Mutagens in Cooked Foods-Metabolism and Genetic Toxicity

  • J. S. Felton
  • L. F. Bjeldanes
  • F. T. Hatch
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 177)


Recently developed in our laboratories is an efficient extraction procedure incorporating XAD resin adsorption which yields from 200°C grilled ground beef an extract containing 230 SalmonellaTA1538 revertants per g fresh weight of original ground beef. These mutagenic components are specific for frameshift-sensitive Salmonellastrains and have an absolute requirement for metabolic activation. S9 activation by cytochrome P-448 inducers, Aroclor 1254 (PCB), 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) and B-naphthoflavone(BNF1), resulted in the largest mutagenic response. Phenobarbital induction gave 20% of the PCB response and Pregnenolone-16a-carbonitrile and corn oil were inactive. Human liver microsomes and BNF-induced rodent intestinal S9 were also active metabolizing fractions. Normal-phase HPLC separation of methanol-extractable metabolites generated from reaction of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo [4,5-f] quinoline (IQ), a mutagenic component of broiled food, rat liver microsomes and cofactors resulted in one direct-acting mutagenic peak and a second more polar peak still requiring metabolic activation. Two potent thermally-produced bacterial mutagens, Trp-P-2 and IQ, were examined in mammalian cells. In excision repair-deficient CHO cells, Trp-P-2 exposure caused cytotoxicity, mutagenicity (thioguanine and azaadenine resistances), sister chromatid exchange, and chromosomal aberrations at concentrations more than 30-fold lower than those for IQ. In normal repair-proficient CHO cells Trp-P-2 was one-half as active and IQ was inactive. Relative to Trp-P-2, IQ is much more potent in the Salmonellabacterial system than in mammalian CHO cells.


Basic Fraction Ground Beef Genetic Toxicity Mutagenic Component Mutagenic Intermediate 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. S. Felton
    • 1
    • 2
  • L. F. Bjeldanes
    • 1
    • 2
  • F. T. Hatch
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Biomedical Sciences DivisionLawrence Livermore National LaboratoryLivermoreUSA
  2. 2.Department of Nutritional SciencesUniversity of California, BerkeleyLivermoreUSA

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