Cross-Gender Identity in a Broader Context

  • Kurt Freund
Part of the Perspectives in Sexuality book series (PISE)


This chapter is a review of clinical and experimental studies that may suggest questions useful in research on the etiology of cross-gender identity (which is here conceived as an extreme form of masculine gender identity in females or feminine gender identity in males). The first section addresses itself to the typology of cross-gender identity and demonstrates that there are two main types, one occurring in homosexual, the other in heterosexual (or just nonhomosexual) persons. Next, the relationships among androphilia (an erotic preference for physically mature males), homosexual-type cross-gender identity, and feminine gender identity (in males) in general are explored. The second section investigates the feasibility of physiological hypotheses of homosexual cross-gender identity and discusses, in this context, relevant work on the development of gender identity in intersexes. The third section explores the relevance of animal studies to the problem of gender identity.


Sexual Behavior Gender Identity Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Testosterone Propionate Male Sexual Behavior 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kurt Freund
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Behavioural SexologyClarke Institute of PsychiatryTorontoCanada

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