Chronic renal failure is an uncommon problem in children. The data available on incidence show considerable variation because of differing definitions and sources of information. The total incidence in Great Britain has been estimated at 3.5 cases per million total population per year (Meadow et al., 1970); in Germany at 3.0 (Schärer, 1971); and in the United States at 4.8 (Zilleruelo et al., 1980). Studies from dialysis and transplantation centers indicate that 1–1.6 children per million population present for treatment annually (Cameron, 1973; Potter et al., 1980). Thus about one of three children with chronic renal failure survive to be considered for treatment by the current selection criteria. The feasibility of dialysis and transplantation as techniques for prolongation of life in children with renal failure has been well demonstrated. The results of several large published series suggest that children fare as well as or better than adults. The availability of partial funding for the enormous costs of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) treatment through federal programs and the wider application of this new technology require increased attention to a growing list of new problems, some of which are considered in this section.
KeywordsRenal Failure Chronic Renal Failure Vesicoureteral Reflux Renal Osteodystrophy Obstructive Uropathy
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