiparous rats. Behavioral Biology, 1978, 24, 1113–117.Google Scholar
  22. Bridges, R. S., and Feder, H. H. Effects of various progestins and deoxycorticosterone on the hormonal inhibition of maternal behavior in the ovariectomized-hysterectomized primigravid rat. Hormones and Behavior, 1978, 10, 30–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Bridges, R. S., and Russell, D. W. Steroidal interactions in the regulation of maternal behaviour in virgin female rats: Effects of testosterone, dihydrostestosterone, oestradiol, progesterone and aromatase inhibitor 1,4,6-androstatriene-3,17-dione. Journal of Endocrinology, 1981, 90, 31–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Bridges, R., Zarrow, M. X., Gandelman, R., and Denenberg, V. H. Differences in maternal responsiveness between lactating and sensitized rats. Developmental Psychobiology, 1972, 5, 127–137.Google Scholar
  25. Broida, J., Michael, S. D., and Svare, B. Plasma prolactin levels are not related to the initiation, maintenance, and decline of postpartum aggression in mice. Behavioral and Neural Biology, 1981, 32, 121–125.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Buntin, J. D., Jaffe, S., and Lisk, R. D. Changes in responsiveness to newborn in pregnant, nulliparous golden hamsters. Physiology and Behavior, 1984, 32, 437–439.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Buntin, J. D., Catanzaro, C., and Lisk, R. D. Facilitatory effects of pituitary transplants on intraspecific aggression in female hamsters. Hormones and Behavior, 1981, 15, 214–225.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Challis, J. R. G., Davies, I. J., and Ryan, K. J. The concentrations of progesterone, estrone and estradiol17 beta in the plasma of pregnant rabbits. Endocrinology, 1973, 93, 971–976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Chamley, W. A., Buckmaster, J. M., Cerini, M. E., Cumming, I. A., Goding, J. R., Obst, J. M., Williams, A., and Winfield, C. Changes in the levels of progesterone, corticosteroids, estrone, estradiol-17 beta and prolactin in the peripheral plasma of the ewe during late pregnancy and at parturition. Biology of Reproduction, 1973, 9, 30–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Clutton-Brock, T. H., and Guinness, F. E., Behaviour of red deer (Genius elaphus L.) at calving time. Behaviour, 1975, 55, 287–300.Google Scholar
  31. Cohen, J., and Bridges, R. S. Retention of maternal behavior in nulliparous and primiparous rats: Effects of duration of previous maternal experience. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1981, 95, 450–459.Google Scholar
  32. Cosnier, J. Le Comportement Grégaire du Rat d’Élevage (Étude Éthologique). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, 1965, University of Lyon.Google Scholar
  33. Cosnier, J., and Couturier, C. Comportement maternal provoqué chez les rattes adultes castrées. Compte Rendu des Séances de la Société de Biologie, 1966, 160, 789–791.Google Scholar
  34. Daly, M. The maternal behaviour cycle in golden hamsters. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie, 1972, 31, 289–299.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Deis, R. P. The effect of an exteroceptive stimulus on milk ejection in lactating rats. Journal of Physiology, 1968, 197, 37–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Doerr, H. K., Siegel, H. I., and Rosenblatt, J. S. Effects of progesterone withdrawal and estrogen on maternal behavior in nulliparous rats. Behavioral and Neural Biology, 1981, 32, 35–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Dollinger, M. J., Holloway, Jr., W. R., and Denenberg, V. H. Parturition in the rat (Rattus norvegicus): Normative aspects and the temporal patterning of behaviours. Behavioral Processes, 1980, 5, 21–37.Google Scholar
  38. Dunbar, I., Ranson, E., and Buehler, M. Pup retrieval and maternal attraction to canine amniotic fluids. Behavioral Processes, 1981, 6, 249–260.Google Scholar
  39. Eisenberg, J. F. The Mammalian Radiations: An Analysis of Trends in Evolution, Adaptation, and Behavior. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981.Google Scholar
  40. Ellendorff, F., Taverne, M., and Smidt, D. Physiology and Control of Parturition in Domestic Animals. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1979.Google Scholar
  41. Elwood, R. W. Paternal and maternal behaviour in the Mongolian gerbil. Animal Behavior, 1975, 23, 766–772.Google Scholar
  42. Elwood, R. W. Changes in the responses of male and female gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) towards test pups during pregnancy in the female. Animal Behavior, 1977, 25, 46–51.Google Scholar
  43. Erskine, M. S. Hormonal and Experiential Factors Associated with the Expression of Aggression during Lactation in the Rat. Ph.D. dissertation, 1978, University of Connecticut.Google Scholar
  44. Erskine, M. S., Barfield, R. J., and Goldman, B. D. Intraspecific fighting during late pregnancy and lactation in rats and effects of litter removal. Behavioral Biology, 1978, 23, 206–218.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Erskine, M. S., Barfield, R. J., and Goldman, B. D. Postpartum aggression in rats: I. Effects of hypophysectomy. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1980, 94, 484–494.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Espmark, Y. Mother—young relations and development of behaviour in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.). Viltrey, 1969, 6, 461–540.Google Scholar
  47. Ewer, R. F. Ethology of Mammals. New York: Plenum Press, 1968.Google Scholar
  48. Fahrbach, S. E., Morrell, J. I., and Pfaff, D. W. Oxytocin induction of short-latency maternal behavior in nulliparous, estrogen-primed female rats. Hormones and Behavior, 1984, 18, 267–286.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Fleming, A., and Rosenblatt, J. S. Maternal behavior in the virgin and lactating rat. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1974a, 86, 957–972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Fleming, A. S., and Rosenblatt, J. S. Olfactory regulation of maternal behavior in rats: I. Effects of olfactory bulb removal in experienced and inexperienced lactating and cycling females. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1974b, 86, 221–232.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Fleming, A. S., and Rosenblatt, J. S. Olfactory regulation of maternal behavior in rats: II. Effects of peripherally induced anosmia and lesions of the lateral olfactory tract in pup-induced virgins. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1974c, 86, 233–246.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Fogden, S. C. L. Mother-young behaviour at Grey seal breeding beaches. Journal of Zoology, London, 1971, 164, 61–92.Google Scholar
  53. Frädrich, H. A comparison of behaviour in the Suidae. In V. Geist and F. Walther (Eds.), The Behavior of Ungulates and Its Relation to Management, Vol. 1. IUCN Publications, New Series No. 24, 1974.Google Scholar
  54. Fraser, D. G., and Barnett, S. A. Effects of pregnancy on parental and other activities of laboratory mice. Hormones and Behavior, 1975, 6, 181–188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Friedman, M. I., Bruno, J. P., and Alberts, J. R. Physiological and behavioral consequences in rats of water recycling during lactation. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1981, 95, 26–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Fuchs, A.-R. Hormonal control of myometrial function during pregnancy and parturition. Acta Endocrinologica, Supplement, 1978, 221, 1–69.Google Scholar
  57. Fuller, J. L., and DuBuis, E. M. The behaviour of dogs. In E. S. E. Hafez (Ed.), The Behaviour of Domestic Animals. London: Baillière, Tindall and Cox, 1962.Google Scholar
  58. Galef, B. G., Jr. The ecology of weaning: Parasitism and the achievement of independence by altricial mammals. In D. J. Gubernick and P. H. Klopfer (Eds.), Parental Care in Mammals. New York: Plenum Press, 1981.Google Scholar
  59. Gandelman, R. Determinants of maternal aggression in mice. In R. W. Bell and W. P. Smotherman (Eds.), Maternal Influences and Early Behavior. New York: Spectrum, 1980.Google Scholar
  60. Gilbert, A. N., Burgoon, D. A., Sullivan, K. A., and Adler, N. T. Mother-weanling interactions in Norway rats in the presence of a successive litter produced by postpartum mating. Physiology and Behavior, 1983, 30, 267–271.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Goodman, G. T., Tucker, H. A., and Convey, E. M. Presence of the calf affects secretion of prolactin in cows. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, 1979, 161, 421–424.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Graber, G. C., and Kristal, M. B. Uterine distention facilitates the onset of maternal behavior in pseudopregnant but not in cycling rats. Physiology and Behavior, 1977, 19, 133–137.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Grosvenor, C. E. Evidence that exteroceptive stimuli can release prolactin from the pituitary gland of the lactating rat. Endocrinology, 1965, 76, 340–342.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Grosvenor, C. E., and Mena, F. Evidence that suckling pups, through an exteroceptive mechanism, inhibit the milk stimulatory effect of prolactin in the rat during late lactation. Hormones and Behavior, 1973, 4, 209–222.Google Scholar
  65. Grosvenor, C. E., and Mena, F. Neural and hormonal control of milk secretion and milk ejection. Lactation, 1974, 1, 227–276.Google Scholar
  66. Grosvenor, C. E., Maiweg, H., and Mena, F. A study of actors involved in the development of the exteroceptive release of prolactin in the lactating rat. Hormones and Behavior, 1970, 1, 111–120.Google Scholar
  67. Gubernick, D. J. Maternal “imprinting” or maternal “labelling” in goats? Animal Behavior, 1980, 28, 124–129.Google Scholar
  68. Gubernick, D. J. Parent and infant attachment in mammals. In D. J. Gubernick and P. H. Klopfer (Eds.), Parental Care in Mammals. New York: Plenum Press, 1981.Google Scholar
  69. Gubernick, D. J., Jones, K. C., and Klopfer, P. H. Maternal “imprinting” in goats? Animal Behavior, 1979, 27, 314–315.Google Scholar
  70. Hamilton, W. J. The success story of the opossum. Natural History, 1963, 72, 16–25.Google Scholar
  71. Harder, J. D., and Fleming, M. A. Estradiol and progesterone profiles indicate a lack of endocrine recognition of pregnancy in the opossum. Science, 1981, 212, 1400–1402.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Heap, R. B., Galil, A. A. A., Harrison, F. A., Jenkin, G., and Perry, J. S. Progesterone and oestrogen in pregnancy and parturition: Comparative aspects and hierarchical control. Ciba Foundation Symposium 47 (new series), 1977, 127–157.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Hemmes, R. B. The Ontogeny of the Maternal-Filial Bond in the Domestic Goat. Doctoral dissertation, 1969, Duke University.Google Scholar
  74. Henning, S. J. Role of milk-borne factors in weaning and intestinal development. Biology of Neonate, 1982, 4, 265–272.Google Scholar
  75. Herrenkohl, L. R., and Campbell, C. Mechanical stimulation of mammary gland development in virgin and pregnant rats. Hormones and Behavior, 1976, 7, 183–197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Hersher, L., Richmond, J. B., and Moore, A. U. Maternal behavior in sheep and goats. In H. L. Rheingold (Ed.), Maternal Behavior in Mammals. New York: Wiley, 1963.Google Scholar
  77. Hinde, R. A. Towards understanding relationships. European Monographs in Social Psychology, Vol. 18. New York: Academic Press, 1979.Google Scholar
  78. Hofer, M. A. Parental contributions to the development of their offspring. In D. J. Gubernick and P. H. Klopfer (Eds.), Parental Care in Mammals. New York: Plenum Press, 1981.Google Scholar
  79. Hofer, M. A. Seeing is believing: A personal perspective on research strategy in developmental psychobiology. Developmental Psychobiology, 1982, 15, 399–408.Google Scholar
  80. Jakubowski, M., and Terkel, J. Infanticide and caretaking in non-lactating Mus musculus: Influences of genotype, family group and sex. Animal Behavior, 1982, 30, 1029–1035.Google Scholar
  81. Karli, P. C. Social reactions of pregnant and lactating rats. Gestation: Transactions of the Second Conference, March 8, 9, and 10, 1955, Princeton, N. J., edited by C. A. Villee.Google Scholar
  82. Keverne, E. B., Levy, F., Poindron, P., and Lindsay, D. R. Vaginal stimulation: An important determinant of maternal bonding in sheep. Science, 1983, 219, 81–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Klopfer, P. H. Mother love: What turns it on? American Scientist, 1971, 59, 404–407.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Klopfer, P. H., and Gamble, J. Maternal “imprinting” in goats: The role of chemical senses. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologies, 1966, 23, 588–592.Google Scholar
  85. Klopfer, P. H., Adams, D.K., and Klopfer, M. S. Maternal imprinting in goats. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, U.S. A., 1964, 52, 911–914.Google Scholar
  86. Klopper, A., and Gardner, J. Endocrine Factors in Labour. London: Cambridge University Press, 1973.Google Scholar
  87. Koepke, J. E., and Pribram, K. H. Effect of milk on the maintenance of sucking in kittens from birth to six months. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1971, 75, 363–377.Google Scholar
  88. Koller, G. Der Nestbau der weissen Maus und seine hormonale Auslösung. Verhandlungen der Deutschen Zoologischen Gesellschaft, Freiburg, 1952, 160–168.Google Scholar
  89. Koller, G. Hormonale und psychische Steuerung beim Nestbau weiser Mäuse. Verhandlungen der Deutschen Zoologischen Gesellschaft, Freiburg, 1955, 123–132.Google Scholar
  90. Koranyi, L., Lissak, K., Tamasy, V., and Kamaras, L. Behavioral and electrophysiological attempts to elucidate central nervous system mechanisms responsible for maternal behavior. Archives of Sex Behavior, 1976, 5, 503–510.Google Scholar
  91. Krehbiel, D. A., and LeRoy, L. M. The quality of hormonally stimulated maternal behavior in ovariectomized rats. Hormones and Behavior, 1979, 12, 243–252.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Kristal, M. Placentophagia: A biobehavioral enigma (or De gustibus non disputandum est). Neural Bio-behavioral Review, 1980, 4, 141–150.Google Scholar
  93. Kristal, M. B., and Graber, G. C. Placentophagia in nonpregnant rats: Influence of estrous cycle state and birthplace. Physiology and Behavior, 1976, 17, 599–606.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Kristal, M. B., and Noonan, M. Perinatal maternal and neonatal behaviour in the captive reticulated giraffe. South African Journal of Zoology, 1979, 14, 103–107.Google Scholar
  95. Kristal, M. B., Peters, L. C., Franz, J. R., Whitney, J. F., Nishita, J. K. and Steuer, M. A. The effect of pregnancy and placentophagia in Long-Evans rats. Physiology and Behavior, 1981, 27, 591–595.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Leblond, C. P. Extra-hormonal factors in maternal behavior. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology, New York, 1938, 38, 66–70.Google Scholar
  97. Leblond, C. P. Nervous and hormonal factors in the maternal behavior of the mouse. Journal of Genetics and Psychology, 1940, 57, 327–344.Google Scholar
  98. Leblond, C. P., and Nelson, W. O. Maternal behavior in hypophysectomized male and female mice. American Journal of Physiology, 1937, 120, 167–172.Google Scholar
  99. Lee, M. H. S., and Williams, D. I. A longitudinal study of mother-young interaction in the rat: The effects of infantile stimulation, diurnal rhythms, and pup maturation. Behaviour, 1977, 63, 24 1261.Google Scholar
  100. Lent, P. C. Mother-infant relationships in ungulates. In V. Geist and F. Walther (Eds.), The Behaviour of Ungulates and Its Relation to Management, Vol. 1. IUCN Publications, New Series No. 24, 1974.Google Scholar
  101. Leon, M., Croskerry, P. G., and Smith, G. K. Thermal control of mother-young contact in rats. Physiology and Behavior, 1978, 21, 793–811.Google Scholar
  102. Leonard, C. M. Effects of neonatal (day 10) olfactory bulb lesion on social behavior of female golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Journal of Comparative Physiology and Psychology, 1972, 80, 208–215.Google Scholar
  103. LeRoy, L. M. Induction of Maternal Behavior in the Rat. Eastern Conference on Reproductive Behavior, University of Connecticut, Storrs, June 5–8, 1977.Google Scholar
  104. LeRoy, L. M., and Krehbiel, D. A. Variations in maternal behavior in the rat as a function of sex and gonadal state. Hormones and Behavior, 1978, 11, 232–247.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Leshner, A. I., Siegel, H. I., and Collier, G. Dietary self-selection by pregnant and lactating rats. Physiology and Behavior, 1972, 8, 151–154.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Levy, F. Existence et Control de l’Attraction par le Liquide Amniotique chez la Brebis (Ovis aries). Unpublished thesis, 1980–1981, University of Paris.Google Scholar
  107. Lewis, P. R., and Schriefer, J. A. Ultrasound production by pregnant rats. Behavioral and Neural Biology, 1985.Google Scholar
  108. Liggins, G. C. Hormonal interactions in the mechanisms of parturition. In A. Klopper and J. Gardner (Eds.), Endocrine Factors in Labour. London- Cambridge University Press, 1973.Google Scholar
  109. Lillegraven, J. A. Biological considerations of the marsupial-placental dichotomy. Evolution, 1975, 29, 707–722.Google Scholar
  110. Lincoln, D. W., and Renfree, M. B. Mammary gland growth and milk ejection in the agile wallaby, Macropus agilis, displaying concurrent asynchronous lactation. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, 1981, 63, 193–203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Lisk, R. D. Oestrogen and progesterone synergism and elicitation of maternal nestbuilding in the mouse (Mus musculus.). Animal Behavior, 1971, 19, 606–610.Google Scholar
  112. Lisk, R. D., Prelow, R. A., and Friedman, S. A. Hormonal stimulation necessary for eliciting of maternal nest building in the mouse. Animal Behavior, 1969, 17, 730–738.Google Scholar
  113. Mann, M., Michael, S. D., and Svare, B. Ergot drugs suppress plasma prolactin and lactation but not aggression in parturient mice. Hormones and Behavior, 1980, 14, 319–328.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Mayer, A. D., and Rosenblatt, J. S. Olfactory basis for the delayed onset of maternal behavior in virgin female rats: Experiential effects. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1975, 89, 701–710.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Mayer, A. D., and Rosenblatt, J. S. Hormonal influences during the ontogeny of maternal behavior in female rats. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1979, 93, 879–898.Google Scholar
  116. Mayer, A. D., and Rosenblatt, J. S. Hormonal interaction with stimulus and situational factors in the initiation of maternal behavior in nonpregnant rats. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1980, 94, 1049–1059.Google Scholar
  117. Mayer, A. D., and Rosenblatt, J. S. Prepartum changes in maternal responsiveness and nest defense in the rat. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 1984, 98, 177–188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. McCann, T. S. Aggressive and maternal activities of female southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina). Animal Behavior, 1982, 30, 268–276.Google Scholar
  119. McCormack, J. T., and Greenwald, G. S. Progesterone and oestradiol-17ß concentrations in the peripheral plasma during pregnancy in the mouse. Journal of Endocrinology, 1974, 62, 101–107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. McMurtry, J. P., and Anderson, R. R. Prevention of self-licking on mammary gland development in pregnant rats. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, 1971, 137, 354–356.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. McNeilly, A. S., and Friesen, H. G. Prolactin during pregnancy and lactation in the rabbit. Endocrinology, 1978, 102, 1548–1554.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Mena, F., and Grosvenor, C. E. Release of prolactin in rats by exteroceptive stimulation: Sensory stimuli involved. Hormones and Behavior, 1971, 2, 107–116.Google Scholar
  123. Mena, F., and Grosvenor, C. E. Effect of suckling and of exteroceptive stimulation upon prolactin release in the rat during late lactation. Journal of Endocrinology, 1972, 52, 11–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Mena, F., Pacheco, P., Whitworth, N. S., and Grosvenor, C. E. Recent data concerning the secretion and function of oxytocin and prolactin during lactation in the rat and rabbit. In C. Valverde-Rodriquez and H. Arachiza (Eds.), Frontiers in Hormone Research, Vol. 6. Basel: Karger, 1980.Google Scholar
  125. Moltz, H., and Wiener, E. Ovariectomy: Effects on the maternal behavior of the primiparous and multiparous rat. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1966, 62, 383–387.Google Scholar
  126. Moltz, H., Geller, D., and Levin, R. Maternal behavior in the totally mammectomized rat. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1967, 64, 225–229.Google Scholar
  127. Moltz, H., Levin, R., and Leon, M. Differential effects of progesterone on the maternal behavior of primiparous and multiparous rat. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1969, 67, 3650.Google Scholar
  128. Moltz, H., Lubin, M., Leon, M., and Numan, M. Hormonal induction of maternal behavior in the ovariectomized nulliparous rat. Physiology and Behavior, 1970, 5, 1373–1377.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Morishige, W. K., Pepe, G. J., and Rothchild, I. Serum luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin and progesterone levels during pregnancy in the rat. Endocrinology, 1973, 92, 1527–1530.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Morris, D. The Mammals: A Guide to Living Species. New York: Harper and Row, 1965.Google Scholar
  131. Murr, S. M., Bradford, G. E., and Geschwind, I. I. Plasma luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and prolactin during pregnancy in the mouse. Endocrinology, 1974, 94, 112–116.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Naaktgeboren, C. Behavioural aspects of parturition. Animal Reproductive Science, 1979, 2, 155–166.Google Scholar
  133. Noirot, E. The onset of maternal behavior in rats, hamsters, and mice. In D. S. Lehrman, R. A. Hinde, and E. Shaw (Eds.), Advances in the Study of Behavior, Vol. 4. New York: Academic Press, 1972.Google Scholar
  134. Noirot, E., and Goyens, J. Changes in maternal behavior during gestation in the mouse. Hormones and Behavior, 1971, 2, 207–215.Google Scholar
  135. Noirot, E., Goyens, J., and Buhot, M.-C. Aggressive behavior of pregnant mice towards males. Hormones and Behavior, 1975, 6, 9–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Numan, M. Progesterone inhibition of maternal behavior in the rat. Hormones and Behavior, 1978, 11, 209–231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Numan, M., Leon, M., and Moltz, H. Interference with prolactin release and the maternal behavior of female rats. Hormones and Behavior, 1972, 3, 29–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Numan, M., Rosenblatt, J. S., and Komisaruk, B. R. The medial preoptic area and the onset of maternal behavior in the rat. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1977, 91, 146–164.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Obias, M. D. Maternal behavior of hypophysectomized gravid albino rats and development and performance of their progeny. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1957, 50, 120–124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Owen, J., and Thiessen, D. D. Regulation of scent marking in the female Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus). Physiology and Behavior, 1973, 11, 441–445.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Owen, K., and Thiessen, D. Estrogen and progesterone interaction in the regulation of scent marking in the female Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus). Physiology and Behavior, 1974, 12, 351–356.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Pedersen, C. A., and Prange, A. J., Jr. Induction of maternal behavior in virgin rats after intracerebroventricular administration of oxytocin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 1979, 76, 6661–6665.Google Scholar
  143. Pedersen, C. A., Ascher, J. A., Monroe, Y. L., and Prange, A. J., Jr. Oxytocin induces maternal behavior in virgin female rats. Science, 1982, 216, 648–650.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Pepe, G. J., and Rothchild, I. A comparative study of serum progesterone levels in pregnancy and in various types of pseudopregnancy in the rat. Endocrinology, 1974, 95, 275–279.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Poindron, P. Etude de la relation mére-jeune chez des brebis (Ovin aries), lors de l’allaitement. Compte ET AL. Rendu Hebdomadaire Séances Académie Science Série D, 1974, 278, 2691–2694.Google Scholar
  146. Poindron, P. Mother-young relationships in intact or anosmie ewes at the time of sucking. Biology of Behavior, 1976, 2, 161–177.Google Scholar
  147. Poindron, P., and Le Neindre, P. Hormonal and behavioural basis for establishing maternal behaviour in sheep. In L. Zichella and P. Pancheri (Eds.), Psychoneuroendocrinology in Reproduction. Amsterdam. Elsevier, 1979.Google Scholar
  148. Poindron, P., and Le Neindre, P. Endocrine and sensory regulation of maternal behaviour in the ewe. In J. S. Rosenblatt, R. A. Hinde, C. Beer, and M.-C. Busnel (Eds.), Advances in the Study of Behavior. New York: Academic Press, 1980.Google Scholar
  149. Poole, W. E., and Pilton, P. E. Reproduction in the grey kangaroo Macropus canguru. S.S.I.R.O. Wildlife Research, 1965, 9, 218–234.Google Scholar
  150. Reisbick, S., Rosenblatt, J. S., and Mayer, A. D. Decline of maternal behavior in the virgin and lactating rat. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1975, 89, 722–732.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Rheingold, H. L. Maternal behavior in the dog. In H. L. Rheingold (Ed.), Maternal Behavior in Mammals. New York: Wiley, 1963.Google Scholar
  152. Richards, M. P. M. Effects of oestrogen and progesterone on nest building in the golden hamster. Animal Behaviour, 1969, 17, 356–361.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Richter, C. P., and Barelare, B. Nutritional requirements of pregnant and lactating rats studied by the self-selection method. Endocrinology, 1938, 23, 15–24.Google Scholar
  154. Riddle, O., Lahr, E. L., and Bates, R. W. The rôle of hormones in the initiation of maternal behavior in rats. American Journal of Physiology, 1942, 137, 299–317.Google Scholar
  155. Rodriguez-Sierra, J., and Rosenblatt, J. S. Does prolactin play a role in estrogen-induced maternal behavior in rats: Apomorphine reduction of prolactin release. Hormones and Behavior, 1977, 9, 1–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Rodriguez-Sierra, J. F., and Rosenblatt, J. S. Pregnancy termination by prostaglandin Fla stimulates maternal behavior in the rat. Hormones and Behavior, 1982, 16, 343–351.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Rosenblatt, J. S. The basis of synchrony in the behavioral interaction between the mother and her offspring in the laboratory rat. In B. M. Foss (Ed.), Determinants of Infant Behavior, Vol. 3. London: Methuen, 1965.Google Scholar
  158. Rosenblatt, J. S. Nonhormonal basis of maternal behavior in the rat. Science, 1967, 156, 1512–1514.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Rosenblatt, J. S., and Lehrman, D. S. Maternal behavior of the laboratory rat. In H. L. Rheingold (Ed.), Maternal Behavior in Mammals. New York: Wiley, 1963.Google Scholar
  160. Rosenblatt, J. S., and Siegel, H. I. Hysterectomy-induced maternal behavior during pregnancy in the rat. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1975, 89, 685–700.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Rosenblatt, J. S., and Siegel, H. I. Factors governing the onset and maintenance of maternal behavior among nonprimate mammals: The role of hormonal and nonhormonal factors. In D. J. Gubernick and P. H. Klopfer (Eds.), Parental Care in Mammals. New York: Plenum Press, 1981.Google Scholar
  162. Rosenblatt, J. S., Turkewitz, G., and Schneirla, T. C. Development of suckling and related behavior in neonate kittens. In E. L. Bliss (Ed.), Roots of Behavior, New York: Hoeber, 1962.Google Scholar
  163. Rosenblatt, J. S., Siegel, H. I., and Mayer, A. D. Progress in the study of maternal behavior in the rat: Hormonal, nonhormonal, sensory, and developmental aspects. In J. S. Rosenblatt, R. A. Hinde, C. G. Beer, and M.-C. Busnel (Eds.), Advances in the Study of Behavior, Vol. 10. New York: Academic Press, 1979.Google Scholar
  164. Roth, L. L., and Rosenblatt, J. S. Changes in self-licking during pregnancy in the rat. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1967, 63, 397–400.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Roth, L. L., and Rosenblatt, J. S. Self-licking and mammary development during pregnancy in the rat. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1968, 42, 363–378.Google Scholar
  166. Rowell, T. E. Maternal behaviour in non-maternal golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Animal Behavior, 1961, 9, 11–15.Google Scholar
  167. Rowland, D. L. Effects of pregnancy on the maintenance of maternal behavior in the rat. Behavioral and Neural Biology, 1981, 31, 225–235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Russell, E. M. Mother-young relations and early behavioural development in the marsupials Macropus eugenii and Megaleia rufa. Zeitschrift far Tierpsychologie, 1973, 33, 163–203.Google Scholar
  169. Rubin, B. S., Menniti, F. S. and Bridges, R. S. Intracerebroventricular administration of oxytocin and maternal behavior in rats after prolonged and acute steroid treatment. 1983, 17, 45–53.Google Scholar
  170. Russell, E. M., and Giles, D. C. The effects of young in the pouch on pouch cleaning in the tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii desmarest (Marsupialia). Behaviour, 1973, 51, 19–37.Google Scholar
  171. Saito, T. R., and Takahashi, K. W. Studies on the maternal behavior in the mouse: II. Difference in the maternal behavior pattern among different strains. Japanese Journal of Animal Reproduction, 1979, 25, 117–119.Google Scholar
  172. Saito, T. R., and Takahashi, K. W. Studies on the maternal behavior in the mouse: III. The maternal behavior of pregnant mice. Japanese Journal of Animal Reproduction, 1980, 26, 43–45.Google Scholar
  173. Schneirla, T. C., Rosenblatt, J. S., and Tobach, E. Maternal behavior in the cat. In H. L. Rheingold (Ed.), Maternal Behavior in Mammals. New York: Wiley, 1963.Google Scholar
  174. Scott, E. M., Smith, S. J., and Verner, E. L. Self-selection of diet: VII. The effect of age and pregnancy on selection. Journal of Nutrition, 1948, 35, 281–286.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Shaikh, A. A. Estrone and estradiol levels in the ovarian venous blood from rats during the estrous cycle and pregnancy. Biology of Reproduction, 1971, 5, 297–307.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Sharman, G. B. The initiation and maintenance of lactation in the marsupial, Trichosurus vulpecula. Journal of Endocrinology, 1961, 25, 375–385.Google Scholar
  177. Sharman, G. B., and Calaby, J. H. Reproductive behavior in the red kangaroo (Megaleia rufa) in captivity. C.S.I.R.O. Wildlife Research, 1964, 9, 58–85.Google Scholar
  178. Sharman, G. B., Calaby, J. H., and Poole, W. E. Patterns of reproduction in female diprotodont marsupials. In I. W. Rowlands (Ed.), Comparative Biology of Reproduction in Mammals. New York: Academic Press, 1966.Google Scholar
  179. Siegel, H. I., and Greenwald, G. S. Prepartum onset of maternal behavior in hamsters and the effects of estrogen and progesterone. Hormones and Behavior, 1975, 6, 237–245.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Siegel, H. I., and Greenwald, G. S. Effects of mother-litter separation on later maternal responsiveness in the hamster. Physiology and Behavior, 1978, 21, 147–149.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Siegel, H. I., and Rosenblatt, J. S. Estrogen-induced maternal behavior in hysterectomized-ovariectomized virgin rats. Physiology and Behavior, 1975a, 14, 465–471.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Siegel, H. I., and Rosenblatt, J. S. Hormonal basis of hysterectomy-induced maternal behavior during pregnancy in the rat. Hormones and Behavior, 1975b, 6, 211–222.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Siegel, H. I., and Rosenblatt, J. S. Progesterone inhibition of estrogen-induced maternal behavior in hysterectomized-ovariectomized virgin rats. Hormones and Behavior, 1975c, 6, 223–230.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Siegel, H. I., and Rosenblatt, J. S. Duration of estrogen stimulation and progesterone inhibition of maternal behavior in pregnancy-terminated rats. Hormones and Behavior, 1978, 11, 12–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Siegel, H. I., and Rosenblatt, J. S. Hormonal and behavioral aspects of maternal care in the hamster: A review. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Review, 1980, 4, 17–26.Google Scholar
  186. Siegel, H. I., Clarke, M. C., and Rosenblatt, J. S. Maternal responsiveness during pregnancy in the hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). Animal Behavior, 1983, 31, 497–502.Google Scholar
  187. Slotnick, B. M., Carpenter, M. L., and Fusco, R. Initiation of maternal behavior in pregnant nulliparous rats. Hormones and Behavior, 1973, 4 53–59.Google Scholar
  188. Smith, M. S., and McDonald, L. E. Serum levels of luteinizing hormone, and progesterone during the estrous cycle, pseudopregnancy and pregnancy in the dog. Endocrinology, 1974, 94, 404–412.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Soares, M. J., and Diamond, M. Pregnancy and chin marking the rabbit, Oryctolagus cuniculas. Animal Behavior, 1982, 30, 941–943.Google Scholar
  190. Stern, J. M. Effects of ergocryptine on postpartum maternal behavior, ovarian cyclicity and food intake in rats. Behavioral Biology, 1977, 21, 134–140.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Stern, J. M., and MacKinnon, D. A. Sensory regulation of maternal behavior in rats: Effects of pup age. Developmental Psychobiology, 1978, 11, 579–586.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Stone, C. P. Preliminary note on maternal behavior of rats living in parabioses. Endocrinology, 1925, 9, 505–512.Google Scholar
  193. Strauss, J. F., Sokoloski, J., Caploe, P., Duffy, P., Mintz, G., and Stambaugh, R. L. On the role of prostaglandins in parturition in the rat. Endocrinology, 1975, 96, 1040–1043.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Sturman-Hulbe, M., and Stone, C. P. Maternal behavior in the albino rat. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 1929, 9, 203–237.Google Scholar
  195. Svare, B. R. Maternal aggression in mammals. In D. J. Gubernick and P. H. Klopfer (Eds.), Parental Care in Mammals. New York: Plenum Press, 1981.Google Scholar
  196. Svare, B., and Gandelman, R. Postpartum aggression in mice: Experiential and environmental factors. Hormones and Behavior, 1973, 4 323–334.Google Scholar
  197. Svare, B., Mann, M. A., Broida, J., and Michael, S. D. Maternal aggression exhibited by hypophysectomized parturient mice. Hormones and Behavior, 1982, 16, 445–461.Google Scholar
  198. Swanson, H. H. and Bolwerk, E. The role of oxytocin in the induction of maternal behaviour in virgin female rats. Paper presented at International Ethological Conference, August 29—September 6, 1983, Brisbane, Australia.Google Scholar
  199. Swanson, L. J., and Campbell, C. S. Maternal behavior in the primiparous and multiparous golden hamster. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie, 1979, 50, 96–104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Taber, S., and Thomas, P. Calf development and mother-calf spatial relationships in southern right whales. Animal Behavior, 1982, 30, 1073–1083.Google Scholar
  201. Terkel, J., and Rosenblatt, J. S. Maternal behavior induced by maternal blood plasma injected into virgin rats. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1968, 65, 479–482.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Terkel, J., and Rosenblatt, J. S. Aspects of nonhormonal maternal behavior in the rat. Hormones and Behavior, 1971, 2, 161–171.Google Scholar
  203. Terkel, J., and Rosenblatt, J. S. Humoral factors underlying maternal behavior at parturition: Cross transfusion between freely moving rats. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1972, 80, 365–371.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Terkel, J., Blake, C. A., and Sawyer, C. H. Prolactin levels in lactating rats after suckling or exposure to ether. Endocrinology, 1972, 91, 49–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Trillmich, F. Mutual mother-pup recognition in Galapagos fur seals and sea lions: Cues used and functional significance. Behaviour, 1981, 78, 21–42.Google Scholar
  206. Vania, J. Birth of a stellar sea lion pup. Bioscience, 1965, 15, 794–795.Google Scholar
  207. Voci, V. E., and Carlson, N. R. Enhancement of maternal behavior and nest building following systemic and diencephalic administration of prolactin and progesterone in the mouse. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1973, 83, 388–393.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Wallace, P. Hormonal Influences on Maternal Behavior in the Female Mongolian Gerbil (Meriones unguicutatus). Ph.D. dissertation, 1973, University of Texas at Austin.Google Scholar
  209. Wiesner, B. P., and Sheard, N. M. Maternal Behavior in the Rat. London: Oliver and Boyd, 1933.Google Scholar
  210. Williams, C. L., Hall, W. G., and Rosenblatt, J. S. Changing oral cues in suckling of weaning-age rats: Possible contributions to weaning. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1980, 94, 472–483.Google Scholar
  211. Wilson, N. E., and Stricker, E. M. Thermal homeostasis in pregnant rats during heat stress. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1979, 93, 585–594.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Wise, D. A., and Pryor, T. L. Effects of ergocornine and prolactin on aggression in the postpartum golden hamster. Hormones and Behavior, 1977, 8, 30–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Woodside, B., and Leon, M. Thermoendocrine influences on maternal nesting behavior in rats. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1980, 94, 41–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Woodside, B., Pelchat, R., and Leon, M. Acute elevation of the heat load of mother rats curtails maternal bouts. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1980, 94, 61–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Woodside, B., Leon, M., Attard, M., Feder, H. H., Siegel, H. I., and Fischette, C. Prolactin-steroid influences on the thermal basis for mother-young contact in Norway rats. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1981, 95, 771–780.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Zarrow, M. X., Gandelman, R., and Denenberg, V. H. Prolactin: Is it an essential hormone for maternal behavior in mammals? Hormones and Behavior, 1971, 2, 343–354.Google Scholar
  217. Zarrow, M. X., Sawin, P. B., Ross, S., and Denenberg, V. H. Maternal behavior and its endocrine basis in the rabbit. In E. L. Bliss (Ed.), Roots of Behavior. New York: Harper and Row, 1962.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jay S. Rosenblatt
    • 1
  • Anne D. Mayer
    • 1
  • Harold I. Siegel
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Animal BehaviorRutgers—The State UniversityNewarkUSA

Personalised recommendations