The Interactions of Cells with Extracellular Matrix Components

  • Kenneth M. Yamada
  • Steven K. Akiyama


The interactions of extracellular materials with the cell surface are important facets of the regulation of cell morphology and metabolism. Although it is not simple to unravel the complex actions and interrelationships of these molecules comprising the extracellular microenvironment of cells, their importance is now documented by a rapidly expanding literature (for recent reviews, see Hay, 1981; Chen, 1981; Kleinman et al., 1981; Aplin and Hughes, 1982; Grinnell, 1983; Yamada, 1983a,b). Many of the major molecules that constitute extracellular matrices have been purified. Some of the isolated molecules can have dramatic regulatory effects on cell morphology and polarity, organization of the cytoskeleton, and production of differentiated cell products. For example, the addition of purified cellular fibronectin to cells deficient in fibronectin can restore a more normal cell shape, adhesiveness, cell surface architecture, and organization of intracellular actin microfilaments (Yamada et al.,1976a,b; Willingham et al., 1977; Ali et al., 1977). If certain embryonic epithelial cells are stripped of their basal lamina, they cease morphogenesis and begin blebbing (Banerjee et al.,1977; Sugrue and Hay, 1981); treatment with purified fibronectin, laminin, or collagen can sometimes restore normal cell surface morphology and organization of microfilaments (Sugrue and Hay, 1981, 1982). Mammary epithelial cells removed from their normal environment regain the ability to proliferate and to synthesize a set of differentiated products and a basal lamina if cultured within an artificial collagen gel (e.g., see Suard et al., 1983, and references therein). These and many other examples of the regulatory effects of extracellular macromolecules on embryonic differentiation, cell motility, and growth demonstrate the importance of interactions of the cell surface with the extracellular milieu.


Hyaluronic Acid Neural Crest Cell Triple Helix Plasma Fibronectin Neural Crest Cell Migration 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kenneth M. Yamada
    • 1
  • Steven K. Akiyama
    • 1
  1. 1.Membrane Biochemistry Section, Laboratory of Molecular BiologyNational Cancer Institute, National Institutes of HealthBethesdaUSA

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