Advertisement

Chemistry and Safety of Plant Polyphenols

  • S. S. Deshpande
  • S. K. Sathe
  • D. K. Salunkhe
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 177)

Abstract

Phenolic compounds are widely distributed in plant kingdom and are considered to be secondary metabolites. They do not seem to be essential for plant life, at least at the cellular level. Plants provide nearly all the phenols found in higher animals, since the latter can not synthesize compounds with benzenoid rings from aliphatic precursors. The present discussion is mainly confined to polymeric phenols commonly found in cereals and legumes.

Keywords

Phenolic Compound Chlorogenic Acid Cinnamic Acid Condensed Tannin Ellagic Acid 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alexander, M., 1965, Biodégradation: Problems of molecular recalcitrance on microbial fallability, Adv. Appl. Microbiol. 7: 35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Armstrong, W.D., Featherston, W.R., and Rogler, J.C., 1973, Influence of methionine and other dietary additives on the performance of chicks fed bird resistant sorghum grain diets, Poultry Sci., 52: k592.Google Scholar
  3. Armstrong, W.D., Rogler, J.C., and Featherston, W.R., 1974, Effect of tannin extraction on the performance of chicks fed bird resistant sorghum diets, Poultry Sci., 53: 714.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arnold, G.W., and Hill, J.L. 1972, Chemical factors affecting selection of food plants by ruminants, in:“Phytochemical Ecology,” J.B. Harborne, ed., Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  5. Badawy, A.A.B., White, A.E., and Lathe, G.H., 1969, The effect of tannic acid on the synthesis of protein and nucleic acid by rat liver, Biochem. J., 113: 307.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bate-Smith, E.C., Hughes, J.C., and Swain, T., 1958, After-cooking discoloration in potatoes, Chem. Ind., p. 627.Google Scholar
  7. Bate-Smith, E.C., and Rasper, V., 1969, Tannins of grain sorghum. Luteoforol (Leucoluteolinidin), 3T, 4,4f,5,7 pentahydroxy flavan, J. Food Sci., 34: 203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bauer-Staob, G., and Niebes, P., 1976, The binding of polyphenols (Rutin and some of its o-$-hydroxyethyl derivatives) to human serum proteins, Experientia, 32: 367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Berrie, A.M.M., Parker, W., Knights, B.A., and Hendrie, M.R., 1968, Lettuce seed germination. I. Coumarin-induced dormancy, Phytochem., 7: 567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bichel, J., and Bach, A., 1968, Investigation on the toxicity of small chronic doses of tannic acid with special reference to possible carcinogenicity, Acta Pharmacol. Toxicol., 26: 41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Blakeslee, J.A., and Wilson, H.R., 1979, Response of hens to various dietary levels of tannic acid, Poultry Sci., 58: 255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Blessin, C.W., Vanetten, C.H., and Dimler, R.J., 1963, An examination of anthocyanogens in grain sorghums, Cereal Chem., 40: 241.Google Scholar
  13. Bornstein, S., Alumot, E., Nakadi, S., Nachtomi, E., and Nahari, O., 1963, Trials for improving the nutritional value of carobs for chicks, Israel J. Agric. Res., 13: 25.Google Scholar
  14. Boyd, E.M., Bercezky, K., and Godi, I., 1965, The acute toxicity of tannic acid administered intragastrically, Can. Med. Assoc. J., 92: 1292.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bressani, R., and Elias, L.G., 1979, The nutritional role of polyphenols in beans, in:“Proc. Symp. Polyphenols in Cereals and Legumes”, 11 IFT, St. Louis, MO.Google Scholar
  16. Bressani, R., and Elias, L.G., 1980, The nutritional role of polyphenols in beans, in:“Polyphenols in Cereals and Legumes,” J.H. Hulse, ed., IDRC, Canada.Google Scholar
  17. Bullard, R.W., and Elias, D.J., 1980, Sorghum polyphenols and bird resistance, in:“Polyphenols in Cereals and Legumes,” J.H. Hulse, ed., IDRC, Canada.Google Scholar
  18. Chan, B.G., Waiss, A.C., Jr., and Lukefahr, M., 1978, Condensed tannin, an antibiotic chemical from Gossypium hirsutum, J. Insect Physiol., 24: 113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chang, S.I., and Fuller, H.L., 1964, Effect of tannin content of grain sorghums on their feeding values for growing chicks, Poultry Sci., 43: 30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chavan, J.K., Ghonsikar, C.P., and Ingle, U.M., 1977, Distribution of proteins and tannin in grain sorghum, Res. Bull. M.A.U., Parbhani, India, 1: 88.Google Scholar
  21. Clark, R.T.J., and Reid, C.S.W., 1974, Foamy bloat of cattle: A review, J. Dairy Sci., 57: 753.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Combs, G.E., and Wallace, H.D., 1976, Grain sorghums in starter and grower diets, Fla. Agric. Esp. Sta. Res. Rept. No. A1-1976-3.Google Scholar
  23. Cruickshank, I.A.M., 1963, Phytoalexins, Ann. Rev. Phytopathol., 1: 351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cruickshank, I.A.M., and Perrin, D.R., 1964, Pathological function of phenolic compounds in plants, in:“Biochemistry of Phenolic Compounds,” J.B. Harborne, ed., Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  25. Damron, B.L., Prine, G.M., and Harms, R.H., 1968, Evaluation of various bird-resistant and non-resistant varieties of grain sorghum for use in broiler diets, Poultry Sci., 47: 1648.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Davis, A.B., and Harbers, L.H., 1974, Hydrolysis of sorghum grain starch by rumen microorganisms and purified a-amylase as observed by scanning electron microscopy, J. Anim. Sci., 38: 900.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Davis, A.B., and Hoseney, R.C., 1979, Grain sorghum condensed tannins. I. Isolation, estimation, and selective adsorption by starch, Cereal Chem., 56: 310.Google Scholar
  28. Deeds, F., and Couch, J.F., 1948, Rutin in green asparagus, Food Res., 13: 378.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Deoliveira, M.M., Sampaio, M.R.P., Simon, F., Gilbert, B., and Mors, W.B., 1972, Antitumor activity of condensed flavanols, An. Acad. Bras. Cienc., 44: 41.Google Scholar
  30. Deshpande, S.S., and Salunkhe, D.K., 1982, Interactions of tannic acid and catechin with legume starches, J. Food Sci., 47: 2080.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Deshpande, S.S., Sathe, S.K., Salunkhe, D.K., Cornforth, D.P., 1982, Effects of dehulling on phytic acid, polyphenols, and enzyme inhibitors of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). J. Food Sci., 47: 1846.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Dikinson, D., Knight, M., and Rees, D.I., 1957, Varieties of broad beans suitable for canning, Chem. Ind., p. 1503.Google Scholar
  33. Dollahit, J.W., and Camp, B.J., 1962, Calcium hydroxide: An antidote for tannic acid poisoning in rabbits, Amer. J. Vet. Res., 23: 1271.Google Scholar
  34. Donath, H., 1962, Discoloration phenomena in sterile cauliflower packs, Nahrung, 6: 470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Donnelly, E.D., and Anthony, W.B., 1969, Relationship of tannin dry matter digestibility and crude protein in Sericea lespedeza, Crop Sci., 9: 361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Driedger, A., and Hatfield, E.E., 1972, Influence of tannins on the nutritive value of soybean meal for ruminants, J. Anim. Sci., 34: 465.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Durkee, A.B., and Poapst, P.A., 1965, Phenolic constituents in core tissues and ripe seed of Mcintosh apples, J. Agric. Food Chem., 13: 137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Eggum, B.O., and Christensen, K.D., 1975, Influence of tannin on protein utilization in Feedstuffswith special reference to barley, Breed. Seed Protein Improv. using Nucl. Tech. Proc. Res. Coord. Meet., 2nd, p. 135.Google Scholar
  39. Elkin, R.G., Featherston, W.R., and Rogler, J.C., 1978, Investigations of leg abnormalities in chicks consuming high-tannin sorghum grain diets, Poultry Sci., 57: 757.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Fairbairn, J.W., 1959, “The Pharmacology of Plant Phenolics,” Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  41. Featherston, W.R., and Rogler, J.C., 1975, Influence of tannins on the utilization of sorghum grain by rats and chicks, Nutr. Rep. Intl., 11: 491.Google Scholar
  42. Feeney, P.P., 1969, Inhibitory effect of oak leaf tannins on the hydrolysis of proteins by trypsin, Phytochem., 8: 2119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Feeney, P.P., 1976, Plant apparency and chemical defense, Recent Adv. Phytochem., 10: 1.Google Scholar
  44. Fletcher, A.C., Porter, L.J., Haslam, E., and Gupta, R.K., 1977, Plant proanthocyanidins. Part III. Conformational and configurational studies of natural procyanidins, J. Chem. Soc. PerkinI., 14: 1628.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Forsyth, W.G.C., 1964, Physiological aspects of curing plant products, Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol., 15: 443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Freudenberg, K., 1920, “Die Chemie der Naturlichen Gerbstoffe,” Springer, Berlin, Germany.Google Scholar
  47. Freudenberg, K., and Weinges, K., 1962, Acid-catalyzed autocondensation of hydroxyflavans. Condensed proanthocyanidins, Tetrahedron Letters, p. 1073.Google Scholar
  48. Fuller, H.L., Chang, S.I., and Potter, D.K., 1967, Detoxification of dietary tannic acid by chicks, J. Nutr., 91: 477.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Fuller, H.L., Potter, D.K., and Brown, A.R., 1966, The feeding value of grain sorghums in relation to their tannin content, Georgia Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. NS., 176.Google Scholar
  50. Glick, Z., and Joslyn, M.A., 1970a, Food intake depression and other metabolic effects of tannic acid in the rat, J. Nutr., 100: 509.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Glick, Z., and Joslyn, M.A., 1970b, Effect of tannic acid and related compounds on the absorption and utilization of proteins in the rat, J. Nutr., 100: 516.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Göhl, B., and Thomke, S., 1976, Digestibility coefficients and metabolizable energy of barley diets for layers as influenced by geographical area of production, Poultry Sci., 55: 2369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Goldstein, J.L., and Swain, T., 1963, Changes in tannins in ripening fruits, Phytochem., 2: 371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Goldstein, J.L., and Swain, T., 1965, The inhibition of enzymes by tannins, Phytochem., 4: 184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Griffiths, D.W., and Jones, D.I.H., 1977, Cellulase inhibition by tannins in the testa of field beans (Vicia faba), J. Sci. Food Agric., 28: 983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Griffiths, D.W., and Moseley, G., 1980, The effect of diets containing field beans of high or low polyphenolic content on the activity of digestive enzymes in the intestines of rats, J. Sci. Food Agric., 31: 255.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Grisebach, H., 1967, “Biosynthetic Patterns in Microorganisms and Higher Plants,” John Wiley and Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  58. Guillaume, J., and Gomez, J., 1977, Effect des proanthocyanidines extractibles au methanesabsolu (PEMA) sur la digestibilite des proteins chez le poussin (essai preliminaire), Ann. Biol. Anim. Biochim. Biophys., 17: 549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Gustavson, K.H., 1949, Some protein-chemical aspects of tanning processes, Adv. Protein Chem., 5: 353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Handler, P., and Baker, R.D., 1944, Toxicity of orally administered tannic acids, Science, 99: 393.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Harborne, J.B., 1967, “Comparative Biochemistry of Flavonoids,” Academic Press, London and New York.Google Scholar
  62. Harborne, J.B., 1975, Biochemical systematics of flavonoids, in:“The Flavonoids,” J.B. Harborne, T.J. Mabry, and H. Mabry, eds., Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  63. Harborne, J.B., and Simmonds, N.W., 1964, The natural distribution of the phenolic aglycones, in: “Biochemistry of Phenolic Compounds,” J.B. Harborne, ed., Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  64. Harris, H.B., 1969, Bird resistance in grain sorghum, Proc. 24th Ann. Corn and Sorghum Res. Conf., 24: 113.Google Scholar
  65. Harris, H.B., and Burns, R.E., 1970, Influence of tannin content on preharvest seed germination in sorghum, Agron. J., 62: 835.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Harris, H.B., and Burns, R.E., 1973, Relationship between tannin content of sorghum grain and preharvest seed molding, Agron. J., 65: 957.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Haslam, E., 1966, “Chemistry of Vegetable Tannins,” Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  68. Haslam, E., 1977, Review: Symmetry and promiscuity in procyanidin biochemistry, Phytochem. 16: 1625.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Haslam, E., Opie, C.T., and Porter, L.J., 1977, Procyanidin metabolism - a hypothesis, Phytochem., 16: 99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Hatfield, E.E., 1970, Achieving the potential of high quality dietary protein for ruminants, Feedstuffs, 42 (52): 23.Google Scholar
  71. Hathway, D.E., 1958a, Autoxidation of polyphenols. IV. Oxidative degradation of the catechin autoxidative polymer, J. Chem. Soc., p. 1520.Google Scholar
  72. Hathway, D.E., 1958b, Oak-bark tannins, Biochem. J., 70: 34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Hathway, D.E., and Seakins, J.W.T., 1957a, Autoxidation of polyphenols. III. Autoxidation in neutral aqueous solution of flavans related to catechin, J. Chem. Soc., p. 1562.Google Scholar
  74. Hathway, D.E., and Seakins, J.W.T., 1957b, Enzymic oxidation of catechin to a polymer structurally related to some phlobatannins, Biochem. J., 67: 239.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Hathway, D.E., and Seakins, J.W.T., 1958, The influence of tannins on the degradation of pectin by pectinase enzymes, Biochem. J., 70: 158.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Herz, F., and Kaplan, E., 1968, Effects of tannic acid on erythrocyte enzymes, Nature, 217: 1258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Horowitz, R.M., 1964, Relation between the taste and structure of some phenolic glycosides, in:“Biochemistry of Phenolic Compounds,” J.B. Harborne, ed., Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  78. Jacques, D., and Haslam, E., 1974, Biosynthesis of plant proanthocyanidins, J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun., 6: 231.Google Scholar
  79. Jacques, D., Opie, C.T., Porter, L.J., and Haslam, E., 1977, Plant proanthocyanidin. IV. Biosynthesis of procyanidins and observations on the metabolism of cyanidin in plants, J. Chem. Soc. PerkinI., 14: 1637.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Jambunathan, R., and Mertz, E.T., 1973, Relationship between tannin levels, rat growth and diets of proteins in sorghum, J. Agric. Food Chem., 21: 692.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Jease, E.J., and Mitchell, J.H., 1940, A study of tannins of Lespedeza sericea, 53rd Ann. Rep. S. Carol. Exp. Sta., Clemson Agric. College, p. 71.Google Scholar
  82. Jenkins, G.L., Hartung, W.H., Hamlin, K.E., Jr., and Data, J.B., 1957, “The Chemistry of Organic Medicinal Products,” John Wiley and Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  83. Jones, W.T., Anderson, L.B., and Ross, M.D., 1973, Bloat in cattle, detection of protein précipitants (flavolans) in legumes, New Zealand J. Agric. Res., 16: 441.Google Scholar
  84. Jones, W.T., Broadhurst, R.B., and Lyttleton, J.W., 1976, The condensed tannins of pasture legume species, Phytochem., 15: 1407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Jones, W.T., and Mangan, J.L., 1977, Complexes of the condensed tannins of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) with fraction 1 leaf protein and with submaxillary mucoprotein and their reversal by polyethylene glycol and pH, J. Sci. Food Agric., 28: 126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Joslyn, M.A., and Glick, Z. 1969, Comparative effects of gallotannic acid and related phenolics on the growth of rats, J. Nutr., 98: 119.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Joslyn, M.A., and Goldstein, J.L., 1964, Astringency of fruits and fruit products in relation to phenolic content, Adv. Food Res., 13: 179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Kendall, W.A., 1966, Factors affecting foams with forage legumes, Crop Sci., 6: 487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Khayambashi, H., and Lyman, R.L., 1966, Growth depression and pancreatic and intestinal changes in rats force-fed amino acid diets containing soybean trypsin inhibitor, J. Nutr., 89: 455.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Konowalchuk, J., and Speirs, J.I., 1976, Virus inactivation by grapes and wines, Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 32: 757.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Korpassy, B., 1961, Tannins as hepatic carcinogens, Prog. Exp. Tumor Res., 2: 245.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Kramer, P.J., 1955, “Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology,” Vol. 1, W. Rhuland, ed., Springer, Berlin, Germany.Google Scholar
  93. Kreber, R.A., and Einhellig, F.A., 1972, Effects of tannic acid on Drosophila larval salivary gland cells, J. Insect Physiol., 18: 1089.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Kuc, J., 1966, Resistance of plants to infectious agents, Ann. Rev. Microbiol., 20: 337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Kuhnau, J., 1976, The flavonoids. A class of semi-essential food components: Their role in human nutrition, World Rev. Nutr. Dietet., 24: 117.Google Scholar
  96. Lindgren, E., 1975, The nutritive value of peas and field beans for hens, Swed. J. Agric. Res., 5: 159.Google Scholar
  97. Loub, W.D., Fong, H.H.S., Theiner, M., and Farnsworth, N.R., 1973, Partial characterization of antitumor tannin isolated from Calycogonium squamulosum (Melastomatoceae), J. Pharm. Sci., 62: 149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Luh, B.S., Leonard, S.J., and Patel, D.S., 1960, Pink discoloration in canned Bartlett pears, Food Technol., 14: 53.Google Scholar
  99. Ma, Y., and Bliss, F.A., 1978, Tannin content and inheritance in common bean, Crop Sci., 18: 201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Mabbayad, B.B., and Tipton, K.W., 1975, Tannin concentration and in vitro dry matter disappearance of seeds of bird-resistant sorghum hybrids, Philipp. Agric., 59: 1.Google Scholar
  101. Malan, E., and Roux, D.G., 1975, Flavonoids and tannins of Acacia species, Phytochem., 14: 1835.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Marquardt, R.R., Ward, T., Campbell, L.D., and Cansfield, P.E., 1977, Purification, identification, and characterization of growth inhibitor in faba beans (Vicia faba L. var. Minor), J. Nutr., 107: 1313.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Martin-Tanguy, J., Vermovel, M., Lenoble, M., Martin, C., and Gallet, M., 1976, Sorghum seed tannins. Importance in nutritional nitrogen use in growing rats, Ann. Biol. Anim. Biochim. Biophys., 16: 879.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Martin-Tanguy, J., Guillaume, J., and Kossa, A., 1977, Condensed tannins in horse bean seeds: Chemical structure and apparent effects on poultry, J. Sci. Food Agric., 28: 757.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Maxson, E.D., Clark, L.E., Rooney, L.W., and Johnson, J.W., 1972, Factors affecting the tannin content of sorghum grain as determined by two methods of tannin analysis, Crop Sci., 12: 233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Maxson, E.D., Rooney, L.W., Lewis, R.W., Clark, L.E., and Johnson, J.W., 1973, The relationship between tannin content, enzyme inhibition, rat performance, and characteristics of sorghum grains, Nutr. Rep. Intl., 8: 145.Google Scholar
  107. Mcleod, M.N., 1974, Plant tannins: Their role in forage quality, Nutr. Abs. Rev., 44: 803.Google Scholar
  108. Mcmillan, W.W., Wiseman, R.R., Burns, R.E., Harris, H.B., and Greene, G.L., 1972, Bird resistance in diverse germplasm of sorghum, Agron. J., 64: 821.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Milic, B.L., Stojanovic, S., and Vucurevic, N., 1972, Lucerne tannins. II. Isolation of tannins from lucerne, their nature and influence on the digestive enzymes in vitro, J. Sci. Food Agric., 23: 1157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Mitjavila, S., Mitjavila, M.T., and Derache, R., 1974, Rise in fecal metabolic nitrogen in rats fed diets containing tannic acid, Ann. Nutr. Aliment., 28: 189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Mitjavila, S., Lacombe, C., Carrera, G., and Derache, R., 1977, Tannic acid and oxidized tannic acid on the functional state of rat intestinal epithelium, J. Nutr., 107: 2113.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Morton, J.F., 1970, Tentative correlations of plant usage and esophageal cancer zones, Econ. Bot., 24: 217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Morton, J.F., 1972, Further associations of plant tannins and human cancer, Q.J. Crude Drug Res., 12: 1829.Google Scholar
  114. Muller, C.H., and Chou, C.H., 1972, Phytotoxins: An ecological phase of Phytochemistry, in:“Phytochemical Ecology,” J.B. Harborne, ed., Academic Press, London and New York.Google Scholar
  115. Muller, K.O., and Borger, H., 1940, Arb. Biol. Abt., (Ansl.-Reichsanst), Berlin, Germany, 23: 189.Google Scholar
  116. Neish, A.C., 1960, Biosynthetic pathways of aromatic compounds, Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol., 11: 55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Nelson, T.S., Stephenson, E.L., Burgos, A., Floyd, J., and York, J.O., 1975, Effect of tannin content and dry matter digestion on energy utilization and average amino acid availability on hybrid sorghum grains, Poultry Sci., 54: 1620.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Oler, A., Neal, M.W., and Mitchell, E.K., 1976, Tannic acid: Acute hepatotoxicity following administration by feeding tube, Food Cosmet. Toxicol., 14: 565.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. OSHA, 1978, OSHA issues tentative carcinogen list, C & E.N., 56 (31); 20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Patay, R., Masquelier, J., Danon, G., and Bernard, J.P., 1962, Sur la toxicite Tun tannoide extrait des parties ligneuses de la grappe de raisin, C.R. Cong. Natl. Soc. Savantes, Sect. Sci., 86: 69.Google Scholar
  121. Potter, D.K., Fuller, H.L., and Blockshear, C.D., 1967, Effect of tannic acid on egg production and egg yolk mottling, Poultry Sci., 46: 1307.Google Scholar
  122. Price, M.L., Butler, L.G., Featherston, W.R., and Rogler, J.C., 1978, Detoxification of high tannin sorghum grain, Nutr. Rep. Intl., 17: 229.Google Scholar
  123. Price, M.L., Butler, L.G., Rogler, J.C., and Featherston, W.R., 1979, Overcoming the nutritionally harmful effects of tannin in sorghum grain by treatment with inexpensive chemicals, J. Agric. Food Chem., 27: 441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Price, M.L., and Butler, L.G., 1980, “Tannins and Nutrition,” Purdue Univ. Agric. Exp. Stn. Bull. No. 272, W. Lafayette.Google Scholar
  125. Price, M.L., Hagerman, A.E., and Butler, L.G., 1980, Tannin content of cowpeas, chick peas, pigeon peas, and mung beans, J. Agric. Food Chem., 28: 459.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Pridham, J.B., 1960, “Phenolics in Plants in Health and Disease,” Pergamon Press, New York.Google Scholar
  127. Quinby, J.R., and Martin, J.H., 1954, Sorghum improvement, Adv. Agron., 6: 305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Ramachandra, G., Virupaksha, T.K., and Shadaksharaswamy, M., 1977, Relationship between tannin levels and in vitro protein digestibility in finger millet (Eleucine coracana Gaertn.), J. Agric. Food Chem., 25: 1101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Ramwell, P.W., Sherratt, H.S.A., and Leonard, B.E., 1964, The physiology of phenolic compounds in animals, in:“Biochemistry of Phenolic Compounds,” J.B. Harborne, ed., Academic Press, London and New York.Google Scholar
  130. Reddy, K.J., Chiga, M., Harris, C.C., and Svoboda, D.J., 1970, Polyribosome disaggregation in rat liver following administration of tannic acid, Cancer Res., 30: 58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Reichert, R.D., Youngs, C.G., and Christensen, D.A., 1980, Polyphenols in Pennisetum millet, in:“Polyphenols in Cereals and Legumes,” J.H. Hulse, ed., IDRC, Canada.Google Scholar
  132. Reid, C.S.W., Ulyatt, M.J., and Wilson, J.M., 1974, Plant tannins, bloat, and nutritive value, Proc. New Zealand Soc. Anim. Prod., 34: 82.Google Scholar
  133. Rewerski, W., and Lewak, S., 1967, Einige pharmakologische eigenschaften der aus weissdorn (Crataegus oxyacantha) isolierten flavan-polymeren, Arzneim. Forsch, 17: 490.Google Scholar
  134. Ringrose, R.C., and Morgan, C.L., 1970, The nutritive value of Lespedeza for poultry feeding, S. Carol. Agric. Exp. Sta. Ann. Rept., 53: 91.Google Scholar
  135. Romero, J., and Ryan, D.S., 1978, Susceptibility of the major storage proteins of the bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., to in vitro enzymatic hydrolysis, J. Agric. Food Chem., 26: 784.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Ronnenkamp, R.R., 1977, The effect of tannins on nutritional quality of dry beans. Ph.D. Thesis, Purdue Univ., Lafayette.Google Scholar
  137. Rooney, L.W., Blakely, M.E., Miller, F.R., and Rosenow, D.T., 1980, Factors affecting the polyphenols of sorghum and their development and location in the sorghum kernel, in:“Polyphenols in Cereals and Legumes,” J.H. Hulse, ed., IDRC, Canada.Google Scholar
  138. Roseman, A.S., Livingston, G.E., and Esselen, W.B., 1957, Non-enzymatic discoloration of green bean puree. II. Studies on the thermal discoloration of acetone-extracted tissues, Food Res., 22: 542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Rosenheim, O., 1920, Observations on anthocyanins, I. The anthocyanins of the young leaves of the grape vine, Biochem. J., 14: 178.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Rossi, J.A., Jr., and Singleton, V. L., 1966a, Contribution of grape phenols to oxygen absorption and crowning of wines, Amer. J. Enol. Viticul., 17: 231.Google Scholar
  141. Rossi, J.A., Jr., and Singleton, V. L., 1966b, Flavor effects and adsorptive properties of purified fractions of grape-seed phenols, Amer. J. Enol. Viticul., 17: 240.Google Scholar
  142. Roux, D.G., and Paulus, E., 1961, Condensed tannins. II. Isolation of a condensed tannin from black-wattle heartwood and synthesis of (±)-7: 31: 4T-trihydroxyflavan-4-ol, Biochem. J., 80: 476.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Russell, A.E., Shuttleworth, S.G., and Williams-Wynn, D.A., 1968. Mechanism of vegetable tannage. IV. Residual affinity phenomena on solvent extraction of collagen tanned with vegetable extracts and syntans, J. Soc. Leather Trades Chem., 52: 220.Google Scholar
  144. Saba, W.J., Hale, W.H., and Theurer, B., 1972, In vitro rumen fermentation studies with a bird resistant sorghum grain, J. Anim. Sci., 35: 1076.Google Scholar
  145. Sathe, S.K., and Salunkhe, D.K., 1982, Investigations on winged bean [Psophocarpus tetragonolobus L. DC] proteins and anti-nutritional factors, J. Food Sci., 46: 1389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Schaffert, R.S., Oswalt, D.L., and Axtell, J.A., 1974, Effect of supplemental protein on the nutritive value of high and low tannin Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench grain for the growing rat, J. Anim. Sci., 39: 500.Google Scholar
  147. Schanderl, S.H., 1970, in:“Methods in Food Analysis,” 2nd ed., M.A. Joslyn, ed., Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  148. Schuster, K., and Raab, H., 1961, Polyphenol derivatives of barley and malt and their importance for the preparation of malt and beer, Brauwissenschaft, 14: 306.Google Scholar
  149. Silano, V., 1976, Factors affecting digestibility and availability of proteins in cereals in nutritional evaluation of cereal mutants, Proc. Advisory Group Meeting in Vienna, July 26–30, IAWA, Vienna.Google Scholar
  150. Singleton, V. L., 1981. Naturally occurring food toxicants: Phenolic substances of plant origin common in foods, Adv. Food Res., 27: 149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Singleton, V. L., and Esau, P., 1969, Phenolic substances in grapes and wine, and their significance, Adv. Food Res. Supp., 1: 1.Google Scholar
  152. Singleton, V. L., and Kratzer, F.H., 1969, Toxicity and related physiological activity of phenolic substances of plant origin, J. Agric. Food Chem., 17: 497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Singleton, V. L., and Kratzer, F.H., 1973, Plant phenolics, in:“Toxicants Occurring Naturally in Foods,” National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  154. Stephenson, E.L., York, J.O., and Bragg, D.B., 1968, Comparative feeding values of brown and yellow grain sorghum, Feedstuffs, 40: 112.Google Scholar
  155. Stephenson, E.L., York, J.O., Bragg, D.S., and Ivy, C.A., 1971, The amino acid content and availability of different strains of grain sorghum to the chick, Poultry Sci., 50: 581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Swain, T., 1965, The tannins, in:“Plant Biochemistry,” J. Bonner and E.V. Varner, eds., Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  157. Swain, T., and Hillis, W.E., 1959, Phenolic constituents of Prunus domestical I. Quantitative analysis of phenolic constituents. J. Sci. Food Agric., 10: 63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Tamir, M., and Alumot, E., 1969, Inhibition of digestive enzymes by condensed tannins from green and ripe carobs, J. Sci. Food Agric., 20: 199.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Tamir, M., and Alumot, E., 1970, Carob tannins: growth depression and levels of insoluble nitrogen in the digestive tract of rats, J. Nutr., 100: 573.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Thayer, R.H., Sieglinger, J.B., and Heller, U.G., 1957, Oklahoma grain sorghum for growing chicks, Oklahoma Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull., B-487.Google Scholar
  161. Thompson, R.S., Jacques, D., Haslam, E., and Tanner, R.J.M., 1972, Plant proanthocyanidins, I. Introduction. The isolation, structure, and distribution in nature of plant procyanidins, J. Chem. Soc. PerkinI., 11: 1387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Thrasher, D.M., Icaza, E.A., Ladd, W., Bagley, C.P., and Tipton, K.W., 1975, Bird resistant milo for pigs, Louisiana Agric., 19: 10.Google Scholar
  163. Tipton, K.W., Floyd, E.H., Marshall, J.G., and Mcdevitt, J.B., 1970, Resistance of certain grain sorghum hybrids to bird damage in Louisiana, Agron. J., 62: 211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Van Buren, J., 1970, Fruit phenolics, in:“The Biochemistry of Fruits and Their Products”, 11 Vol. 1, A.C. Hulme, ed., Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  165. Vohra, P., Kratzer, F.H., and Joslyn, M.A., 1966, The growth depressing and toxic effects of tannins to chicks, Poultry Sci., 45: 135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Wah, C.S., Sharma, K., and Jackson, M.G., 1977, Studies on various chemical treatments of Sal seed meal or to remove inactive tannins, Ind. J. Anim. Sci., 47: 8.Google Scholar
  167. Walker, J.R.L., 1975, “The Biology of Plant Phenolics,” Edward Arnold ( Publ.) Limited, London.Google Scholar
  168. Wallace, H.D., Combs, G.E., and Houser, R.H., 1974, Florida grown bird resistant grain sorghum for growing-finishing swine, Fla. Agric. Exp. Sta. Res. Rept. No. AL-1974-11.Google Scholar
  169. Watson, T.G., 1975, Inhibition of microbial fermentation by sorghum grain and malt, J. Appl. Bacteriol., 38: 133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Weinges, K., 1968, Mechanism of the formation and the constitution of flavonoid tannin, J. Polymer Sci., Part C, 16: 3625.Google Scholar
  171. Weinges, K., Bahr, W., Ebert, W., Goritz, K., and Marx, H.D., 1969, Konstitution, entstehung und bedeutung der flavonoid-gerbstoffe, Fortschr Chem. Org. Natrustoffe, 27: 158Google Scholar
  172. White, T., 1957, Tannins - their occurrence and significance, J. Sci. Food Agric., 8: 377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Williams, A.H., 1966, Dihydrochalcones, in:“Comparative Phytochemistry,” T. Swain, ed., Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  174. Williams, R.T., 1959, “Detoxification Mechanisms,” John Wiley and Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  175. Yapar, Z., and Clandinin, D.R., 1972, Effect of tannins in rapeseed meal on its nutritional value for chicks, Poultry Sci., 51: 22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Zombade, S.S., Lodhi, G.N., and Ichhporani, J.S., 1979, The nutritional value of salseed (Shorea robusta) meal for growing chicks, Brit. Poultry Sci., 20: 433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. S. Deshpande
    • 1
  • S. K. Sathe
    • 1
    • 2
  • D. K. Salunkhe
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Food ScienceUniversity of IllinoisUrbanaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Food ScienceUniversity of ArizonaTucsonUSA
  3. 3.Mahatma Phule Agricultural UniversityRahuriIndia

Personalised recommendations