The Role of Trophoblast Differentiation in the Control of the hCG and hPL Genes
One of the unique features of the human placenta is its continued differentiation during gestation. Progeny of mitotically active mononucleated cytotrophoblasts fuse to form the mitotically inactive syncytiotrophoblast (1–3). During the differentiation, two major peptide hormones are produced, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and human placental lactogen (hPL). Their temporal appearance in maternal serum during pregnancy is different: hCG peaks in the first trimester, while hPL reaches maximal levels at term. Therefore, the factors controlling their expression are not identical (4–7).
KeywordsFiltration Albumin Codon Citrate Gelatin
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 2.Pierce, G. B. and Midgley, A. R., The origin and function of human syncytiotrophoblastic giant cell, Amer. J. Pathol. 43: 153 (1963).Google Scholar
- 3.Wynn, R. M., Cytotrophoblastic specialization: an ultrastructural study of the human placenta, Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 114:339 (1972).Google Scholar
- 6.Boime, I., McWilliams, D., Szczesna, E., and Camel, M., Synthesis of human placental lactogen as a function of gestation, J. Biol. Chem. 251:821 (1976).Google Scholar
- 7.Boime, I., Landefeld, T., McQueen, S., and McWilliams, D., The biosynthesis of chorionic gonadotropin and placental lactogen in first-and third-trimester human placenta, in: K. W. McKern, ed., “Structure and Function of the Gonadotropins,” Plenum Press, New York (1978), p. 235.Google Scholar
- 8.Bagshawe, K. D., “Choriocarcinoma, The Clinical Biology of the Trophoblast and its Tumours,” The Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore (1969), p. 72.Google Scholar
- 9.Pattillo, R. A., Endocrine and immunological factors in trophoblastic cancers, in: K. W. McKerns, ed., “Hormones and Cancers,” Academic Press, New York (1974), p. 363.Google Scholar
- 10.Hertz, R., “Choriocarcinoma and Related Gestational Trophoblastic Tumors in Women,” Raven Press, New York (1978), p. 23.Google Scholar
- 11.Goldstein, D. P., and Berkowitz, R. S., “Major Problems in Obstetrics and Gynecology, Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasms, Clinical Principles of Diagnosis and Management,” W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia (1982), p. 11.Google Scholar
- 18.Boothby, M., Daniels-McQueen, S., McWilliams, D., Zernik, M., and Boime, I., Human chorionic gonadotropin alpha and beta subunit m-RNAs: translatable levels during pregnancy and molecular cloning of DNA sequences complementary to hCG, in: S. J. Segal, ed., “Chorionic Gonadotropin,” Plenum Press, New York (1980), p. 253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar