Lysozyme — An Inducible Protective Agent in Invertebrate Serum

  • Robert S. Anderson
Part of the Comparative Pathobiology book series (CPATH, volume 6)


Naturally occurring and inducible antimicrobial factors have been described in the sera of many invertebrates. The protective role of these substances in controlling infection has been documented in several instances. However, the exact identity of these substances in many cases is obscure; apparently some are not even proteins. One of the better known bactericidal agents of invertebrate hemolymph is lysozyme, which exists as a family of related enzymes found in representatives of the major taxonomic groups of plants and animals. Although lysozyme is itself bacteriolytic, it is probably that it also functions in concert with other immunlo-gical effector molecules.


Alveolar Macrophage Chronic Granulomatous Disease Lysozyme Activity Lysozyme Concentration Galleria Mellonella 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Anderson, R. S. and Cook, M. L. (1979). Induction of lysozymelike activity in the hemolymph and hemocytes of an insect, Spodop-tera eridania. J. Invertebr. Pathol., 33, 197–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson, R. S., Day, N. K. B., and Good, R. A. (1972). Specific hemagglutinin and a modulator of complement in cockroach hemolymph. Infect. Immun., 5, 55–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson, R. S., Holmes, B., and Good, R. A. (1973). Comparative biochemistry of phagocytizing insect hemocytes. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 46B, 595–603.Google Scholar
  4. Aston, W. P., Chadwick, J. S., and Henderson, M. J. (1976). Effect of cobra venom factor on the in vivoimmune response in Galleria mellonella to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J. Invertebr. Pathol., 27, 171–176.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Biggar, W. D. and Sturgess, J. M. (1976). Peroxidase activity of alveolar macrophages. Lab. Invest., 34, 31–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Biggar, W. D. and Sturgess, J. M. (1977). Role of lysozyme in microbial activity of rat alveolar macrophages. Infect. Immun., 16, 974–982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Biggar, W. D., Buron, S. and Holmes, B. (1976). Bactericidal mechanisms in rabbit alveolar macrophages: evidence against peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide bactericidal mechanisms. Infect. Immun., 14, 6–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Boman, H. G., Nilsson-Faye, I., Kerstin, P. and Rasmuson, T., Jr. (1974). Insect Immunity. I. Characteristics of an inducible cell-free antibacterial reaction in hemolymph of Samia cynthiapupae. Infect. Immun., 10, 136–145.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Cagen, R. H. and Karnovsky, M. L. (1964). Enzymatic basis of the respiratory stimulation during phagocytosis. Nature, 204, 255–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chadwick, J. S. (1970). Relation of lysozyme concentration to acquired immunity against Pseudomonas aeruginosain Galleria mellonella. J. Invertebr. Pathol., 15, 455–456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cheng, T. C. (1976). Aspects of substrate utilization and energy requirement during molluscan phagocytosis. J. Invertebr. Pathol., 27, 263–268.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Cheng, T. C. and Rodrick, G. E. (1974). Identification and characterization of lysozyme from the hemolymph of the soft-shelled clam, Mya arenaria. Biol. Bull., 147, 311–320.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Cheng, T. C, Rodrick, G. E., Foley, D. A. and Koehler, S. A. (1975). Release of lysozyme from hemolymph cells of Mercenaria mercenaria during phagocytosis. J. Invertebr. Pathol., 25, 261–265.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Cheng, T. C., Chorney, M. J. and Yoshino, T. P. (1977). Lysozyme-like activity in the hemolymph of Biomphalaria glabratachallenged with bacteria. J. Invertebr. Pathol., 29, 170–174.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Currie, G. A. and Eccles, S. A. (1976). Serum lysozyme as a marker of host resistance. I. Production by macrophages resident in rat sarcomata. Br. J. Cancer, 33, 51–59.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Day, N. K. B., Gewurz, H., Johannsen, R., Finstad, J. and Good, R. A. (1970). Complement and complement-like activity in lower invertebrates and invertebrates. J. Exp. Med., 132, 941–950.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Eccles, S. A. and Alexander, P. (1974). Macrophage content of tumors in relation to metastatic spread and host immune reaction. Nature, 250, 667–669.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Evans, R. (1972). Macrophages in syngeneic animal tumors. Transplantation, 14, 468–473.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Faye, I., Pye, A., Rasmuson, T., Boman, H. G. and Boman, I. A. (1975). Insect Immunity. II. Simultaneous induction of antibacterial ativity and selective synthesis of some hemolymph proteins in diapausing pupae of Hyalophora cecropia and Samia cynthia. Infect. Immun., 12, 1426–1438.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Feng, S. Y. (1974). Lysozymelike activities in the hemolymph of Crassostrea virginica. Contemp. Top. Immunobiol., 4, 225–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Feng, S. Y. and Canzonier, W. J. (1970). Humoral responses in the American oyster (Crassostrea virginica) infected with Bucephalussp. and Minchinia nelsoni. In: “A Symposium on Diseases of Fishes and Shellfishes.” (S.F. Snieszko, ed.). pp. 497-510. Am. Fisher. Soc, Spec. Publ. No. 5, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  22. Gordon, S., Todd, J. and Cohn, Z. A. (1974). In vitro synthesis and secretion of lysozyme by mononuclear phagocytes. J. Exp. Med., 139, 1228–1247.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Heise, E. R. and Myrvik, Q. N. (1967). Secretion of lysozyme by-rabbit alveolar macrophages in vitro. J. Reticuloendothel. Soc., 4, 510–523.Google Scholar
  24. Holmes, B., Page, A. R. and Good, R. A. (1967). Studies of the metabolic activities of leukocytes from patients with a genetic abnormality of phagocytic function. J. Clin. Invest., 46, 1422–1431.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Jolles, P. (1967). Relationship between chemical structure and biological activity of hen egg-white lysozyme and lysozymes of different species. Proc. Roy. Soc. B., 167, 350–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Jolles, J. and Jolles, P. (1975). The lysozyme from Asterias rubens. Eur. J. Biochem., 54, 19–23.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Kamp, H. (1968). Untersuchungen zur humoralen Immunitat bei Pyr-rhocoris apterus L. and Galleria mellonella F. Z. Vergl. Physiol., 58, 441–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Karnovsky, M. L. (1973). Chronic granulomatous disease: pieces of a cellular and molecular puzzle. Fed. Proc., 32, 1527–1533.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Kokoshis, P. L., Williams, D. L., Cook, J. A. and DiLuzio, N. R. (1978). Increased resistance to Staphylococcus aureusinfection and enhancement in serum lysozyme activity by glucan. Science, 199, 1340–1342.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Malke, H. (1965). Über das Vorkommen von Lysozym in Insekten. Z. f. Allg. Mikrobiol., 5, 42–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. McClelland, D. B. L. and van Furth, R. (1975). In vitro synthesis of lysozyme by human and mouse tissues and leukocytes. Immunology, 28, 1099–1114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. McDade, J. E. and Tripp, M. R. (1967a). Lysozyme in the hemolymph of the oyster, Crassostrea virginica. J. Invertebr. Pathol., 9, 531–535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. McDade, J. E. and Tripp, M. R. (1967b). Lysozyme in oyster mantle mucus. J. Invertebr. Pathol., 9, 581–582.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Messner, B. (1965). Das lysozymvorkommen in Beziehung zur unspeci-fischen Immunitat der Insektan. D. Zool. Gesellschaft Verhandlungen., 511-521.Google Scholar
  35. Messner, B. and Mohrig, W. (1969). Zum Lysozym-Vorkommen bei Muschln, Anodonta anatina (L.). Zool. Jahrb. Physiol., 74, 427–435.Google Scholar
  36. Mohrig, W. and Messner, B. (1968). Immunreaktionen bei Insekten. I. Lysozym als grundlegender antibakterieller Faktor im humoralen Abwehrmechanismus der Insekten. Biol. Zentralbl., 87, 439–470.Google Scholar
  37. Myrvik, Q. N., Leake, E. S. and Fariss, B. (1961). Lysozyme content of alveolar and peritoneal macrophages from the rabbit. J. Immunol., 86, 133–136.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Osserman, E. F. and Lawlor, D. P. (1966). Serum and urinary lysozyme (muramidase) in monocytic and monomyelocytic leukaemia. J. Exp. Med., 124, 921–952.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Perin, J. P. and Jolles, P. (1972). The lysozyme from Nephthys hombergi (Annelid). Biochim. Biophys. Acta., 263, 683–689.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Powning, R. F. and Davidson, W. J. (1973). Studies on insect bacteriolytic enzymes. I. Lysozyme in haemolymph of Galleria mellonella and Bombyx mori. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 45B, 669–686.Google Scholar
  41. Powning, R. F. and Davidson, W. J. (1976). Studies on insect bacteriolytic enzymes. II. Some physical and enzymatic properties of lysozyme from haemolymph of Galleria mellonella. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 55B, 221–228.Google Scholar
  42. Rodrick, G. E. and Cheng, T. C. (1974). Kinetic properties of lysozyme from the hemolymph of Crassostrea virginica. J. Invertebr. Pathol., 24, 41–48.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Schubert, I. and Messner, B. (1971). Untersuchungen uber das Vorkommen von Lysozym bei Anneliden. Zool. Jahrb. Physiol., 76, 36–50.Google Scholar
  44. Thacore, H. and Willet, H. P. (1966). The formation of spheroplasts of Mycobacterium tuberculosisin tissue culture cells. Am. Rev. Resp. Dis., 93, 786–796.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Wolles, W. R. and DiLuzio, N. R. (1963). Reticuloendothelial function and the immune response. Science, 142, 1078–1080.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert S. Anderson
    • 1
  1. 1.Ecology Section, DRDAR-CLB-TAChemical Systems LaboratoryUSA

Personalised recommendations