Some Effects of Proportions on Group Life

Skewed Sex Ratios and Responses to Token Women
  • Rosabeth Moss Kanter


In his classic analysis of the significance of numbers in social life, Georg Simmel (1950) argued persuasively that numerical modifications effect qualitative transformations in group interaction. Simmel dealt almost exclusively with the impact of absolute numbers, however, with group size as a determinant of form and process. The matter of relative numbers, of proportion of interacting social types, was left unexamined. But this feature of collectivities has an impact on behavior. Its neglect has sometimes led to inappropriate or misleading conclusions.


Token Status Sales Force Male Peer Master Status Social Type 


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Copyright information

© The University of Chicago Press 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rosabeth Moss Kanter

There are no affiliations available

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