Development of Neurotransmitter Systems in the Goldfish Retina

  • S. C. Sharma
  • R. Petrucci
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 78)


In the adult vertebrate retina, aminobuteric acid (GABA), glycine and dopamine have been localized in particular cell types and their role implicated as neurotransmitter for those cells. The cells have been shown to contain high concentrations of neurotransmitter and its synthetic enzymes and they accumulate the putative transmitter or its precursors. These retinal neurons are also capable of releasing the transmitter in response to an appropriate stimulus (Hall et al., 1974; Robert et al., 1976, for review). In the retina of adult Xenopus laevis, GABA accumulates predominantly in horizontal cells and in certain amacrine cells of the inner nuclear layer (Hollyfield et al., 1979). Similar cell types in the adult goldfish retina also contain GABA; specifically, GABA has been localized in H-l type cone horizontal cells and Ab type pyri-form amacrine cells (Marc et al., 1978).


Xenopus Laevis Amacrine Cell Ganglion Cell Layer Plexiform Layer Horizontal Cell 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Brunn, A. and Ehinger, B., 1972, Uptake of the putative neurotransmitter, glycine, into the rabbit retina. Invest. Ophthalmol., 11:191–198.Google Scholar
  2. Chen, F. and Witkovsky, P., 1979, the formation of photoreceptor synapses in the retina of larval Xenopus. J. Neurocytol., 7:721–740.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chin, C.A. and Lam, D.M.K., 1980, The uptake and release of 3H-Glycine in the goldfish retina. J. Physiol. (Lond), 308:185–195.Google Scholar
  4. Dowling, J.E. and Ehinger, B., 1975, Synaptic organization of the amine-containing interplexiform cells of the goldfish and Cebus monkey retinas. Science, 188:270–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ehinger, G. and Lundberg-Bauer, B., 1976, Light evoked release of Glycine from cat and rabbit retina. Brain Res., 113:535–549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Hall, Z.W., Hildebrand, J.G. and Kravitz, E.A., 1974, Chemistry of synaptic transmission, Chiron Press, Newton, Mass.Google Scholar
  7. Hedden, W.L. and Dowlilng, J.E., 1978, The interplexiform cell system, II. Effects of dopamine on goldfish retinal neurons. Proc. Roy. Soc. B., 201:27–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hollyfield, J.G., Rayborn, M.E., Sarthy, P.V. and Lam, D.M.K., 1979, The emergence, localization and maturation of neurotransmitter systems during development of the retina in Xenopus laevis. I. Y-Aminobutyric acid. J. Comp. Neur. 188:587–595.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kajishima, T., 1960, The normal developmental stages of the goldfish Carassius auratus. Japan. J. Ichthylology. 8:20–28.Google Scholar
  10. Lam, D.M.K. and Hollyfield, J.G., 1980, Localization of putative amino acid neurotransmitters in the human retina. Exp. Eye Res. 31:729–732.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Marc, R.E., 1980, Retinal colour channels and their neurotransmitters. In Colour Deficiencies V, Institute of Physics, London. Adam Hilger, Ltd., London. pp. 15–29.Google Scholar
  12. Marc, R.C., 1982, Spatial organization of neurochemically classified interneurons of the goldfish retina-1. Local patterns. Vision Research, 22:589–608.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Marc, R.E. and Lam, D.M.K., 1981, Glycinergic pathways in the goldfish retina. J. Neuroscience. 1:152–165.Google Scholar
  14. Marc, R.E. and Sperling, H.G., 1976, Color receptor identities of goldfish cones. Science, 191:487–489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Marc, R.E. and Summerall, R.D., 1980, Development of the transmitter systems in the teleost retina. Suppl. Inv. Ophthal. Visual Sci., 20:247.Google Scholar
  16. Rayborn, M.E., Sarthy, P.V., Lam, D.M.K. and Hollyfield, J.G., 1981, The emergence, localization and maturation of neurotransmitter systems during development of the retina in Xenopus laevis. II. Glycine. J. Comp. Neur. 195:585–593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Roberts, E., Chase, T. and Tower, D.B., 1976, Gaba in nervous system function. Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  18. Sarthy, P.V. and Lam, D.M.K., 1979, The uptake and release of 3H-dopamine in the goldfish retina. J. Neurochem., 32:1269–1277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Sarthy, P.V., Rayborn, M.E., Hollyfield, J.G. and Lam, D.M.K., The emergence, localization and maturation of neurotransmitter systems during development of the retina in Xenopus laevis. III. Dopamine. J. Comp. Neur., 195:595–602.Google Scholar
  20. Sharma, S.C. and Ungar, F., 1980, Histogenesis of the goldfish retina. J. Comp. Neur., 191:373–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Stell, W.K., 1967, The structure and relationships of horizontal cells and photoreceptor-bipolar synaptic complexes in goldfish retina. Am. J. Anat., 121:401–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Stell, W.K. and Lightfoot, D.O., 1975, Color-specific interconnections of cones and horizontal cells in the retina of goldfish. J. Comp. Neur., 159:473–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. C. Sharma
    • 1
  • R. Petrucci
    • 1
  1. 1.Dept. of OpthalmologyNew York Medical CollegeValhallaUSA

Personalised recommendations