Advertisement

Naturally Occurring Phenolics as Antimutagenic and Anticarcinogenic Agents

  • Hans F. Stich
  • Miriam P. Rosin
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 177)

Abstract

Epidemiological evidence points to an inverse relationship between the consumption of vegetables and the incidence of cancer at various sites (Hirayama, 1979, 1981; Graham et al., 1978; Mettlin et al., 1981). The search for the protective components in these vegetables has focused on B-carotene and vitamin A (e.g., Bjelke, 1975; Shekelle et al., 1981; Cambien et al., 1980; Peto et al., 1981; Doll and Peto, 1981; Marshall et al., 1982) and ascorbic acid (e.g., Haenszel and Correa, 1975; Kolonel et al., 1981). However, the inverse relationship observed between the ingestion of green/yellow vegetables and the incidence of human cancers could conceivably be due to many other plant components. At present, the percentage contribution of vitamins to the cancer-protective activity of vegetables or fruits is unknown. In this paper, we present results suggesting an involvement of naturally occurring phenolics in the prevention of genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. Since the number of phenolics in various plants is staggering and the discussion of their beneficial or toxic effects is beyond the scope of any short review, we have focused on non-flavonoid simple phenolics (C6), phenolic acids (C6-C1), cinnamic acid and related compounds (C6-C3).

Keywords

Gallic Acid Ferulic Acid Caffeic Acid Chlorogenic Acid Cinnamic Acid 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ben-Gurion, R., 1979, Mutagenic and colicine-inducing activity of two antioxidants: pyrogallol and purpurogallin, Mutation Res, 68: 201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bhide, S.V., Shivapurkar, N.M., Gothoskar, S.V., and Ranadive, K.J., 1979, Carcinogenicity of betel quid ingredients: feeding mice with aqueous extracts and the polyphenol fraction of betel nut, Br. J. Cancer, 40: 922.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bilimoria, M.H., 1975, The detection of mutagenic activity of chemicals and tobacco smoke in a bacterial system, Mutation Res, 31: 328.Google Scholar
  4. Bjelke, E., 1975, Dietary vitamin A and human lung cancer, Int. J. Cancer, 15: 561.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bogovski, P., Castegnaro, M., Pignatelli, B., and Walker, E.A., 1972, The inhibiting effect of tannins on the formation of nitrosamines, in: “N-Nitroso Compounds, Analysis and Formation”, P. Bogovski, R. Preussmann and E.A. Walker, eds, IARC Scientific Publications No. 3, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon.Google Scholar
  6. Bollag, W., 1979, Retinoids and cancer, Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol 3: 207.Google Scholar
  7. Boutwell, R.K., 1967, Phenolic compounds as tumor-promoting agents, in: “Phenolic Compounds and Metabolic Regulation”, B.J.Finkle and V.C. Runeckles, eds, Appleton-Century Crofts, New York.Google Scholar
  8. Brocq, P., Stora, C., and Bernheim, L., 1956, De l’emploi de la vitamine A dans le traitement des mastoses, Ann. Endocrinol 17: 193.Google Scholar
  9. Buening, M.K., Chang, R.L., Huang, M-T., Fortner, J.G., Wood, A.W., and Conney, A.H., 1981, Activation and inhibition of benzo- (a)pyrene and aflatoxin Bi metabolism in human liver microsomes by naturally occurring flavonoids, Cancer Res, 41: 67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bussey, H.J.R., DeCosse, J.J., Deschner, E.E., Eyers, A.A., Lesser, M.L., Morson, B.C., Ritchie, S.M., Thomson, J.P.S., and Wadsworth, J., 1982, A randomized trial of ascorbic acid in polyposis coli, Cancer, 50: 1434.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Cambien, F., Ducimetiere, P., and Richard, J., 1980, Total serum cholesterol and cancer mortality in a middle-aged population Am. J. Epidemiol, 112: 388.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Challis, B.C., and Bartlett, C.D., 1975, Possible cocarcinogenic effects of coffee constituents, Nature (Lond.), 254: 532.Google Scholar
  13. Chan, R.I.M., 1982, Inhibitory effect of browning reaction products and phenolic compounds on carcinogen-induced mutagenesis, M.Sc. thesis, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.CGoogle Scholar
  14. Cohen, G., and Heikkila, R.E., 1974, The generation of hydrogen peroxide, superoxide radical, and hydroxyl radical by 6-hydroxydopamine, dialuric acid, and related cytotoxic agents, J. Biol. Chem, 249: 2447.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Cole, P., and MacMahon, B., 1971, Attributable risk percent in case-control studies, Br. J. Prev. Soc. Med, 25: 242.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Committee on Diet, Nutrition and Cancer, 1982, “Diet, Nutrition, and Cancer”, Assembly of Life Sciences, National Research Council, National Academy Press, Washington D.C.Google Scholar
  17. DeCosse, J.J., Adams, M.B., Kuzma, J.F., LoGerfo, P., and Condon, R.E., 1975, Effect of ascorbic acid on rectal polyps of patients with familial polyposis, Surgery, 78: 608.Google Scholar
  18. Doll, R., and Peto, R., 1981, The causes of cancer: quantitative estimates of avoidable risks of cancer in the United States today, J. Natl. Cancer Inst, 66: 1191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Edvard, J.P., and Bollag, W., 1972, Konservative Behandlung der rezidivierenden Harnblasenpapillomatose mit Vitamin-A-SHure, Schweiz. Med. Wschr, 102: 1880.Google Scholar
  20. Eisenbrand, G., Spiegelhalder, B., and Preussmann, R., 1981, Analysis of human biological specimens for nitrosamine contents, in: “Gastrointestinal Cancer: Endogenous Factors”, W.R. Bruce, P. Correa, M. Lipkin, S.R. Tannenbaum and T.D. Wilkins, eds, Banbury Report 7, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.Google Scholar
  21. Freese, E., 1971, Molecular mechanisms of mutation, Jji: “Chemical Mutagens: Principles and Methods for Their Detection”, A. Hollaender, ed., Plenum Publ. Corp., New York.Google Scholar
  22. Fukuhara, Y., Yoshida, D., and Goto, F., 1981, Reduction of mutagenic products in the presence of polyphenols during pyrolysis of protein, Agric. Biol. Chem, 45: 1061.Google Scholar
  23. Garner, R.C., Miller, E.C., and Miller, J.A., 1972, Liver microsomal metabolism of aflatoxin B1 to a reactive derivative toxic to Salmonella typhimurium TA1530, Cancer Res, 32: 2058.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Gilbert, P., Rondelet, J., Poncelet, F., and Mercier, M., 1980, Mutagenicity of p-nitrosophenol, Food Cosmet. Toxicol, 18: 523.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Gocke, E., King, M.-T., Eckhardt, K., and Wild, D., 1981, Mutagenicity of cosmetics ingredients licensed by the European Communities, Mutation Res, 90: 91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Gouveia, J., Hercend, T., Lemaigre, G., Mathe, G., Gros, F., Santelli, G., Homasson, J.P., Angebault, M., Lededente, A., Parrot, R., Gaillard, J.P., Bonniot, J.P., Marsac, J., and Pretet, S., 1982, Degree of bronchial metaplasia in heavy smokers and its regression after treatment with a retinoid, Lancet, 1: 710.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Graham, D.G., Tiffany, S.M., Bell, W.R., Jr, and Gutknecht, W.F., 1978, Autoxidation versus covalent binding of quinones as the mechanism of toxicity of dopamine, 6-hydroxydopamine, and related compounds towards C1300 neuroblastoma cells in vitro, Mo1. Pharmaco1, 14: 644.Google Scholar
  28. Gray, J.I., and Dugan, L.R., 1975, Inhibition of N-nitrosamine formation in model food systems, J. Food Sei, 40: 981.Google Scholar
  29. Groenen, P.J., 1977, A new type of N-nitrosation inhibitor, in: “Proc. 2nd Int. Symp. Nitrite in Meat Products”, B.J. Tinbergen and B. Krol, eds, Pudoc, Wageningen, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  30. Haenszel, W., and Correa, P., 1975, Developments in the epidemiology of stomach cancer over the past decade, Cancer Res, 35: 3452.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Hanham, A.F., 1983, The biological activity of phenolics, Ph.D. thesis, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., Canada (to be conferred).Google Scholar
  32. Hanham, A.F., Dunn, B.P., and Stich, H.F., 1982, Clastogenic activity of caffeic acid and its relationship to hydrogen peroxide generated during autooxidation, Mutation Res., in press.Google Scholar
  33. Hecht, S.S., Carmella, S., Mori, H., and Hoffmann, D., 1981, A study of tobacco carcinogenesis. XX. Role of catechol as a major cocarcinogen in the weakly acidic fraction of smoke condensate, J. Natl. Cancer Inst, 66: 163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Herrmann, K., 1978, Ubersicht über nichtessentielle Inhaltsstoffe der Gemüsearten. III. Möhren, Sellerie, Pastinaken, rote Rüben, Spinat, Salat, Endiven, Treibzichorie, Rhabarber und Artischocken, Z. Lebensm. Unters.-Forsch, 167: 262.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Hirayama, T., 1979, Epidemiological evaluation of the role of naturally occurring carcinogens and modulators of carcinogenesis, in: “Naturally Occurring Carcinogens-Mutagens and Modulators of Carcinogenesis”, E.C. Miller, J.A. Miller, T. Sugimura, S. Takayama and I. Hirono, eds, Jap. Sci. Soc. Press, Tokyo/Univ. Park Press, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  36. Hirayama, T., 1981, A large-scale cohort study on the relationship between diet and selected cancers of digestive organs, in: “Gastrointestinal Cancer: Endogenous Factors”, W.R. Bruce, P. Correa, M. Lipkin, S.R. Tannenbaum and T.D. Wilkins, eds, Banbury Report 7, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.Google Scholar
  37. Hirono, I., Hosaka, S., Uchida, E., Takanashi, H., Haga, M., Sakata, M., Mori, H., Tanaka, T., and Hikino, H., 1980, Safety examination of some edible or medicinal plants and plant constituents, part 3, J. Food Safety, 4: 205.Google Scholar
  38. Ho, J.H.C., Huang, D.P., and Fong, Y.Y., 1978, Salted fish and nasopharyngeal carcinoma in southern China, Lancet, 2: 626.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Howe, G.R., Burch, J.D., Miller, A.B., Cook, G.M., Esteve, J., Morrison, B., Gordon, P., Chambers, L.W., Fodor, G., and Winsor, G.M., 1980, Tobacco use, occupation, coffee, various nutrients, and bladder cancer, J. Natl. Cancer Inst, 64: 701.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Huang, D.P., Saw, D., Teoh, T.B., and Ho, J.H.C., 1978, Carcinoma of the nasal and paranasal regions in rats fed Cantonese salted marine fish, in: “Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: Etiology and Control”, G. de-The and Y. Ito, ed., IARC Scientific Publications No. 20, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon.Google Scholar
  41. Ito, A., Naito, M., Naito, Y., and Watanabe, H., 1982, Induction and characterization of gastro-duodenal lesions in mice given continuous oral administration of hydrogen peroxide, Gann, 73: 315.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Jacobsen, B.K., and Bjelke, E., 1982, Coffee consumption and cancer: a prospective study, in: “Proc. 13th Int. Cancer Congress”, Seattle, WA (AbstractTTGoogle Scholar
  43. Kapadia, G.J., Paul, B.D., Chung, E.B., Ghosh, B., and Pradhan, S.N., 1976, Carcinogenicity of Camellia sinensis (tea) and some tannin-containing folk medicinal herbs administered subcu- taneously in rats, J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 57: 207.Google Scholar
  44. Kapadia, G.J., Rao, G.S., and Morton, J.F., 1983, Herbal tea consumption and esophageal cancer, in: “Carcinogens and Mutagens in the Environment”, Vol. Ill, “Naturally Occurring Compounds: Epidemiology and Distribution”, H.F. Stich, ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, in press.Google Scholar
  45. Kawabata, T., Ohshima, H., Vibu, J., Nakamura, M., Matsui, M., and Hamano, M., 1979, Occurrence, formation and precursors of N-nitroso compounds in Japanese diet, in: “Naturally Occurring Carcinogens-Mutagens and Modulators of Carcinogenesis”, E.C. Miller, J.A. Miller, T. Sugimura, S. Takayama and I. Hirono, eds, Jap. Sci. Soc. Press, Tokyo/Univ. Park Press, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  46. King, M.M., McCoy, P.B., and Russo, I., 1983, Dietary fat influences on the effectiveness of dietary antioxidants as tumor inhibitors, in: “Diet and Cancer: From Basic Research to Policy Implications”, Alan R. Liss, New York, in press.Google Scholar
  47. Koch, H.F., 1978, Biochemical treatment of precancerous oral lesions: the effectiveness of various analogues of retinoic acid, J. max.-fac. Surg, 6: 59.Google Scholar
  48. Kolonel, L.N., Nomura, A.M.Y., Hirohata, T., Hankin, J.H., and Hinds, M.W., 1981, Association of diet and place of birth with stomach cancer incidence in Hawaii Japanese and Caucasians, Am. J. Clin. Nutr, 34: 2478.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Korycka-Dahl, M.B., and Richardson, T., 1978, Activated oxygen species and oxidation of food constituents, Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Techno1, 10: 209.Google Scholar
  50. Kunz, B.A., Hannan, M.A., and Haynes, R.H., 1980, Effect of tumor promoters on ultraviolet light-induced mutation and mitotic recombination in Saooharomyces cerevisiae, Cancer Res, 40: 2323.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Levan, A., and Tjio, J.H., 1948, Induction of chromosome fragmentation by phenols, Hereditas, 34: 453.Google Scholar
  52. Lin, J.-K., Kennan, K.A., Miller, E.C., and Miller, J.A., 1978, Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-dependent formation of 2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxy-aflatoxin B from aflatoxin B by hepatic microsomes, Cancer Res, 38: 2424.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. MacMahon, B., Yen, S., Trichopoulos, D., Warren, K., and Nardi, G., 1981, Coffee and cancer of the pancreas, N. Engl. J. Med, 304: 630.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. MacRae, W.D., and Stich, H.F., 1979, Induction of sister chromatid exchanges in Chinese hamster cells by the reducing agents bisulfite and ascorbic acid, Toxicology, 13: 167.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Marquardt, H., Rufino, F., and Weisburger, J.H., 1977, On the aetiology of gastric cancer: mutagenicity of food extracts after incubation with nitrite, Food Cosmet. Toxicol, 15: 97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Marshall, J., Graham, S., Mettlin, C., Shedd, D., and Swanson, M., 1982, Diet in the epidemiology of oral cancer, Nutr. Cancer, 3: 145.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Mettlin, C., Graham, S., Priore, R., Marshall, J., and Swanson, M., 1981, Diet and cancer of the esophagus, Nutr. Cancer, 2: 143.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Mirvish, S.S., 1981, Inhibition of the formation of carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds by ascorbic acid and other compounds, in: “Cancer 1980: Achievements, Challenges, and Prospects for the 1980?s”, J.H. Burchenal and H.F. Oettgen, eds, Vol. 1, Grune and Stratton, New York.Google Scholar
  59. Mitra, A.B., and Manna, G.K., 1977, Effect of some phenolic compounds on chromosomes of bone marrow cells of mice, Ind. J. Med. Res, 59: 1442.Google Scholar
  60. Mori, H., and Hirono, I., 1977, Effect of coffee on carcinogenicity of cycasin, Br. J. Cancer, 35: 369.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Morimoto, K., and Wolff, S., 1980, Increase of sister-chromatid exchanges and perturbation of cell division kinetics in human lymphocytes by benzene metabolites, Cancer Res, 40: 1189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Mosel, H.-D., and Herrmann, K., 1974, The phenolics of fruits, III. The contents of catechins and hydroxycinnamic acids in pome and stone fruits, Z. Lebensm. Unters.-Forsch, 154: 6.Google Scholar
  63. Neal, G.E., and Colley, P.E., 1978, Some high-performance liquid-chromatographic studies of the metabolism of aflatoxins by rat liver microsomal preparations, Biochem. J, 174: 839.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Newmark, H.L., and Mergens, W.J., 1981, Blocking nitrosamine formation using ascorbic acid and a-tocopherol, in: “Gastrointestinal Cancer: Endogenous Factors”, W.R. Bruce, P. Correa, M. Lipkin, S.R. Tannenbaum and T.D. Wilkins, eds, Banbury Report 7, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.Google Scholar
  65. Ohshima, H., and Bartsch, H., 1981, Quantitative estimation of endogenous nitrosation in humans by monitoring N-nitrosoproline excreted in the urine, Cancer Res, 41: 3658.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Ohshima, H., Bereziat, J-C., and Bartsch, H., 1982, Measurement of endogenous N-nitrosation in rats and humans by monitoring urinary and faecal excretion of N-nitrosamino acids, in: “N-Nitroso Compounds: Occurrence and Biological Effects”, H. Bartsch etal., eds, IARC Scientific Publications No. 41, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon.Google Scholar
  67. Ohta, T., Watanabe, K., Moriya, M., Shirasu, Y., and Kada, T., 1982, Antimutagenic effects of cinnamaldehyde and its structural analogues on mutagenesis in E. coli., Mutation Res., in press.Google Scholar
  68. Okamura, S., and Watanabe, M., 1981, Determination of phenolic cinnamates in white wine and their effect on wine quality, Agric. Biol. Chem, 45: 2063.Google Scholar
  69. Peto, R., Doll, R., Buckley, J.D., and Sporn, M.B., 1981, Can dietary beta-carotene materially reduce human cancer rates? Nature (Lond.), 290: 201.Google Scholar
  70. Pignatelli, B., Castegnaro, M., and Walker, E.A., 1976, Effects of gallic acid and of ethanol on formation of nitrosodiethylamine, in: “Environmental N-Nitroso Compounds, Analysis and Formation”, E.A. Walker, P. Bogovski and L. Griciute, eds, IARC Scientific Publications No. 14, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon.Google Scholar
  71. Ranadive, K.J., Ranadive, S.N., Shivapurkar, N.M., and Gothoskar, S.V., 1979, Betel quid chewing and oral cancer: experimental studies on hamsters, Int. J. Cancer, 24: 835.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Rosin, M.P., 1982, Inhibition of genotoxic activities of complex mixtures by naturally occurring agents, in: “Carcinogens and Mutagens in the Environment”, Vol. I, “Food Products”, H.F. Stich, ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, in press.Google Scholar
  73. Rosin, M.P., and Stich, H.F., 1978a, The inhibitory effect of reducing agents on N-acetoxy- and N-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene-induced mutagenesis, Cancer Res, 38: 1307.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Rosin, M.P., and Stich, H.F., 1978b, The inhibitory effect of cysteine on the mutagenic activities of several carcinogens, Mutation Res, 54: 73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Rosin, M.P., and Stich, H.F., 1979, Assessment of the use of the Salmonella mutagenesis assay to determine the influence of antioxidants on carcinogen-induced mutagenesis, Int. J. Cancer, 23: 722.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Ryssel, H.J., Brunner, K.W., and Bollag, W., 1971, Die perorale Anwerdung von Vitamin A Säure bei Leukoplakien. Hyperkeratosen und Plattenepithelkarzinomen: Ergebnisse und Verträglichkeit, Schweiz. Med. Wschr, 101: 1027.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Schmidtlein, H., and Herrmann, K., 1975a, Uber die Phenolsäuren des Gemüses. I. Hydroxyzimtsäuren und Hydroxybenzoesäuren der Kohlarten und anderer Cruciferen-Blätter, Z. Lebensm. Unters.- Forsch, 159: 139.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Schmidtlein, H., and Herrmann, K., 1975b, Uber die PhenolsHuren des Gemüses. IV. Hydroxyzimtsäuren und Hydroxybenzoesäuren weiterer Gemüsearten und der Kartoffeln, Z. Lebensm. Unters.- Forsch, 159: 255.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Segi, M., 1975, Tea-gruel as a possible factor for cancer of the esophagus, Gann, 66: 199.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Seiler, J.P., 1977, Inhibition of testicular DNA synthesis by chemical mutagens and carcinogens, Mutation Res, 46: 305.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Sen, N.P., and Donaldson, B., 1978, Improved colourimetric method for determining nitrate and nitrite in foods, J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem, 61: 1389.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Shekelle, R.B., Liu, S., Raynor, W.J., Jr, Lepper, M., Maliza, C., and Rossof, A.H., 1981, Dietary vitamin A and risk of cancer in the Western Electric Study, Lancet, 2: 1185.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Shivapurkar, N.M., Ranadive, S.N., Gothoskar, S.V., Bhide, S.V., and Ranadive, K.J., 1980, Tumorigenic effect of aqueous and polyphenolic fractions of betel nut in Swiss strain mice, Ind. J. Exp. Biol, 18: 1159.Google Scholar
  84. Simon, D., Yen, S., and Cole, P., 1975, Coffee drinking and cancer of the lower urinary tract, J. Natl. Cancer Inst, 54: 587.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Speit, G., Vogel, W., and Wolf, M., 1982, Characterization of sister chromatid exchange induction by hydrogen peroxide, Environ. Mutagen, 4: 135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Stich, H.F., and Laishes, B.A., 1975, The response of Xeroderma pigmentosum cells and controls to the activated mycotoxins, aflatoxins and sterigmatocystin, Int. J. Cancer, 16: 266.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Stich, H.F., and Powrie, W.D., 1982, Plant phenolics as genotoxic agents and as modulators for the mutagenicity of other food components, in: “Carcinogens and Mutagens in the Environment”, Vol. I, “Food Products”, H.F. Stich, ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, in press.Google Scholar
  88. Stich, H.F., Wei, L., and Whiting, R.F., 1979, Enhancement of the chromosome-damaging action of ascorbate by transition metals, Cancer Res, 39: 4145.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Stich, H.F., Rosin, M.P., Wu, C.H., and Powrie, W.D., 1981a, The action of transition metals on the genotoxicity of simple phenols, phenolic acids and cinnamic acids, Cancer Lett, 14: 251.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Stich, H.F., Rosin, M.P., Wu, C.H., and Powrie, W.D., 1981b, A comparative genotoxicity study of chlorogenic acid (3-0-caffeoylquinic acid), Mutation Res, 90: 201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Stich, H.F., Rosin, M.P., and Bryson, L., 1982a, Inhibition of mutagenicity of a model nitrosation reaction by naturally occurring phenolics, coffee and tea, Mutation Res, 95: 119.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Stich, H.F., Stich, W., and Parida, B.B., 1982b, Elevated frequency of micronucleated cells in the buccal mucosa of individuals at high risk for oral cancer: betel quid chewers, Cancer Lett., in press.Google Scholar
  93. Stich, H.F., Ohshima, H., Pignatelli, B., Michelon, J., and Bartsch, H., 1983a, Inhibitory effect of betel nut extracts on endogenous nitrosation in man, J. Natl. Cancer Inst., in press.Google Scholar
  94. Stich, H.F., Böhm, B., Chatterjee, K., and Sailo, J., 1983b, The role of saliva-borne mutagens and carcinogens in the etiology of oral and esophageal carcinomas of betel nut and tobacco chewers, in: “Carcinogens and Mutagens in the Environment”, Vol. III, “Naturally Occurring Compounds: Epidemiology and Distribution”, H.F. Stich, ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, in press.Google Scholar
  95. Stocks, P., 1970, Cancer mortality in relation to national consumption of cigarettes, solid fuel, tea and coffee, Br. J. Cancer, 24: 215.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Stöhr, H., and Herrmann, K., 1975, Die phenolischen Inhaltsstoffe des Obstes. VI. Die phenolischen Inhaltsstoffe der Johannisbeeren, Stachelbeeren und Kulturheidelbeeren. Veränderungen der Phenolsäuren und Catechine während Wachstum und Reife von schwarzen Johannisbeeren, Z. Lebensm. Unters.-Forsch, 159: 31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Tressl, R., Bahri, D., Köppler, H., and Jensen, A., 1978, Diphenole und Caramelkomponenten in Röstkaffees verschiedener Sorten. II. Z. Lebensm. Unters.-Forsch, 167: 111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Trichopoulos, D., Papapostolou, M., and Polychronopoulou, A., 1981, Coffee and ovarian cancer, Int. J. Cancer, 28: 691.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Van Duuren, B.L., 1981, Cocarcinogens and tumor promoters and their environmental importance, J. Environ. Pathol. Toxicol, 5: 959.Google Scholar
  100. Van Duuren, B.L., 1982, Cocarcinogens and tumor promoters and their environmental importance, J. Am. Coll. Toxicol, 1: 17.Google Scholar
  101. Van Duuren, B.L., Katz, C., and Goldschmidt, B.M., 1973, Cocarcinogenic agents in tobacco carcinogenesis, J. Natl. Cancer Inst, 51: 703.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Walker, E.A., Pignatelli, B., and Friesen, M., 1982, The role of phenols in catalysis of nitrosamine formation, J. Sei. Food Agric, 33: 81.Google Scholar
  103. Wang, Y.Y., Vuolo, L.L., Spingarn, N.E., and Weisburger, J.H., 1982, Formation of mutagens in cooked foods. V. The mutagen reducing effect of soy protein concentrates and antioxidants during frying of beef, Cancer Lett, 16: 179.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Wattenberg, L.W., 1972, Inhibition of carcinogenic and toxic effects of polyeyelie hydrocarbons by phenolic antioxidants and ethoxyquin, J. Natl. Cancer Inst, 48: 1425.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Wattenberg, L.W., 1973, Inhibition of chemical carcinogen-induced pulmonary neoplasia by butylated hydroxyanisole, J. Natl. Cancer Inst, 50: 1541.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Wattenberg, L.W., 1976, Inhibition of chemical carcinogenesis by antioxidants and some additional compounds, in: “Fundamentals in Cancer Prevention”, P.N. Magee, ed., University Park Press, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  107. Wattenberg, L.W., 1979, Naturally occurring inhibitors of chemical carcinogenesis, in: “Naturally Occurring Carcinogens-Mutagens and Modulators of Carcinogenesis”, E.C. Miller, J.A. Miller, I. Hirono, T. Sugimura and S. Takayama, eds, Jap. Sci. Soc. Press, Tokyo/Univ. Park Press, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  108. Wattenberg, L.W., Coccia, J.B., and Lam, L.K.T., 1980, Inhibitory effects of phenolic compounds on benzo (a) pyrene-induced neoplasia, Cancer Res, 40: 2820.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Wei, L., Whiting, R.F., and Stich, H.F., 1983, The capacity of catecholamines to induce chromosome aberrations in DNA repair synthesis in mammalian cells (unpublished).Google Scholar
  110. Weisburger, J.H., Marquardt, H., Hirota, N., Mori, H., and Williams, G.M., 1980, Induction of cancer of the glandular stomach in rats by an extract of nitrite-treated fish, J. Natl. Cancer Inst, 64: 163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Whiting, R.F., Wei, L., and Stich, H.F., 1981, Chromosome-damaging activity of ferritin and its relation to chelation and reduction of iron, Cancer Res, 41: 1628.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Wong, J.J., and Hsieh, D.P.H., 1976, Mutagenicity of aflatoxins related to their metabolism and carcinogenic potential, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 73: 2241.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Wood, A.W., Huang, M-T., Chang, R.L., Newmark, H.L., Lehr, R.E., Yagi, H., Sayer, J.M., Jerina, D.M., and Conney, A.H., 1982, Inhibition of the mutagenicity of bay-region diol epoxides of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by naturally occurring plant phenols: exceptional activity of ellagic acid, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 79: 5513.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Yamada, K., Murakami, H., Nishiguchi, H., Shirahata, S., Shinohara, K., and Omura, H., 1979, Varying responses of cultured mammalian cell lines to the cellular DNA breaking activity of epinephrine, Agric. Biol. Chem, 43: 901.Google Scholar
  115. Yamaguchi, T., 1981, Mutagenicity of low molecular substances in various superoxide generating systems, Agric. Biol. Chem, 45: 327.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hans F. Stich
    • 1
  • Miriam P. Rosin
    • 1
  1. 1.Environmental Carcinogenesis UnitBritish Columbia Cancer Research CentreVancouverCanada

Personalised recommendations