Advertisement

Reproduction pp 767-783 | Cite as

On Measuring Behavioral Sex Differences in Social Contexts

  • David A. Goldfoot
  • Deborah A. Neff
Part of the Handbook of Behavioral Neurobiology book series (HBNE, volume 7)

Abstract

This chapter examines specific methodological limitations associated with the study of behavioral sex differences in social contexts, identifies potential social or environmental sources of influence that might affect the development of sex differences, and gives suggestions for evaluating biological and/or social mechanisms involved in the production of sex differences in social groups. In addition, the initial section of the chapter addresses criticism advanced against current studies of sex differences. A rather extensive and growing set of papers has raised serious objections not only to aspects of methodology, but also to the more basic issues of sexual bias, to improper generalization of results, and essentially to much of the conduct and interpretation of the research in which sex differences are measured or explored.

Keywords

Rhesus Monkey Social Rank Prenatal Testosterone Female Intruder Wisconsin Regional 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Beach, F. A. Hormonal factors controlling the differentiation, development and display of copulatory behavior in the ramstergig and related species. In L. Aronson and E. Tobach (Eds.), Biopsychology of Development. New York: Academic Press, 1971.Google Scholar
  2. Bernstein, I. S., Gordon, T. P., and Peterson, M. Role behavior of an agonadal alpha male rhesus monkey in a heterosexual group. Folia Primatologica, 1979, 32, 263–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bleier, R. H. Brain, body, and behavior. In J. I. Roberts (Ed.), Beyond Intellectual Sexism: A New Woman, A New Reality. New York: David McKay, 1976.Google Scholar
  4. Bleier, R. Social and political bias in science: An examination of animal studies and their generalizations to human behavior and evolution. In R. E. Hubbard and M. Lowe (Eds.), Genes and Gender, Vol. 2: Pitfalls in research on Sex and Gender. New York: Gordian Press, 1979.Google Scholar
  5. Carpenter, C. R. Sexual behavior of free-ranging rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta): II. Periodicity of oestrus, homosexual, autoerotic and nonconformist behavior. journal of Comparative Psychology, 1942, 33, 143–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. de Waal, F. Chimpanzee Politics. London: Jonathan Cape, 1982.Google Scholar
  7. Diamond, M. Sexual identity, monozygotic twins reared in discordant sex roles and the BBC follow-up. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 1982, 11, 181–186.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dixson, A. F., and Herbert, J. Testosterone, aggressive behavior and dominance rank in captive adult male talapoin monkeys (Miophithecus talapoin). Physiology and Behavior, 1977, 18, 539–543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Epple, G., Alveario, M. C., and Katz, Y. The role of chemical communication in aggressive behavior and its gonadal control in the tamarin (Saguinus fusciocollis). In C. T. Snowdon, C. H. Brown, and M. R. Petersen (Eds.), Primate Communication. London: Cambridge University Press, 1982.Google Scholar
  10. Evans, S. The pair-bond of the common marmoset Callithrix jacchus jacchus: An experimental investigation. Animal Behaviour, 1983, 31, 651–658.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. French, J., and Snowdon, C. Sexual dimorphism in responses to unfamiliar intruders in the tamarin Saguinus oedipus. Animal Behaviour, 1981, 29, 822–829.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gibber, J. R. Infant-Directed Behaviors in Male and Female Rhesus Monkeys. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Wisconsin—Madison, Department of Psychology, 1981.Google Scholar
  13. Gilbert, A. N., Burgoon, D. A., Sullivan, K. A., and Adler, N. T. Mother-weanling interactions in Norway rats in the presence of a successive litter produced by postpartum mating. Physiology and Behavior, 1983, 30, 267–271.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Goldfoot, D. A. Sociosexual behavior of nonhuman primates during development and maturity: Social and hormonal relationships. In A. M. Schrier (Ed.), Behavioral Primatology: Advances in Research and Theory, Vol. 1. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1977.Google Scholar
  15. Goldfoot, D. A., and Wallen, K. Development of gender role behaviors in heterosexual and isosexual groups of infant rhesus monkeys. In D. J. Chivers and J. Herbert (Eds.), Recent Advances in Primatology, Vol. 1: Behavior. Proceedings of the Sixth Congress of the International Primatological Society. New York: Academic Press, 1978.Google Scholar
  16. Goldfoot, D. A., Goy, R. W., Neff, D. A., Wallen, K., and McBrair, M. C. Social influences upon the display of sexually dimorphic behavior in rhesus monkeys: Isosexual rearing. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 1984, 13, 395–412.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Goy, R. W., and Goldfoot, D. A. Hormonal influences on sexually dimorphic behavior. In R. O. Greep and E. B. Astwood (Eds.), Handbook of Physiology: Endocrinology, Vol. 2, Part 1. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1973.Google Scholar
  18. Goy, R. W., and Goldfoot, D. A. Experiential and hormonal factors influencing development of sexual behavior in the male rhesus monkey. In F. O. Schmidt and F. G. Worden (Eds.), The Neurosciences: Third Study Program. Cambridge: M.I.T. Press, 1974.Google Scholar
  19. Hubbard, R., and Lowe, M. (Eds.). Genes and Genders, Vol. 2: Pitfalls in Research on Sex and Gender. New York: Gordian Press, 1979.Google Scholar
  20. Ickes, W. Sex role influences in dyadic interactions: A theoretical model. In C. Mayo and N. Henley (Eds.), Gender and Nonverbal Behavior. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1981.Google Scholar
  21. Kass-Simon, G. Female strategies: Animal adaptations and adaptive significance. In J. I. Roberts (Ed.), Beyond Intellectual Sexism: A New Woman, A New Reality. New York: David McKay, 1976.Google Scholar
  22. Keverne, E. B. Olfaction and the reproductive behavior of nonhuman primates. In C. T. Snowdon, C. H. Brown, and M. R. Petersen (Eds.), Primate Communication. London: Cambridge University Press, 1982.Google Scholar
  23. Lamb, M. E. The effects of the social context on dyadic social interaction. In M. E. Lamb, S J Suomi, and G. R. Stephenson (Eds.), Social Interaction Analysis: Methodological Issues. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1979.Google Scholar
  24. Larsson, K. Sexual behavior: The result of an interaction. In J. Zubin and J. Money (Eds.), Contemporary Sexual Behavior: Critical Issues in the 1970s. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1973.Google Scholar
  25. Leibowitz, L. “Universals” and male dominance among primates: A critical examination. In R. Hubbard and M. Lowe (Eds.), Genes and Gender, Vol. 2: Pitfalls in Research on Sex and Gender. New York: Gordian Press, 1979.Google Scholar
  26. Leshner, A. E. An Introduction to Behavioral Endocrinology. New York: Oxford University Press, 1978.Google Scholar
  27. McClintock, M. K. Simplicity from complexity: A naturalistic approach to behavior and neuroendocrine function. In I. Silverman (Ed.), Laboratory and Life: New Directions for Methology of Social and Behavioral Research, No. 8. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1981.Google Scholar
  28. McClintock, M., Anisko, J. J., and Adler, N. T. Group mating among Norway rats: II. The social dynamics of copulation: Competition, cooperation and mate choice. Animal Behavior, 1982, 30, 410–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Mischel, W., and Peake, P. K. Beyond déja vu in the search for cross-situational consistency. Psychological Review, 1982, 89, 730–755.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Missakian, E. A. Genealogical and cross-genealogical dominance relations in a group of free-ranging rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) on Cayo Santiago. Primates, 1972. 13, 169–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mitchell, G. Behavioral Sex Differences in Nonhuman Primates. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1979.Google Scholar
  32. Money, J. The development of sexuality and eroticism in humankind. Quarterly Review of Biology, 1981, 56, 379–404.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Money, J., and Ehrhardt, A. A. Man and Woman, Boy and Girl. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1972.Google Scholar
  34. Patterson, G. R., and Moore, D. Interactive patterns as units of behavior. In M. E. Lamb, S J Suomi, and G. R. Stephenson (Eds.), Social Interaction Analysis: Methodological Issues. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1979.Google Scholar
  35. Perachio, A. A. Hypothalamic regulation of behavioral and hormonal aspects of aggression and sexual performance. In D. J. Chivers and J. Herbert (Eds.), Recent Advances in Primatology, Vol. 1: Behavior. Proceedings of the Sixth Congress of the International Primatological Society. New York: Academic Press, 1978.Google Scholar
  36. Sherman, J. A. Some psychological “facts” about women: Will the real Ms. please stand up? In J. I. Roberts (Ed.), Beyond Intellectual Sexism: A New Woman, A New Reality. New York: David McKay, 1976.Google Scholar
  37. Sigursch, V., Schorsch, E., Dannecker, M., and Schmidt, G. Official statement by the German Society for Sex Research (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Sexualforschung e. V.) on the research of Prof. Dr. Gunter Dorner on the subject of homosexuality. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 1982, 11, 445–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Thornton, J. E. Some Factors Affecting the Display of Bisexual Behavior by Males from Two Inbred Strains of Guinea Pig. Unpublished master’s thesis, University of Wisconsin—Madison, Department of Psychology, 1979.Google Scholar
  39. Tobach, E., and Rosoff, B. (Eds.). Genes and Gender. New York: Gordian Press, 1978.Google Scholar
  40. Weisstein, N. Tired of arguing about biological inferiority? Ms., November 1982, 85, 41–46.Google Scholar
  41. Young, W. C. The hormones and mating behavior. In W. C. Young (Ed.), Sex and Internal Secretions, Vol. 2. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1961.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • David A. Goldfoot
    • 1
  • Deborah A. Neff
    • 1
  1. 1.1223 Capitol CourtWisconsin Regional Primate Research CenterMadisonUSA

Personalised recommendations