Modulatory Interactions between the Central Nervous System and the Immune System
The immune system is comprised of varied cell types with diverse characteristics and functions, but which ultimately contribute to the maintenance of host defense. Within the central and peripheral immunological tissues are numerous mechanisms by which immunogenesis and active immunity are regulated. These include direct contact between cells as well as the elaboration of biologically active products. Most of these products have been characterized based on their biological function. Hence, T-cell growth factor, migration inhibitory factor, colony-stimulating factor, as well as a host of others, constitute a long list of growth-promoting or -regulating agents. Thymosin peptides, first isolated from extracted thymic tissue, also play an important immunoregulatory role during the course of T-cell differentiation. These as well as other functions of lymphokines and thymosins are discussed at greater length elsewhere in this volume. However, in addition to the lymphokines and thymic factors which were originally detected and defined during the course of investigations of immune function, hormones that were classically defined within the context of a nonimmunological function can also influence host defense.
KeywordsMigration Inhibitory Factor Intracerebral Injection Adrenal Weight ACTH Release Ventromedial Nucleus
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Ader, R., and Cohen, N., 1974, Behaviorally conditioned immunosuppression, Psychosom. Med. 37:333–340.Google Scholar
- Ahlqvist, J., 1976, Endocrine influences on lymphatic organs, immune response, inflammation and immunity, Acta Endocrinol. (Copenhagen) 83(Suppl. 206): 1–136.Google Scholar
- Dumonde, D. C., Pulley, M. S., Hamblin, A. S., Singh, A. K., Southcott, B. M., O’Connell, D., Paradinas, F. J., Robinson, M. R. G., Rigby, C. C., den Hollander, F., Schuurs, A., Verheul, H., and van Vliet, E., 1982, Short term and long-term administration of lymphoblastoid cell line lymphokine (LCL-LK) to patients with advanced cancers, in: Lymphokines and Thymic Hormones: Their Potential Utilization in Cancer Therapeutics (A. L. Goldstein and M. A. Chirigos, eds.), pp. 301–318, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
- Hall, N. R., and Goldstein, A. L., 1984, Endocrine regulation of host immunity: The role of steroids and thymosins, in: Immunomodulating Agents: Properties and Mechanisms (R. L. Fenichel and M. A. Chirigos, eds.), Dekker, New York (in press).Google Scholar
- Hall, N. R., McGillis, J. P., Spangelo, B., Palaszynski, E., Moody, T., and Goldstein, A. L., 1982, Evidence for a neuroendocrine-thymus axis mediated by thymosin polypeptide, in: Current Concepts in Human Immunology and Cancer Immunomodulation (B. Serrou, C. Rosenfeld, J. C. Daniels, and J. P. Saunders, eds.), pp. 653–660, Elsevier/North-Holland, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
- Hall, N. R., McGillis, J. P., and Goldstein, A. L., 1984, Activation of neuroendocrine pathways by thymosin peptides, in: Stress, Immunity and Aging (E. L. Cooper, ed.), Dekker, New York (in press).Google Scholar
- McGillis, J. P., Feith, T., Kyeyune-Nyombi, E., Vahouny, G. V., Hall, N. R., and Goldstein, A. L., 1982, Evidence for an interaction between thymosin peptides and the pituitary adrenal axis, Fed. Proc. 41:4918.Google Scholar
- Maclean, D., and Reichlin, S., 1981, Neuroendocrinology and the immune process, in: Psychoneu-roimmunology (R. Ader, ed.), pp. 475–520, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
- Monjan, A., 1981, Stress and immunologic competence: Studies in animals, in: Psychoneuroimmunology (R. Ader, ed.), pp. 65–90, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
- Nicol, T., and Bilbey, D. L. J., 1960, The effect of various steroids on the phagocytic activity of the reticuloendothelial system, in: Reticuloendothelial Structure and Function (J. H. Heller, ed.), pp. 301–320, Ronald Press, New York.Google Scholar
- Thompson, J. S., Crawford, M. D., Reilly, R. W., and Severson, C. D., 1969, The effect of estrogenic hormones on immune responses in normal and irradiated mice, J. Immunol. 98:331–335.Google Scholar