Specific Psychopharmacological Approaches and Rationale for Mentally Ill-Mentally Retarded Children

  • John Y. Donaldson


More than 20 years after their introduction, the use of psychotropic medications for psychotic children, particularly retarded children, remains somewhat controversial. Several factors appear to contribute to this controversy. These include a tendency toward unpredictability in response that is an especial problem in children with organic dysfunction; examples of abuses of these medications, particularly through excessive use; and the inherent, but often poorly understood, limitations of any pharmacological intervention.


Psychotropic Medication Tardive Dyskinesia Stereotypical Behavior Extrapyramidal Side Effect Retarded Child 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, ed 3. Washington, D.C., Author, 1980.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Satterfield, J, Cantwell D, Satterfield B: Pathophysiology of the hyperactive child syndrome. Arch Gen Psychiatr 31;838–844, 1974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Snyder S, Banerjee S, Yamamura H, et al: Drugs, neurotransmitters, and schizophrenia. Science 184;1243–1253, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cohen DJ, Young, JG: Neurochemistry and child psychiatry. J Child Psychiatr 16(3);353–411, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Donaldson JY, Menolascino FJ: Emotional disorders in the retarded. Inter J Ment Health 6(1);27–35, 1977.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Snyder S: The dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia: Focus on the dopamine receptor. Am J Psychiatr 113(2);197–202, 1976.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Yepes L, Winsburg B: Vomiting during neuroleptic withdrawal in children. Clin Res Rep 134(5);574, 1977.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Schildkraut J, Kety S: Biogenic amines and emotion. Science 156;3771:21–30, 1967.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Skekim W, Dekirmenjian H: Urinary catecholamine metabolites in hyperkinetic boys treated with d-amphetamine. Am J Psychiatr 134(11);1276–1279, 1977.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Snyder S: Catecholamine in the brain as mediators of amphetamine psychosis. Arch Gen Psychiatr 27;169–179, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ulus I, Wurtman R: Choline administration: Activation of tyrosine hydroxylase in dopaminergic neurons of rat brain. Science 194;1060–1061, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Greenberg AS, Coleman M: Depressed 5-hydroxyindole levels associated with hyperactive and aggressive behavior. Arch Gen Psychiatr 33;331–336, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Coleman M: Serotonin and central nervous system syndromes of childhood: A review. J Autism Child Schizophr 3(1);27–35, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Watson SJ, Akil H: Some observations on the opiate peptides and schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatr 36;35–41, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Watson SJ, Berger PA, Akil H, et al: Effects of naloxone on schizophrenia: Reduction in hallucinations in a subpopulation of subjects. Science 201;73–75, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bloom F, Segal D: Endorphins: Profound behavioral effects in rats suggest new etiological factors in mental illness. Science 194;630–632, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Urca G, Frenk H: Morphine and enkephalin: Analgesic and epileptic properties. Science 197;83–86, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Marx JL: Brain opiates in mental illness. Science 214;1013–1015, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Task Force on Late Neurological Effects of Antipsychotic Drugs. Tardive dyskinesia: Summary of a task force report of the American Psychiatric Association. Am J Psychiatry 137(10);1163–1173, 1980.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chouinard, G, Jones BD: Neuroleptic-induced supersensitivity psychosis: Clinical and pharmacological characteristics. Am J Psychiatr 137(1);16–21, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ebadi M: Vitamin B and biogenic amines in brain metabolism. Nat Acad Sci 8;129–161, 1978.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Rimland B, Callaway E: The effect of high doses of Vitamin B6 on autistic children: A double-blind crossover study. Am J Psychiatr 135(4),472–475, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Pauling L: On the orthomolecular environment of the mind: Orthomolecular theory. Am J Psychiatr 131(11);1251–1257, 1977.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wender E: Food additives and hyperkinesis. Am J Dis Childhood 131;1204–1206, 1977.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Swanson JM, Kinsbourne M: Food dyes impair performance of hyperactive children on a laboratory learning test. Science 207;1485–1487, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Weiss B, Williams J: Behavioral responses to artificial food colors. Science 207;1487–1488, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Augustine GJ, Levitan H: Neurotransmitter release from a vertebrate neuromuscular synapse affected by a food dye. Science 207;1489–1490, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bruening SE, Poling AD: Drugs and Mental Retardation. Springfield, Il, C. C. Thomas, 1982.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • John Y. Donaldson
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry, Nebraska Psychiatric InstituteUniversity of Nebraska Medical CenterOmahaUSA

Personalised recommendations