Throughout the ages, there have been men who wished to be women and women who wished to be men. There are many fascinating examples of such persons in history and in literature if one is sufficiently interested to search for them (Bullough, 1975, 1976; Green, 1974; Karlen, 1971; Steiner, 1981; Weinrich, 1976). Individuals with cross-gender wishes and cross-gender behavior have existed in every major culture in the world, knowing no boundaries of race, creed, or color. Thus, historical study reveals that transsexualism and related disorders of gender identity are not conditions peculiar to modern times.
KeywordsGender Identity Gender Dysphoria Diagnostic Label Gender Identity Disorder Bull Johns Hopkins Hosp
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd ed. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association, 1980.Google Scholar
- Benjamin H. The Transsexual Phenomenon. New York: Julian Press, 1966.Google Scholar
- Buhrich, N., & McConaghy, N. Three clinically discrete categories of fetishistic transvestism. Arch SexBehav, 8:151–157, 1979.Google Scholar
- Bullough, V. L. Sexual Variance in Society and History. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1976.Google Scholar
- Ellis, A. The sexual psychology of human hermaphrodites. Psychosom Med, 7:108–125, 1945.Google Scholar
- Fisk, N. Gender dysphoria syndrome. In D. Laub & P. Gandy, (Eds.): Proceedings of the Second Interdisciplinary Symposium on Gender Dysphoria Syndrome. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press, 1973.Google Scholar
- Green, R. Sexual Identity Conflict in Children and Adults. New York: Basic Books, 1974.Google Scholar
- Green, R., & Money, J. Transsexualism and Sex Reassignment. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1969.Google Scholar
- Karlen, A. Sexuality and Homosexuality. New York: Norton, 1971.Google Scholar
- Stoller, R. J. Sex and Gender. New York: Science House, 1968.Google Scholar
- Weinrich, J. D. Human reproductive strategy. I. Environmental predictability and reproductive strategy; effects of social class and race. II. Homosexuality and nonreproduction: Some evolutionary models. Doctoral dissertation. Jj, Harvard University, 1976.Google Scholar