• Carl L. Keen
  • Bo Lönnerdal
  • Lucille S. Hurley
Part of the Biochemistry of the Elements book series (BOTE, volume 3)


Manganese, although widely distributed in the biosphere, occurs in only trace amounts in animal tissues, in which concentrations of 2–4 μg/g (<0.06 μM) are considered high. Despite these low concentrations, manganese is essential for several biological functions, but its precise biochemical roles have not been delineated. Although manganese has long been known to be a constituent of animal tissues (Bertrand and Medigreceanu, 1913), it was first shown to be required by animals when Kemmerer and coworkers (1931) and Orent and McCollum (1931) demonstrated poor growth in mice and abnormal reproduction in rats fed diets devoid of the element. Today it is known that manganese deficiency results in a wide variety of structural physiological defects. Alternatively, an excess of the element can also result in severe pathologies, particularly of the central nervous system. In this chapter, current knowledge of the biochemistry of manganese is reviewed; where possible, studies are emphasized in which the biochemistry of manganese has been studied in relation to the intact animal.


Human Milk Pyruvate Carboxylase Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase Manganese Level 


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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carl L. Keen
    • 1
  • Bo Lönnerdal
    • 1
  • Lucille S. Hurley
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of NutritionUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA

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