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Neuromodulatory Roles of Adenosine Receptors Coupling to the Calcium Channel and Adenylate Cyclase

  • Yoichiro Kuroda
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 160)

Abstract

It has been shown that ATP is stored together with acetylcholine or catecholamines in synaptic vesicles and released from nerve terminals by electrical stimulation. The released ATP is degraded to adenosine extracellularly. Adenosine derivatives also might be released from excited postsynaptic neurons. Therefore, during and after stimulation, adenosine derivatives are accumulated in the synaptic cleft. Physiological functions of ATP and adenosine have been reported. In the peripheral nervous system, adenosine reduces the quantum content and frequency of miniature end-plate potentials in the rat phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparation (1). In the central nervous system, we found that extracellular addition of adenosine derivatives caused two effects on the post-synaptic potentials (PSP) evoked by electrical stimulation of lateral olfactory tract (LOT) and recorded from the surface of olfactory cortex slices: one is the direct inhibition of PSP (2,3) and the other is indirect facilitation via cyclic AMP which appears after the removal of adenosine (4). By iontophoretic studies, it has been shown that adenosine derivatives have a depressant action on the firing of neurons in several regions of the rat brain (5). These effects are suggested to be presynaptic and mediated by two different types of adenosine receptor on the presynaptic membrane, which regulate transmitter release by changing the intracellular concentration of Ca2+ or cyclic AMP in the nerve terminals. The physiological significance of adenosine derivatives on neurotransmission in the mammalian central nervous system is discussed especially in relation to facilitation as a possible mechanism of post-tetanic potentiation (PTP) and heterosynaptic facilitation (HSF) which are considered to be basic electrophysiological models of learning and memory (6).

Keywords

Adenosine Receptor Synaptic Cleft Transmitter Release Tetanic Stimulation Lateral Olfactory Tract 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yoichiro Kuroda
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of NeurochemistryTokyo Metropolitan Institute for NeurosciencesFuchu-shi, Tokyo 183Japan

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