Teaching Value Clarification

The Example of Gender and Psychotherapy
  • Patricia Perri Rieker
  • Elaine (Hilberman) Carmen


Teaching residents in psychiatry to be aware of sexist attitudes in psychiatric theory, training, and practice is difficult for both the instructors and the trainees. When residents are confronted with the extent to which sex-role socialization has shaped not only their own values but also the values and behaviors of their mentors, patients, and intimates, they respond with intense anxiety. The instructors, as the messengers who bring the “bad” news, become the objects of their hostility and frustration. Thus, an important aspect of the instructor role is the ability to remain empathic (and nonviolent) when confronted with the most creative forms of resistance to learning. Until recently, there has been little reinforcement for residents to explore gender attitudes and few rewards for instructors’ efforts to teach in this affect-laden and value-conflicted area.1 In this paper we describe an effective model for teaching and evaluating a one-semester course on gender and psychotherapy, in which a central feature is team teaching by a psychiatrist and a sociologist.


Sexist Attitude Male Resident Female Resident Psychotherapy Supervision Sexual Inequality 
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Copyright information

© American Psychiatric Association 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Patricia Perri Rieker
  • Elaine (Hilberman) Carmen

There are no affiliations available

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