Advertisement

Thymosin β4 Is Present in a Subset of Oligodendrocytes in the Normal Human Brain

  • Marinos C. Dalakas
  • Raymond Hubbard
  • Guy Cunningham
  • Bruce Trapp
  • John L. Sever
  • Allan L. Goldstein
Part of the GWUMC Department of Biochemistry Annual Spring Symposia book series (GWUN)

Abstract

Thymosin β4, a polypeptide extracted from the original thymosin fraction 5 (Hopper et al., 1975), has been characterized, sequenced, and synthesized (Low and Goldstein, 1981, 1982). Thymosin β4 affects the early stages of T-cell differentiation, has a MIF-like activity (Low and Goldstein, 1981), and may play a role in cellular immune mechanisms (Hannappel et al., 1982). It has been found in a variety of rat and mouse tissue extracts including spleen, thymus, brain, liver, and peritoneal macrophages (Hannappel et al., 1982), but its cellular distribution and presence in human tissues are unknown.

Keywords

Peritoneal Macrophage Thymic Epithelial Cell Human Thymus Thymic Hormone Interdigitating Reticular Cell 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Dalakas, M. C., Engel, W. K., McClure, J. E., Goldstein, A. L., and Askanas, V., 1981a, Immu-nocytochemical localization of thymosin α1 in thymic epithelial cells of normal and myasthenia gravis patients and in thymic cultures, J. Neurol. Sci. 50:239–247.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Dalakas, M. C., Engel, W. K., McClure, J. E., Goldstein, A. L., and Askanas, V., 1981b, Identification of human thymic epithelial cells with antibodies to thymosin a1 in myasthenia gravis, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 377:477–485.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Hannappel, E., Xu, G.-j, Morgan, J., Hempstead, J., and Horecker, B., 1982, Thymosin β4: An ubiquitous peptide in rat and mouse tissues, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79:2172–2175.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Hooper, J. A., McDaniel, M. C., Thurman, G. B., Cohen, G. H., Schulof, R. S., and Goldstein, A. L., 1975, Purification and properties of bovine thymosin, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 249:125–144.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Janossy, G., Tidman, N., Selby, W. S., Thomas, J. A., Granger, S., Kung, P. G., and Goldstein, G., 1980, Human T lymphocytes of inducer and suppressor type occupy different microenvironments, Nature (London) 288:81–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Kaiserling, E., Stein, H., and Müller-Hermelink, H. K., 1974, Interdigitating reticulum cells in the human thymus, Cell Tissue Res. 155:47–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Katz, S. I., Tomaki, K., and Sachs, D. H., 1979, Epidermal Langerhans cells are derived from cells originating in bone marrow, Nature (London) 282:324–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Lambert, I. A., Pizzolo, G., Thomas, A., and Janossy, G., 1980, Immunocytochemical characterization of cells involved in dermatopathic lymphadenopathy, J. Pathol. 131:145–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Low, T. L. K., and Goldstein, A. L., 1981, Complete amino acid sequence of bovine thymosin β4:A thymic hormone that induces terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase activity in thymocyte populations, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78:1162–1166.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Low, T. L. K., and Goldstein, A. L., 1982, Chemical characterization of thymosin β4, J. Biol. Chem. 257:1000–1006.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. McClure, J. E., Lameris, N., Wara, D. W., and Goldstein, A. L., 1982, Immunochemical studies of thymosin: Radioimmunoassay of thymosin α1, J. Immunol. 128:368–375.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Müller-Hermelink, H. K., 1974, Characterization of the B-cell and T-cell regions of human lymphatic tissue through enzyme histochemical demonstration of ATPase and 5’-nucleotidase activities, Virchows Arch.B 16:371–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Natali, P. G., DeMartino, C., Quaranta, V., Nicotia, M. R., Frezza, F., Pellegrinno, M. A., and Ferrane, S., 1981, Expression of la-like antigens in normal human nonlymphoid tissues, Trans plantation 31:75.Google Scholar
  14. Naylor, P. H., McClure, J. E., Spangelo, B. L., Low, T. L. K., and Goldstein, A. L., 1983, Immunochemical studies on thymosin: Radioimmunoassay of thymosin β4, Immunopharmacology (in press).Google Scholar
  15. Nixon, D. F., Ting, J. P. Y., and Frelinger, A., 1982, la antigens on non-lymphoid tissues: Their origins and functions, Immunology Today 3:339–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Prineas, J. W., and Graham, B. A., 1981, Multiple sclerosis: Capping of surface immunoglobulin G on macrophages engaged in myelin breakdown, Ann. Neurol. 10:149–158.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Rumsby, M. G., 1979, Oligodendrocyte-myelin sheath interrelationships, in: Search for the Cause of Multiple Sclerosis and Other Chronic Diseases of the CNS (A. Boese, ed.), First National Symposium of Hertie Foundation, Frankfurt/Main, pp. 49–63.Google Scholar
  18. Shelly, W. B., and Juhlin, L., 1976, Langerhans cells form a reticulo-epithelial trap for external contact antigens, Nature (London) 461:46–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Sternberger, L. A., 1979, Immunocytochemistry, 2nd ed., Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  20. Sternberger, N. H., Itoyama, Y., Kies, M. W., and Webster, H. deF., 1978, Immunocytochemical method to identify basic protein in myelin-forming oligodendrocytes of newborn rat CNS, J. Neurocytol. 7:251–263.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Unanue, E. R., 1980, Cooperation between mononuclear phagocytes and lymphocytes in immunity, N. Engl. J. Med. 303:977–985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marinos C. Dalakas
    • 1
  • Raymond Hubbard
    • 1
  • Guy Cunningham
    • 1
  • Bruce Trapp
    • 1
  • John L. Sever
    • 1
  • Allan L. Goldstein
    • 2
  1. 1.National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and StrokeNational Institutes of HealthBethesdaUSA
  2. 2.Department of BiochemistryThe George Washington University School of Medicine and Health SciencesBethesdaUSA

Personalised recommendations