The Management of Patients with Gender Disorders

  • Betty W. Steiner
Part of the Perspectives in Sexuality book series (PISE)

Abstract

Today’s public media is responsible for giving the lay person considerable information regarding transsexualism and other disorders of gender identity. This is particularly true of the more sensational aspects of the syndrome, especially the surgical procedures that, in the eyes of the general public, dramatically transform an individual from one sex to the other. Yet this increased information, and at times, misinformation, has made the diagnosis of transsexualism more difficult for the practicing physician.

Keywords

Hepatitis Depression Estrogen Osteoporosis Cortisol 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aakvaag, A. S., & Vogt, J. H. Plasma testosterone values in different forms of testosterone treatment. Acta Endocrinol, 50:537–542, 1969.Google Scholar
  2. Abel, G. What to do when nontranssexuals seek sex reassignment surgery. JSex Marital Ther, 5:374–376, 1979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd ed. Washington, D.C.; American Psychiatric Association. 1980.Google Scholar
  4. Baker, H. Transsexualism—problems in treatment. Am J Psychiatry, 125:1412–1417, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Badow, D. H., Abel, G. G., & Blanchard, E. B. Gender identity change in a transsexual: An exorcism. Arch Sex Behav, 6:387–395, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barlow, D. H., Reynolds, E. J., & Agras, S. Gender identity change in a transsexual. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 28:569–576, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Benjamin, H. The Transsexual Phenomenon. New York: Julian Press, 1966.Google Scholar
  8. Bernstein, S. M., Steiner, B. W., Glaister, J. T. D., and Muir, G. F. Changes in patients with gender-identity problems after parental death. Am J Psychiatry, 138:41–45, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Blank, R. J. The partial transsexual. Am J. Psychother, 35:107–117, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Brown, G., Zajac, A. S., & Steiner, B. W. Solid phase human luteinizing hormone (H.L.H.) and radio immunoassay (R.I.A.) findings in intact and castrated transsexuals. Clin Res, 19:4, 1971.Google Scholar
  11. Dushoff, I. M. Economic, psychologic and social rehabilitation of male and female transsexuals. In D. R. Laub & P. Candy (Eds.): Proc of the Second Interdisciplinary Symp on Cender Dysphoria Syndrome. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press, 1973.Google Scholar
  12. Fisk, N. M. Gender dysphoria syndrome. In D. Laub & P. Candy (Eds.): Proc of the Second Interdisciplinary Symp on Cender Dysphoria Syndrome. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press, 1973.Google Scholar
  13. Freund, K., Nagler, E., Langevin, R., & Steiner, B. W. Measuring feminine gender identity in homosexual males. Arch Sex Behav, 3:249–260, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Green, R., & Money, J. (Eds.). Transsexualism and Sex Reassignment. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1969.Google Scholar
  15. Hastings, D. Inauguration of a research project on transsexualism in a university medical center. In R. Green & J. Money (Eds.).Transsexualism and Sex Reassignment. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1969.Google Scholar
  16. Hoenig, J. The legal position of the transsexual: Mostly unsatisfactory outside of Sweden. Can Med Assoc J, 116:319–323, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Hoenig, J., Kenna, J. C., & Youd, A. A follow-up study of transsexualists: Social and economic aspects. Psychiatr Clin, 3: 85–100, 1970. (a)Google Scholar
  18. Hoenig, J., Kenna, J., & Youd, A. Social and economic aspects of transsexualism.Br J Psychiatry, 117: 163–172, 1970. (b)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Hoenig, J., Kenna, J. C., & Youd, A. Surgical treatment for transsexualism. Acta Psychiatr Scand, 47:106–133, 1971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kirkpatrick, M., & Friedmann, C. T. E. Treatment of requests for sex-change surgery with psychotherapy. Am J Psychiatry, 133:1194–1196, 1970.Google Scholar
  21. Lowy, F. H., & Kolivakis, T. L. Autocastration by a male transsexual. Can Psychiatr Assoc J, 16:399–405, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Lundström, B. Gender dysphoria. A social-psychiatric follow-up of 31 cases not accepted for sex reassignment. Reports from the Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, St. Jörgen’s Hospital, University of Göteborg, Sweden, 1981.Google Scholar
  23. Markland, C. Transsexual surgery. In R. M. Wynn (Ed.): Obstetrics and Gynecology Annual, New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1975.Google Scholar
  24. Meerloo, J. A. M. Change of sex and collaboration with psychosis. Am J Psychiatry, 124:167–168, 1967.Google Scholar
  25. Meyer, W. J., Walker, P. A., & Suplee, Z. R. A survey of transsexual hormonal treatment in twenty gender-treatment centers. J Sex Res, 17:344–349, 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Money, J. Sex reassignment as related to hermaphroditism and transsexualism. In R. Green & J. Money (Eds.): Transsexualism and Sex Reassignment. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Press, 1969.Google Scholar
  27. Morgan, A. J. Psychotherapy for transsexual candidates screened out of surgery. Arch Sex Behav, 7: 273–283, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Newman, L. E. Transsexualism in adolescense. Problems in evaluation and treatment. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 23:112–121, 1970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Newman, L. E., & Stoller, R. M. Nontranssexual men who seek sex reassignment. Am J Psychiatry, 131:437–441, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Noe, J. M., Sato, R., Coleman, C., & Laub, D. R. Construction of male genitalia: The Stanford experience. Arch Sex Behav, 7:297–303, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Open Forum Arch Sex Behav, 7:387–415, 1978.Google Scholar
  32. Randell, J. Indications for sex reassignment surgery. Arch Sex Behav, 1:153–161, 1971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Shtasel, T. F. Behavioral treatment of transsexualism: A case report. J Sex Marital Ther, 5:362–367, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Steiner, B. W., Satterberg, J. A., & Muir, C. F. Flight into femininity. The male menopause? Can Psychiatr Assoc J, 23:405–410, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Steiner, B. W., Zajac, A., & Möhr, J. W. A gender identity project. The organization of a multidisciplinary study. Can Psychiatr Assoc J, 19:7–11, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Stoller, R. M. Sex and Gender: On The Development of Masculinity and Femininity. New York: Science House, 1968.Google Scholar
  37. Van Putten, T. & Fawzy, F. I. Sex conversion surgery in a man with severe gender dysphoria. A tragic outcome. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 33:751–753, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Walker, P. A., Berger, J. C., Green, R., Laub, D. R., Reynolds, C. L., & Wollman, L. Standards of Care. The Hormonal and Surgical Sex Reassignment of Gender Dysphoric Persons. The Janus Facility, 1979.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Betty W. Steiner
    • 1
  1. 1.Clarke Institute of PsychiatryGender Identity ClinicTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations