• Joseph L. Melnick


The enterovirus group, named in 1957,(31) brought together polioviruses, coxsackieviruses, and echoviruses, all of which inhabit the human alimentary tract. These viruses share a number of clinical, epidemiological, and ecological characteristics as well as physical and biochemical properties.


Aseptic Meningitis Oral Poliovirus Vaccine Coxsackie Virus Enterovirus Infection Poliovirus Type 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Assaad, F., and Cockburn, W. S.: Four-year study of WHO virus reports on enteroviruses other than poliovirus, Bull. WHO 46: 329–336 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Banker, D. D., and Melnick, J. L.: Isolation of Coxsackie virus (C virus) from North Alaskan Eskimos, Am. J. Hyg. 54: 383–390 (1951).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bass, J. W., Halstead, S. B., Fischer, G. W., Pod-Gore, J. K., and Wiebe, R. A.: Oral polio vaccine: Effect of booster vaccination one to 14 years after primary series, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 239: 2252–2255 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Berg, G. (ed.), Transmission of Viruses by the Water Route, Wiley, New York, 1967.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Berg, G., Bodily, H., Lenneiie, E. H., Melnick, J. L., and Metcalf, T. G. (eds.), Viruses in Water, American Public Health Association, Washington, D.C., 1976.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Blattner, R. J., Williamson, A. P., and Heys, F. M., Role of viruses in the etiology of congenital malformations, Prog. Med. Virol. 15: 1–41 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Blomberg, J., Lycke, E., Ahlfors, K., Johnsson, T., Wolontis, S., and von Zeipel, G.: New enterovirus type associated with epidemic of aseptic meningitis and/or hand, foot, and mouth disease, Lancet 2: 112 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bloom, H. H., Mack, W. N., Krueger, B. J., and Mallmann, W. L., Identification of enteroviruses in sewage, J. Infect. Dis. 105: 61–68 (1959).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bodian, D., and Horstmann, D. M., Polioviruses, in: Viral and Rickettsial Infections of Man, 4th ed. (F. L. Horspall, Jr., and I. Tamm, eds.), pp. 430–473, Lippincott, Philadelphia, 1965.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Brown, F., Talbot, P., and Burrows, R., Antigenic differences between isolates of swine vesicular disease virus and their relationship to Coxsackie B5 virus, Nature (London) 245: 315–316 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Brown, F., and Wild, F., Variation in the coxsackievirus type B5 and its possible role in the etiology of swine vesicular disease, Intervirology 3: 125–128 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Brown, G. C., and Karunas, R. S., Relationship of congenital anomalies and maternal infection with selected enteroviruses, Am. J. Epidemiol. 95: 207–217 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Brown, G. C., and O’Leary, T. P., Fluorescent antibody responses of cases and contacts of hand, foot, and mouth disease, Infect. Immunol. 9: 1098–1101 (1974).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Burch, G. E., Shewey, L. L., and Hare, J. M., Coxsackie B4 viruses and atrial myxoma, Am. Heart J. 88: 634–639 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Burch, G. E., Sun, S. C., Chu, K. C., Sohal, R. S., and Colcolough, H. L., Interstitial and coxsackievirus B myocarditis in infants and children: A comparative histologic and immunofluorescent study of 50 autopsied hearts, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 203: 1–8 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 15a.
    Burke, D. S., Gaydos, J. C., Hodder, R. A., and Bancroft, W. H., Seroimmunity to polioviruses in U.S. Army recruits, J. Infect. Dis. 139: 225–227 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 16.
    Butterworth, B. E., A comparison of the virus-specific polypeptides of encephalomyocarditis virus, human rhinovirus-1A, and poliovirus, Virology 56: 439–453 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 17.
    Cabasso, V. J., Nozell, H., Ruegsegger, J. M., and Cox, H. R., Poliovirus antibody three years after oral trivalent vaccine (Sabin strain), J. Pediatr. 68: 199–203 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 18.
    Caverly, C. S., Notes of an epidemic of acute anterior poliomyelitis, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 26: 1–5 (1896).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 19.
    Celma, M. L., and Ehrenfeld, E., Effect of polio-virus double-stranded RNA on viral and host-cell protein synthesis, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 71: 2440–2444 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 20.
    Center For Disease Control, Reported morbidity and mortality in the United States, 1973, in: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Annual Supplement, 1973, Vol. 22, No. 53 (July 15, 1974 ).Google Scholar
  22. 21.
    Center For Disease Control, Poliomyelitis surveillance summary 1974–76, October 1977.Google Scholar
  23. 22.
    Center For Disease Control, Poliomyelitis-Pennsylvania, Maryland, Morbid. Mortal. Weekly Rep. 28: 49–50 (1979).Google Scholar
  24. 23.
    Chang, W. K., Liu, K. C., Foo, T. C., Lam, M. W., and Chan, C. F., Acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis in Hong Kong 1971–1975, Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health 8: 1–6 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 24.
    Chatterjee, S., Quarcoopome, C. O., and Apenteng, A., Unusual type of epidemic of conjunctivitis in Ghana, Br. J. Ophthalmol. 54: 628–630 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 25.
    Clarke, N. A., and Kabler, P. W., Human enteric viruses in sewage, Health Lab. Sci. 1: 44–49 (1964).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 26.
    Cockburn, W. C., and Drozdov, S. G., Poliomyelitis in the world, Bull. WHO 42: 405–417 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 27.
    Codd, A. A., and White, E., Protection against poliomyelitis, Lancet 2: 1078 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 28.
    Cole, C. N., Defective interfering (DI) particles of poliovirus, Prog. Med. Virol. 20: 180–207 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 28a.
    Coleman, T. J., Gamble, D. R., and Taylor, K. W., Diabetes in mice after Coxsackie B4 virus infection, Br. Med. J. 3: 25–27 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 29.
    Collingham, K. E., Pollock, T. M., and Roebuck, M. O., Paralytic poliomyelitis in England and Wales, 1976–77, Lancet 1: 976–977 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 30.
    Committee On The Echo Viruses, Enteric cytopathogenic human orphan (ECHO) viruses, Science 122: 1187–1188 (1955).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 31.
    Committee On The Enteroviruses, National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis, The enteroviruses, Am. J. Public Health 47: 1556–1566 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 32.
    Cooney, M. K., Hall, C. E., and Fox, J. P., The Seattle Virus Watch. III. Evaluation of isolation methods and summary of infections detected by virus isolations, Am. J. Epidemiol. 96: 286–305 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 33.
    Cooper, P. D., Genetics of picornaviruses, in: Comprehensive Virology, Vol. 9 (H. Fraenkel-Conrat and R. Wagner, eds.), pp. 130–207, Plenum Press, New York, 1977.Google Scholar
  36. 34.
    Cooper, P. D., Steiner-Pryor, A., and Wright, P. J., A proposed regulator for poliovirus: The equestron, Intervirology 1: 1–10 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 35.
    Cooper, P. D., et al. (Study Group on Picornaviridae, Vertebrate Virus Subcommittee, International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses), Picornaviridae: Second Report, Intervirology 10: 165–180 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 36.
    Couch, R. B., Douglas, R. G., Jr., Lindgren, K. M., Gerone, P. J., and Knight, V., Airborne transmission of respiratory infection with coxsackievirus A type 21, Am. J. Epidemiol. 91: 78–86 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 37.
    Craighead, J. E., The role of viruses in the pathogenesis of pancreatic disease and diabetes mellitus, Prog. Med. Virol. 19: 161–214 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 38.
    Crowell, R. L., and Goldberg, B., Propagation and assay of group A coxsackieviruses in RD cells, Abstr. Annu. Meet. Am. Soc. Microbiol. 44: 208 (1974).Google Scholar
  41. 39.
    Curnen, E. C., Shaw, E. W., and Melnick, J. L., Disease resembling nonparalytic poliomyelitis associated with a virus pathogenic for infant mice, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 141: 894–901 (1949).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 40.
    Dahling, D. R., Berg, G., and Berman, D., BGM, a continuous cell line more sensitive than primary rhesus and African green monkey kidney cells for the recovery of viruses from water, Health Lab. Sci. 11: 275–282 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 41.
    Dalldorf, G., Neuropathogenicity of group A Coxsackie viruses, J. Exp. Med. 106: 69–76 (1957).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 42.
    Dalldorf, G., and Melnick, J. L., Coxsackieviruses, in: Viral and Rickettsial Infections of Man, 4th ed. (F. L. Horsfall, Jr., and I. Tamm, eds.), pp. 474–512, Lippincott, Philadelphia, 1965.Google Scholar
  45. 43.
    Dalldorf, G., Sickles, G. M., Placer, H., and Gifford, R., A virus recovered from the feces of “poliomyelitis” patients pathogenic for suckling mice, J. Exp. Med. 89: 567–582 (1949).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 44.
    Davies, D. P., Hughes, C. A., Macvicar, J., Hawkes, P., and Mair, H. J., Echovirus-11 infection in a special-care baby unit, Lancet 1: 96 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 45.
    Dömök, I., Balayan, M. S., Fayinka, O. A., Skrtic, N., Soneji, A. D., and Harland, P. S. E. G., Factors affecting the efficacy of live poliovirus vaccine in warm climates, Bull. WHO 51: 333–347 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 46.
    Duncan, I. B. R., A comparative study of 63 strains of echovirus type 30, Arch. Virusforsch. 25: 93–104 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 47.
    Enders, J. F., Weller, T. H., and Robbins, F. C., Cultivation of the Lansing strain of poliomyelitis virus in cultures of various human embryonic tissues, Science 109: 85–87 (1949).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 48.
    Enders, J. F., Weller, T. H., and Robbins, F. C., Alteration in pathogenicity for monkeys of Brunhilde strain of poliomyelitis virus following cultivation in human tissues, Fed. Proc. Fed. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol. 11: 467 (1952).Google Scholar
  51. 49.
    Faulk, W. P., Vyas, G. N., Phillips, C. A., Fudenberg, H. H., and Chism, K., Passive hemagglutination test for anti-rhinovirus antibodies, Nature (London) New Biol. 231: 101–104 (1971).Google Scholar
  52. 50.
    Fox, J. P., Epidemiological aspects of coxsackie and echo virus infections in tropical areas, in: Proceedings of the 7th International Congresses on Tropical Medicine and Malaria, Vol. 3, pp. 212–213, 1964.Google Scholar
  53. 51.
    Fox, J. P., Family-based epidemiologic studies: The Second Wade Hampton Frost Lecture, Am. J. Epidemiol. 99: 165–179 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 52.
    Fox, J. P., Hall, C. E., Cooney, M. K., Luce, R. E., and Kronmal, R. A., The Seattle Virus Watch. II. Objectives, study population and its observation, data processing and summary of illnesses, Am. J. Epidemiol. 96: 270–285 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 53.
    Fritsch, A., Pourcel, C., Charnay, P., and Tiollais, P., Clonage du génome du virus de l’hépatite B dans Escherichia coli, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 287: 1453–1456 (1978).Google Scholar
  56. 54.
    Froeschle, J. E., Feorino, P. M., and Gelfand, H. M., A continuing surveillance of enterovirus infection in healthy children in six United States cities. II. Surveillance enterovirus isolates 1960–1963 and comparison with enterovirus isolates from cases of acute central nervous system disease, Am. J. Epidemiol. 83: 455–469 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 55.
    Furesz, J., Armstrong, R. E., and Contreras, G., Viral and epidemiological links between poliomyelitis outbreaks in unprotected communities in Canada and the Netherlands, Lancet 2: 1248 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 56.
    Gamble, D. R., Taylor, K. W., and Cumming, H., Coxsackie viruses and diabetes mellitus, Br. Med. J. 4: 260–262 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 57.
    Gear, J. H. S., and Measroch, V., Coxsackievirus infections of the newborn, Prog. Med. Virol. 15: 42–62 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 58.
    Gelfand, H. M., Fox, J. P., and Leblanc, D. R., The enteric viral flora of a population of normal children in southern Louisiana, Am. J. Trop. Med. 6: 521–531 (1957).Google Scholar
  61. 59.
    Gelfand, H. M., Holguin, A. H., Marchetti, G. E., and Feorino, P. M., A continuing surveillance of enterovirus infections in healthy children in six United States cities. I. Viruses isolated during 1960 and 1961, Am. J. Hyg. 78: 358–375 (1963).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 60.
    Gerichter, C. B., Lasch, E. E., Sever, I., Elmassri, M., and Skalska, P., Paralytic poliomyelitis in the Gaza Strip and West Bank during recent years, International Symposium on Standardization and Use of Vaccines in the Developing Countries: Developments in Biological Standardization, Vol. 41, (R. H. Regamey, ed.), pp. 173–177, S. Karger, Basel, 1978.Google Scholar
  63. 61.
    Goldfield, M. S., Srihongse, S., and Fox, J. P., Hemagglutinins associated with certain human enteric viruses, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 96: 788–791 (1957).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 62.
    Graves, J. H., Serological relationship of swine vesicular disease virus and coxsackie B5 virus, Nature (London) 245: 314–315 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 63.
    Gregg, M. B., Poliomyelitis in the United States since 1955, Presented at the American Academy of Pediatrics, Evanston, Illinois, August 11–12, 1975.Google Scholar
  66. 64.
    Grinstein, S., Melnick, J. L., and Wallis, C., Virus isolations from sewage and from a stream receiving effluents of sewage treatment plants, Bull. WHO 42: 291–296 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 65.
    Grist, N. R., Bell, E. J., and Assaad, F., Enteroviruses in human disease, Prog. Med. Virol. 24: 114–157 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 66.
    Grist, N. R., Bell, E. J., and Reid, E., The epidemiology of enteroviruses, Scot. Med. J. 20: 27–31 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 67.
    Gyorkey, F., Cabral, G. A., Gyorkey, P. K., Uribebotero, G., Dreesman, G. R., and Melnick, J. L., Coxsackievirus aggregates in muscle cells of a polymyositis patient, Intervirology 10: 69–77 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 68.
    Hagiwara, A., Tagaya, I., and Yoneyama, T., Epidemic of hand, foot and mouth disease associated with enterovirus 71 infection, Intervirology 9: 60–63 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 69.
    Hall, C. E., Cooney, M. K., and Fox, J. P., The Seattle Virus Watch Program. I. Infection and illness experience of Virus Watch families during a community-wide epidemic of echovirus type 30 aseptic meningitis, Am. J. Public Health 60: 1456–1465 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 70.
    Hammon, W. McD., Ludwig, E. H., Sather, G., and Yohn, D. S., Comparative studies on patterns of family infections with polioviruses and ECHO virus type 1 on an American military base in the Philippines, Am. J. Public Health 47: 802–811 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 71.
    Harris, T. J. R., and Brown, F., Correlation of polypeptide composition with antigenic variation in the swine vesicular disease and coxsackie B5 viruses, Nature (London) 258: 758–760 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 72.
    Harris, L. F., Haynes, R. E., Cramblett, H. G., Conant, R. M., and Jenkins, G. R., Antigenic analysis of echoviruses 1 and 8, J. Infect. Dis. 127: 63–68 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 73.
    Hawley, H. B., Morin, D. P., Geraghty, M. E., Tomkow, J., and Phillips, C. A., Coxsackievirus B epidemic at a boys’ summer camp: Isolation of virus from swimming water, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 226: 33–36 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 74.
    Hierholzer, J. C., Hilliard, K. A., and Esposito, J. J., Serosurvey for “acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis” virus (enterovirus 70) antibodies in the southeastern United States, with review of the literature and some epidemiologic implications, Am. J. Epide-miol. 102: 533–544 (1975).Google Scholar
  77. 75.
    Honig, E. I., Melnick, J. L., Isacson, P., Parr, R., Myers, I. L., and Walton, M., An epidemiological study of enteric virus infections: Poliomyelitis, Coxsackie, and orphan (ECHO) viruses isolated from normal children in two socio-economic groups, J. Exp. Med. 103: 247–262 (1956).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 76.
    Horstmann, D. M.: Need for monitoring vaccinated populations for immunity levels, Prog. Med. Virol. 16: 215–240 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 77.
    Horstmann, D. M., Emmons, J., Gimpel, L., Subrahmanyan, T., and Riordan, J. T., Enterovirus surveillance following a community-wide oral polio-virus vaccination program: A seven-year study, Am. J. Epidemiol. 97: 173–186 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 78.
    Hsiung, G. D., Diagnostic Virology: An Illustrated Handbook, 2nd ed., Yale University Press, New Haven, 1973.Google Scholar
  81. 79.
    Imperato, P. J., Pincus, L., Hwa, C. L., and Chaves, A. D., The control of measles in New York City, Bull. N. Y. Acad. Med. 2nd Ser. 50: 602–619 (1974).Google Scholar
  82. 80.
    International Poliomyelitis Conferences: Poliomyelitis: Papers and discussions presented at the First through Fifth International Poliomyelitis Conferences (M. Fishbein, ed.), Lippincott, Philadelphia, 1949, 1952, 1955, 1958, 1961.Google Scholar
  83. 81.
    Itoh, H., and Melnick, J. L., The infection of chimpanzees with ECHO viruses, J. Exp. Med. 106: 677–688 (1957).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 82.
    Itoh, H., and Melnick, J. L., Double infections of single cells with ECHO 7 and Coxsackie A9 viruses, J. Exp. Med. 109: 393–406 (1959).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 83.
    Jackson, G. G., and Muldoon, R. L., Viruses causing common respiratory infections in man, J. Infect. Dis. 127: 328–408 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 84.
    Janda, Z., Adam, E., and Vonka, V., Properties of a new type 3 attenuated poliovirus. VI. Alimentary tract resistance in children fed previously with type 3 Sabin vaccine to reinfection with homologous and heterologous type 3 attenuated poliovirus, Arch. Virusforsch. 20: 87–98 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 85.
    Kaplan, G. J., Clark, P. S., Bender, T. R., Feltz, E. T., List-Young, B., Nevius, S. E., and Chin, T. D. Y., Echovirus type 30 meningitis and related febrile illness: Epidemiologic study of an outbreak in an Eskimo community, Am. J. Epidemiol. 92: 257–265 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 85a.
    Kapsenberg, J. G., Ras, A., and Korte, J., Improvement of enterovirus neutralization by treatment with sodium deoxycholate or chloroform, Intervirology 12: 329–334 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 86.
    Kedmi, S., and Katzenelson, E., A rapid quantitative fluorescent antibody assay of polioviruses using tragacanth gum, Arch. Virol. 56: 337–340 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 87.
    Kelly, S., Winsser, J., and Winkelstein, W., Jr., Poliomyelitis and other enteric viruses in sewage, Am. J. Public Health 47: 72–77 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 88.
    Kennett, M. L., Birch, C. J., Lewis, F. A., Yung, A. P., Locarnini, S. A., and Gust, I. D., Enterovirus type 71 infection in Melbourne, Bull. WHO 51: 609–615 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 89.
    Kibrick, S., Current status of Coxsackie and ECHO viruses in human disease, Prog. Med. Virol. 6: 27–70 (1964).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 89a.
    Kitamura, N., Semler, B. L., Rothberg, P. G., Larsen, G. R., Adler, C. J., Dorner, A. J., Emini, E. A., Hanecak, R., Lee, J. J., van der Were, S., Anderson, C. W., and Wimmer, E. Primary structure, gene organization and polypeptide expression of poliovirus RNA, Nature 291: 547–553 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 90.
    Kogon, A., Spigland, I., Frothingham, T. E., Elveback, L., Williams, C., Hall, C. E., and Fox, J. P., The Virus Watch Program: A continuing surveillance of viral infections in metropolitan New York families. VII. Observations on viral excretion, seroimmunity, intrafamilial spread and illness association in coxsackievirus and echovirus infections, Am. J. Epidemiol. 89: 51–61 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 91.
    Kono, R., Apollo 11 disease or acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis: A pandemic of a new enterovirus infection of the eyes, Am. J. Epidemiol. 101: 383–390 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 92.
    Kono, R., Miyamura, K., Tajiri, E., Sasagawa, A., Phuapradit, P., Roongwithu, N., Vejjajiva, A., Jayavasu, C., Thongcharoen, P., Wasi, C., and Rodprassert, P., Virological and serological studies of neurological complications of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis in Thailand, J. Infect. Dis. 135: 706–713 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 93.
    Kono, R., Miyamura, K., Tajiri, E., Shiga, S., Sasagawa, A., Irani, P. F., Katrak, S. M., and Wadia, N. H., Neurologic complications associated with acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis virus infection and its serologic confirmation, J. Infect. Dis. 129: 590–593 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 94.
    Kono, R., Sasagawa, A., Ishii, K., Sugiura, S., Ochi, M., Matsumiya, H., Uchida, Y., Kameyama, K., Kaneko, M., and Sakurai, N., Pandemic of new type of conjunctivitis, Lancet 1: 1191–1194 (1972).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 95.
    Kono, R., Sasagawa, A., Miyamura, K., and Tajiri, E., Serologic characterization and sero-epidemiologic studies on acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) virus, Am. J. Epidemiol. 101: 444–457 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 96.
    Kong, R., Uchida, N., Sasagawa, A., Akao, Y., Kodama, H., Mukoyama, J., and Fujiwara, T., Neurovirulence of acute-haemorrhagic-conjunctivitis virus in monkeys, Lancet 2: 1191–1194 (1972).Google Scholar
  101. 97.
    Kraus, G., Details of poliomyelitis outbreak, N. Engl. J. Med. 288: 1357–1358 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 98.
    Lake, A. M., Lauer, B. A., Clark, J. C., Wesenberg, R. L., and Mcintosh, K., Enterovirus infections in neonates, J. Pediatr. 89: 787–791 (1976).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 99.
    Lamb, G. A., Chin, T. D. Y., and Scarce, L. E., Isolations of enteric viruses from sewage and river water in a metropolitan area, Am. J. Hyg. 80: 320–327 (1964).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 100.
    Landsteiner, K., and Popper, E., Übertragung der Poliomyelitis acuta auf Affen, Z. Immunitaetsforsch. Orig. 2: 377–390 (1909).Google Scholar
  105. 101.
    Lansdown, A. B. G., Viral infections and diseases of the heart, Prog. Med. Virol. 24: 70–113 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 102.
    Lavinder, C. H., Freeman, A. W., and Frost, W. H., Epidemiologic studies of poliomyelitis in New York City and northeastern United States during the year 1916, Public Health Bull. No. 91, July, 309 pp. (1918).Google Scholar
  107. 103.
    Lennette, E. H., General principles underlying laboratory diagnosis of viral and rickettsial infections, in: Diagnostic Procedures for Viral and Rickettsial Infections, 4th ed. (E. H. Lennette and N. J. Schmidt, eds.), pp. 1–65, American Public Health Association, New York, 1969.Google Scholar
  108. 104.
    Lennette, E. H., Melnick, J. L., and Magoffin, R. L., Clinical virology: Introduction to methods in: Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 2nd ed. (E. H. Lennette, E. H. Spaulding, and J. P. Truant, eds.), pp.667–677, American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C., 1974.Google Scholar
  109. 105.
    Lepow, M. L., Nankervis, G. A., and Robbins, F. C., Immunity of school children two years after oral poliomyelitis vaccination, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 202: 121–125 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 106.
    Lerner, A. M., Coxsackievirus myocardiopathy, J. Infect. Dis. 120: 496–499 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 107.
    Lerner, A. M., Myocarditis and pericarditis, in: International Textbook of Medicine (A. I. Braude, ed.), pp. 1520–1530, W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1981.Google Scholar
  112. 108.
    Lerner, A. M., and Wilson, F. M., Virus myocardiopathy, Prog. Med. Virol. 15: 63–91 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 109.
    Lim, K. A., and Benyesh-Melnick, M., Typing of viruses by combinations of antiserum pools: Application to typing of enteroviruses (Coxsackie and echo), J. Immunol. 84: 309–317 (1960).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 110.
    Lim, K. H., and Yin-Murphy, M., An epidemic of conjunctivitis in Singapore in 1970, Singapore Med. J. 12: 247–249 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 111.
    Lim, K. H., and Yin-Murphy, M., The aetiologic agents of epidemic conjunctivitis, Singapore Med. J. 18: 41–43 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 112.
    Lund, E., Hedström, C.-E., and Strannegard, O., A comparison between virus isolations from sewage and from fecal specimens from patients, Am. J. Epidemiol. 84: 282–286 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 113.
    Macleod, D. R. E., Ing, W. K., Belcourt, R. J.-P., Pearson, E. W., and Bell, J. S., Antibody status to poliomyelitis, measles, rubella, diphtheria and tetanus, Ontario, 1969–70: Deficiencies discovered and remedies required, Can. Med. Assoc. J. 113: 619–623 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 114.
    Maguire, T., The laboratory transmission of Coxsackie A6 virus by mosquitoes, J. Hyg. 68: 625–630 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 115.
    Mcallister, R. M., Melnyk, J., Finkelstein, J. Z., Adams, E. C., Jr., and Gardner, M. B., Cultivation in vitro of cells derived from a human rhabdomyosarcoma, Cancer 24: 520–526 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 116.
    Mccarroll, J. R., Melnick, J. L., and Horstmann, D. M., Spread of poliomyelitis infection in nursery schools, Am. J. Public Health 45: 1541–1550 (1955).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 117.
    Melnick, J. L., Poliomyelitis virus in urban sewage in epidemic and in non-epidemic times, Am. J. Hyg. 45: 240–253 (1947).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 118.
    Melnick, J. L., Variation in poliomyelitis virus on serial passage through tissue culture, Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 18: 278–279 (1953).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 119.
    Melnick, J. L., Application of tissue culture methods to epidemiological studies of poliomyelitis, Am. J. Public Health 44: 571–580 (1954).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 120.
    Melnick, J. L., Echo viruses, in: Cellular Biology, Nucleic Acids and Viruses, Special Publication of the New York Academy of Sciences, 5, pp. 365–381 (1957).Google Scholar
  125. 121.
    Melnick, J. L., Advances in the study of the enteroviruses, Prog. Med. Virol. 1: 59–105 (1958).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 122.
    Melnick, J. L., Echoviruses, in: Viral and Rickettsial Infections of Man, 4th ed. (F. L. Horsfall, Jr., and I. Tamm, eds.), pp. 513–545, Lippincott, Philadelphia, 1965.Google Scholar
  127. 123.
    Melnick, J. L., Enteroviruses: Vaccines, epidemiology, diagnosis, and classification, CRC Crit. Rev. Clin. Lab. Sci. 1: 87–118 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 124.
    Melnick, J. L., Periodic serological surveillance, in: Serological Epidemiology (J. R. Paul and C. White, eds.), pp. 143–154, Academic Press, New York, 1973.Google Scholar
  129. 125.
    Melnick, J. L., Reference materials in virology: The enterovirus example, in: Proceedings of the International Conference on Standardization of Diagnostic Materials, pp. 213–235, CDC Monograph, Center for Disease Control, Atlanta, Georgia, 1974.Google Scholar
  130. 126.
    Melnick, J. L., Report to the World Health Organization: Recommendations for the control of poliomyelitis in Israel, West Bank and Gaza Strip. Report No. EM/VIR/7, EPID/54. World Health Organization, Geneva, 1977.Google Scholar
  131. 127.
    Melnick, J. L., Advantages and disadvantages of killed and live poliomyelitis vaccines, Bull. WHO 56: 21–38 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 128.
    Melnick, J. L., and Agren, K., Poliomyelitis and Coxsackie viruses isolated from normal infants in Egypt, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 81: 621–624 (1952).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 129.
    Melnick, J. L., Ashkenazi, A., Midulla, V. C., Wallis, C., and Bernstein, A., Immunogenic potency of MgC12-stabilized oral poliovaccine, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 185: 406–418 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 130.
    Melnick, J. L., Burkhardt, M., Taber, L. H., and Erckman, P. N., Developing gap in immunity to poliomyelitis in an urban area, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 209: 1181–1185 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 131.
    Melnick, J. L., Cockburn, W. C., Dalldorf, G., Gard, S., Gear, J. H. S., Hammon, W. Mcd., Kaplan, M. M., Nagler, F. P., Oker-Blom, N., Rhodes, A. J., Sabin, A. B., Verlinde, J. D., and von Magnus, H., Picornavirus group, Virology 19: 114–116 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 132.
    Melnick, J. L., Crowther, D., and Barrera-Oro, J., Rapid development of drug-resistant mutants of poliovirus, Science 134: 557 (1961).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 133.
    Melnick, J. L., Emmons, J., Coffey, J. H., and Schoof, H., Seasonal distribution of Coxsackie viruses in urban sewage and flies, Am. J. Hyg. 59: 164–184 (1954).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 134.
    Melnick, J. L., Gerba, C. P., and Wallis, C., Viruses in water, Bull. WHO 56: 499–508 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 135.
    Melnick, J. L., and Hampil, B., WHO collaborative studies on enterovirus reference antisera: Fourth report, Bull. WHO 48: 381–396 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 136.
    Melnick, J. L., and Ledinko, N., Social serology: Antibody levels in a normal young population during an epidemic of poliomyelitis, Am. J. Hyg. 54: 354–382 (1951).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 137.
    Melnick, J. L., and Ledinko, N., Development of neutralizing antibodies against the three types of poliomyelitis virus during an epidemic period: The ratio of inapparent infection to clinical poliomyelitis, Am. J. Hyg. 58: 207–222 (1953).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 138.
    Melnick, J. L., Mccarroll, J. R., and Horstmann, D. M.: A winter outbreak of poliomyelitis in New York City: The complement-fixation test as an aid in rapid diagnosis, Am. J. Hyg. 63: 95–114 (1956).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 139.
    Melnick, J. L., Paul, J. R., and Walton, M., Serologic epidemiology of poliomyelitis, Am. J. Public Health 45: 429–437 (1955).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 140.
    Melnick, J. L., Proctor, R. O., Ocampo, A. R., Diwan, A. R., and Ben-Porath, E., Free and bound virus in serum after administration of oral poliovirus vaccine, Am. J. Epidemiol. 84: 329–342 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 141.
    Melnick, J. L., Rennick, V., Hampil, B., Schmidt, N. J., and Ho, H. H., Lyophilized combination pools of enterovirus equine antisera: Preparation and test procedures for the identification of field strains of 42 enteroviruses, Bull. WHO 48: 263–268 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 142.
    Melnick, J. L., Shaw, E. W., and Curnen, E. C., A virus from patients diagnosed as non-paralytic poliomyelitis or aseptic meningitis, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 71: 344–349 (1949).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 143.
    Melnick, J. L., Schmidt, N. J., Hampil, B., and Ho, H. H., Lyophilized combination pools of enterovirus equine antisera: Preparation and test procedures for the identification of field strains of 19 group A coxsackievirus serotypes, Intervirology 8: 172–181 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 144.
    Melnick, J. L., Schmidt, N. J., Mirkovic, R. R., Chumakov, M. P., Lavrova, I. K., and Voroshilova, M. K. Identification of Bulgarian strain 258 of enterovirus 71, Intervirology 12: 297–302 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 145.
    Melnick, J. L., Tagaya, I., and von Magnus, H., Enteroviruses 69, 70, and 71, Intervirology 4: 369–370 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 146.
    Melnick, J. L., Wenner, H. A., and Phillips, C. A., Enteroviruses, in: Diagnostic Procedures for Viral, Rick- ettsial, and Chlamydial Infections, 5th ed. (E. H. Len- Nette and N. J. Schmidt, edS.) pp. 471–534, American Public Health Association, Washington, 1979.Google Scholar
  151. 147.
    Melnick, J. L. et al. (Study Group on Picornaviridae, Vertebrate Virus Subcommittee, International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses), Picornaviridae, Intervirology 4: 303–316 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 148.
    Miller, D. A., Miller, O. J., Vaithilingam, G. D., Hashmi, S., Tantravahi, R., Medrano, L., and Green, H., Human chromosome 19 carries a polio-virus receptor gene, Cell 1: 167–173 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 149.
    Mirkovic, R. R., Kong, R., Yin-Murphy, M., Sohier, R., Schmidt, N. J., and Melnick, J. L., Enterovirus type 70: The etiologic agent of pandemic acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis, Bull. WHO 49: 341–346 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 150.
    Mirkovic, R. R., Schmidt, N. J., Yin-Murphy, M., and Melnick, J. L., Enterovirus etiology of the 1970 Singapore epidemic of acute conjunctivitis, Intervirology 4: 119–127 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 150a.
    Miwa, C., Yamada, F., Matsuura, A., and Yoshi-Zawa, K., Epidemic of hand, foot and mouth disease in Gifu prefecture in 1973, Virus 28: 78–86 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 151.
    Nagington, J., Wreghitt, T. G., Gandy, G., Roberton, N. R. C., and Berry, P. J., Fatal echovirus 11 infections in outbreak in special-care baby unit, Lancet 2: 725 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 152.
    Nakano, J. H., Hatch, M. H., Thieme, M. L., and Nottay, B., Parameters for differentiating vaccine-derived and wild poliovirus strains, Prog. Med. Virol. 24: 178–206 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 153.
    Nakao, T. Coxsackie viruses and diabetes, Lancet 2: 1423 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 154.
    Nardi, G., Baroni, M., Tanzi, M. L., Grandi, D., Bevilacqua, G., and Tedeschi, F., Epidemic due to group B Coxsackie viruses in a newborn infants’ department, Ann. Sclavo 18: 793–808 (1976).Google Scholar
  160. 155.
    Nejmi, S., Gaudin, O. G., Chomel, J. J., Baaj, A., Sohier, R., and Bosshard, S., Isolation of a virus responsible for an outbreak of acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis in Morocco, J. Hyg. 72: 181–183 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 156.
    Nicholas, D. D., Kratzer, J. H., Ofosu-Amaah, S., and Belcher, D. W., Is poliomyelitis a serious problem in developing countries?-the Danfa experience, Br. Med. J. 1: 1009–1012 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 157.
    Nishmi, M., and Yodfat, Y., Successive overlapping outbreaks of a febrile illness associated with coxsackie virus type B4 and echo virus type 9 in a kibbutz, Isr. J. Med. Sci. 9: 895–899 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 158.
    Nolan, J. P., Wilmer, B. J., and Melnick, J. L., Poliomyelitis: Its highly invasive nature and narrow stream of infection in a community of high socio- economic level, N. Engl. J. Med. 253: 945–954 (1955).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 159.
    Notkins, A. L., Virus-induced diabetes mellitus, Arch. Virol. 54: 1–17 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 159a.
    Yoon, Jiwon, Austin, M., Onodera, T., and Notkins, A. L., Virus-induced diabetes mellitus. Isolation of a virus from the pancreas of a child with diabetic ketoacidosis, New Engl. J. Med. 300: 1173–1179 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 160.
    Oberhofer, T. R., Brown, G. C., and Monto, A. S., Seroimmunity to poliomyelitis in an American community, Am. J. Epidemiol., 101: 333–339 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 161.
    Ofosu-Amaah, S., Kratzer, J. H., and Nicholas, D. D., Is poliomyelitis a serious problem in developing countries?-Lameness in Ghanaian schools, Br. Med. J. 1: 1012–1014 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 162.
    Ogra, P. L., and Karzon, D. T., Formation and function of poliovirus antibody in different tissues, Prog. Med. Virol. 13: 156–193 (1971).Google Scholar
  169. 163.
    Ogra, P. L., Ocra, S. S., Al-Nakeeb, S., and Cop-Pola, P. R., Local antibody response to experimental poliovirus infection in the central nervous system of rhesus monkeys, Infect. Immun. 8: 931–937 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 164.
    Pacsa, S., and Werblinska, J., Natural immunity of Ghanaian children to polio and coxsackieviruses: Brief report, Arch. Gesamte Virusforsch. 33: 192–193 (1971).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 165.
    Pan American Health Organization, Live Poliovirus Vaccines, Special Publications of the Pan American Health Organization, Nos. 44 (1959) and 50 (1960).Google Scholar
  172. 166.
    Parks, W. P., Queiroga, L. T., and Melnick, J. L., Studies of infantile diarrhea in Karachi, Pakistan. II. Multiple virus isolations from rectal swabs, Am. J. Epidemiol. 85: 469–478 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 167.
    Paul, J. R., Endemic and epidemic trends of poliomyelitis in Central and South America, Bull WHO 19: 747–758 (1958).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 168.
    Paul, J. R., Development and use of serum surveys in epidemiology, in: Serological Epidemiology (J. R. Paul and C. White, eds.), pp. 1–13, Academic Press, New York, 1973.Google Scholar
  175. 169.
    Paul, J. R., A History of Poliomyelitis, Yale University Press, New Haven, 1971.Google Scholar
  176. 170.
    Payne, A. M.-M., Poliomyelitis as a world problem, Papers and discussions presented at the Third International Poliomyelitis Conference, pp. 393–400, Lippincott, Philadelphia, 1955.Google Scholar
  177. 171.
    Payne, A. M.-M., Immunization against poliomyelitis in the light of existing immunity of populations, Papers and discussions presented at the Fourth International Poliomyelitis Conference, pp. 157–164, Lippincott, Philadelphia, 1958.Google Scholar
  178. 172.
    Phillips, C. A., Melnick, J. L., Barrett, F. F., Behbehani, A. M., and Riggs, S., Dual virus infections: Simultaneous enteroviral disease and St. Louis encephalitis, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 197: 169–172 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 173.
    Ramos-Alvarez, M., and Sabin, A. B., Characteristics of poliomyelitis and other enteric viruses recovered in tissue culture from healthy American children, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 87: 655–661 (1954).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 174.
    Reid, D., Bell, E. J., and Grist, N. R., Poliomyelitis: A gap in immunity?, Lancet 2: 899–900 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 175.
    Reissig, M., Howes, D. W., and Melnick, J. L., Sequence of morphological changes in epithelial cell cultures infected with poliovirus, J. Exp. Med. 104: 289–304 (1956).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 176.
    Rivers, T. M., and Horsfall, F. L., Jr. (eds.), Viral and Rickettsial Infections of Man, 3rd ed., Lippincott, Philadelphia, 1959.Google Scholar
  183. 177.
    Robbins, F. C., Enders, J. F., Weller, T. H., and Florentino, G. L., Studies on the cultivation of poliomyelitis viruses in tissue culture. V. The direct isolation and serologic identification of virus strains in tissue culture from patients with nonparalytic and paralytic poliomyelitis, Am. J. Hyg. 54: 286–293 (1951).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 178.
    Rosen, L., and Kern, J. K., Hemagglutination and hemagglutination-inhibition with coxsackie B viruses, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 107: 626–628 (1961).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 179.
    Rosen, L., Melnick, J. L., Schmidt, N. J., and Wenner, H. A., Subclassification of enteroviruses and echovirus type 34, Arch. Gesamte Virusforsch. 30: 89–92 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 180.
    Rosen, L., Schmidt, N. J., and Kern, J., Toluca-1, a newly recognized enterovirus, Arch. Gesamte Virusforsch. 40: 132–136 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 181.
    Ross, C. A. C., Bell, E. J., Kerr, M. M., and Williams, K. A. B., Infective agents and embryopathy in the West of Scotland 1966–70, Scott. Med. J. 17: 252–258 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 182.
    Rossen, R. D., Kasel, J. A., and Couch, R. B., The secretory immune system: Its relation to respiratory viral infection, Prog. Med. Virol. 13: 194–238 (1971).Google Scholar
  189. 183.
    Rousseau, W. E., Noble, G. R., Tegtmeier, G. E., Jordan, M. C., and Chin, T. D. Y., Persistence of poliovirus neutralizing antibodies eight years after immunization with live, attenuated-virus vaccine, N. Engl. J. Med. 289: 1357–1359 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 184.
    Sabin, A. B., Oral poliovirus vaccine, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 194: 872–876 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 185.
    Sabin, A. B., Hennessen, W. A., and Winsser, J., Studies on variants of poliomyelitis virus. I. Experimental segregation and properties of avirulent variants of three immunologic types, J. Exp. Med. 99: 551–576 (1954).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 186.
    Sabin, A. B., Krumbiegel, E. R., and Wigand, R., ECHO type 9 virus disease: Virologically controlled clinical and epidemiologic observations during 1957 epidemic in Milwaukee with notes on concurrent similar diseases associated with Coxsackie and other ECHO viruses, Am. J. Dis. Child. 96: 197–219 (1958).Google Scholar
  193. 187.
    Salk, J. E., Poliomyelitis: Control, in: Viral and Rickettsial Infections of Man, 3rd ed. (T. M. Rivers and F. L. Horsfall, JR., eds.), pp. 499–518, Lippincott, Philadelphia, 1959.Google Scholar
  194. 188.
    Salk, J., and Salk, D., Control of influenza and poliomyelitis with killed virus vaccines, Science 195: 834–847 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 188a.
    Sandelin, K., Tuomioja, M., and Erkkilä, H., Echovirus type 7 isolated from conjunctival scrapings, Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 9: 71–73 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 189.
    Sanders, D. Y., and Cramblett, H. G., Antibody titers to polioviruses in patients ten years after immunization with Sabin vaccine, J. Pediatr. 84: 406–408 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 190.
    Schaffer, F. L., Binding of proflavine by and photoinactivation of poliovirus propagated in the presence of the dye, Virology 18: 412–425 (1962).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 191.
    Schieble, J. H., Fox, V. L., and Lennette, E. H., A probable new human picornavirus associated with respiratory disease, Am. J. Epidemiol. 85: 297–310 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 192.
    Schmidt, N. J., Tissue culture technics for diagnostic virology, in: Diagnostic Procedures for Viral and Rickettsial Infections, 4th ed. (E. H. Lennette and N. J. Schmidt, eds.), pp. 79–178, American Public Health Association, New York, 1969.Google Scholar
  200. 193.
    Schmidt, N. J., Ho, H. H., and Lennette, E. H., Propagation and isolation of group A coxsackieviruses in RD cells, J. Clin. Microbiol. 2: 183–185 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 194.
    Schmidt, N. J., Ho, H. H., and Lennette, E. H., Comparative sensitivity of the BGM cell line for isolation of enteric viruses, Health Lab. Sci. 13: 115–117 (1976).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 195.
    Schmidt, N. J., and Lennette, E. H., Advances in the serodiagnosis of viral infections, Prog. Med. Virol. 15: 244–308 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 196.
    Schmidt, N. J., Lennette, E. H., and Ho, H. H., An apparently new enterovirus isolated from patients with disease of the central nervous system, J. Infect. Dis. 129: 304–309 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 197.
    Schmidt, N. J., Magoffin, R. L., and Lennette, E. H., Association of group B coxsackieviruses with cases of pericarditis, myocarditis, or pleurodynia by demonstration of immunoglobulin M antibody, Infect. Immun. 8: 341–348 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. 198.
    Sells, C. J., Carpenter, R. L., and Ray, C. G., Sequelae of central-nervous-system enterovirus infections, N. Engl. J. Med. 293: 1–4 (1975).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. 199.
    Sergiescu, D., Horodniceanu, F., and Aubert-Combiescu, A., The use of inhibitors in the study of picornavirus genetics, Prog. Med. Virol. 14: 123–199 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 200.
    Sommerville, R. G., Rapid diagnosis of viral infections by immunofluorescent staining of viral antigens in leukocytes and macrophages, Prog. Med. Virol. 10: 398–414 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. 201.
    Stanton, G. J., Langford, M. P., and Baron, S., Effect of interferon, elevated temperature, and cell type on replication of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis viruses, Infect. Immun. 18: 370–376 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. 202.
    Taber, L. H., Mirkovic, R. R., Adam, V., Ellis, S. S., Yow, M. D., and Melnick, J. L., Rapid diagnosis of enterovirus meningitis by immunofluorescent staining of CSF leukocytes, Intervirology 1: 127–134 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. 203.
    Tagaya, I., Nakao, C., Hara, M., and Yamadera, S., Characterization of poliovirus isolates in Japan after the mass vaccination with live oral poliomyelitis vaccine (Sabin), Bull. WHO 48: 547–554 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. 204.
    Takatsu, T., Tagaya, I., and Hirayama, M., Poliomyelitis in Japan during the period 1962–68 after the introduction of mass vaccination with Sabin vaccine, Bull. WHO 49: 129–137 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. 205.
    Tamm, I., and Eggers, H. J., Differences in the selective virus-inhibitory action of 2-(a-hydroxybenzyl)-benzimidazole and guanidine HCI, Virology 18: 439–447 (1962).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. 206.
    Torphy, D. E., Ray, C. G., Thompson, R. S., and Fox, J. P., An epidemic of aseptic meningitis due to echovirus type 30: Epidemiological features and clinical laboratory findings, Am. J. Public Health 60: 1447–1455 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. 207.
    Trask, J. D., Melnick, J. L., and Wenner, H. A., Chlorination of human, monkey-adapted and mouse strains of poliomyelitis virus, Am. J. Hyg. 41: 30–40 (1945).Google Scholar
  215. 208.
    Van Wezel, A. L., and Hazendonk, A. G., Intratypic serodifferentiation of poliomyelitis virus strains by strain-specific antisera, Intervirology 11: 2–8 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. 209.
    Voroshilova, M. K., and Chumakov, M. P., Poliomyelitis-like properties of AB-IV-Coxsackie A7 group of viruses, Prog. Med. Virol. 2: 106–170 (1959).Google Scholar
  217. 210.
    Wallis, C., and Melnick, J. L., Cationic stabilization-A new property of enteroviruses, Virology 16: 683–700 (1961).Google Scholar
  218. 211.
    Wallis, C., and Melnick, J. L., Photodynamic inactivation of enteroviruses, J. Bacteriol. 89: 41–46 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. 212.
    Wallis, C., and Melnick, J. L., Virus aggregation as the cause of the non-neutralizable persistent fraction, J. Virol. 1: 478–488 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. 213.
    Wallis, C., Homma, A., and Melnick, J. L., A portable virus concentrator for testing water in the field, Water Res. 6: 1249–1256 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. 214.
    Weinstein, L., Poliomyelitis-A persistent problem, N. Engl. J. Med. 288: 370–372 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. 215.
    Wenner, H. A., The ECHO viruses, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 101: 398–412 (1962).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. 216.
    Wenner, H. A., Virus diseases associated with cutaneous eruptions, Prog. Med. Virol. 16: 269–336 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. 217.
    Wickman, I., Studien über Poliomyelitis acuta; zugleich ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Myelitis acuta, 1905 (English translation, Nervous and Mental Disease Monograph Series, No. 16, Karger, Berlin, 1913 ).Google Scholar
  225. 218.
    Wilfert, C. M., Buckley, R. H., Mohanakumar, T., Griffith, J. F., Katz, S. L., Whisnant J. K., Eggleston, P. A., Moore, M., Treadwell, E., Oxman, M. N., and Rosen F. S., Persistent and fatal centralnervous-system echovirus infections in patients with agammaglobulinemia, N. Engl. J. Med. 296: 1485–1489 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. 219.
    Wilson, F. M., Miranda, Q. R., Chason, J. L., and Lerner, A. M., Residual pathologic changes following murine coxsackie A and B myocarditis, Am. J. Pathol. 55: 253–265 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. 219a.
    Wilson, T., Papahadjopoulos, D., and Taber, R., Biological properties of poliovirus encapsulated in lipid vesicles: Antibody resistance and infectivity in virus-resistant cells, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 74: 3471–3475 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. 220.
    Wong, C. Y., Woodruff, J. J., and Woodruff, J. F., Generation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes during coxsackievirus B-3 infection. II. Characterization of effector cells and demonstration of cytotoxicity against viral-infected myofibers, J. Immunol. 118: 1165–1169 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. 221.
    World Health Organization Committee On Poliomyelitis, The relation between acute persisting spinal paralysis and poliomyelitis vaccine (oral): Results of a WHO enquiry, Bull. WHO 53: 319–331 (1976).Google Scholar
  230. 222.
    World Health Organizatcon, Poliomyelitis Surveillance, Weekly Epidemiol. Rec., 42, p. 304 (20 October 1978 ).Google Scholar
  231. 223.
    World Health Organization, Poliomyelitis in 1977, Weekly Epidemiol. Rec., 45, pp. 321–327 (10 November 1978 ).Google Scholar
  232. 224.
    World Health Organization Scientific Group, Human viruses in water, wastewater, and soil, WHO Tech. Rep. Ser., No. 639 (1979).Google Scholar
  233. 225.
    World Health Organization, WHO Weekly Epidemiological Records, during the 1960s and 1970s.Google Scholar
  234. 226.
    Wright, P. F., Hatch, M. H., Kasselberg, A. G., Lowry, S. P., Wadlington, W. B., and Karzon, D. T., Vaccine-associated poliomyelitis in a child with sex-linked agammaglobulinemia, J. Pediatr. 91: 408–412 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. 227.
    Wyatt, H. V., Hypothesis: Poliomyelitis in hypogammaglobulinemics, J. Infect. Dis. 128: 802–806 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. 228.
    Yin-Murphy, M., Viruses of acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis, Lancet 1: 545–546 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. 229.
    Yin-Murphy, M., and Lim, K. H., Picomavirus epidemic conjunctivitis in Singapore, Lancet 2: 857–858 (1972).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. 230.
    Yodfat, Y., and Nishmi, M., Epidemiologic and clinical observations in six outbreaks of viral disease in a kibbutz, 1968–1971, Am. J. Epidemiol. 97: 415–423 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. 231.
    Yofe, J., Goldblum, N., Eylan, E., and Melnick, J. L., An outbreak of poliomyelitis in Israel in 1961 and the use of attenuated type 1 vaccine in its control, Am. J. Hyg. 76: 225–238 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. 232.
    Yorke, J. A., Nathanson, N., Pianigiani, G., and Martin, J., Seasonality and the requirements for perpetuation and eradication of viruses in populations, Am. J. Epidemiol. 109: 103–123 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. 233.
    Young, N. A., Polioviruses, coxsackieviruses, and echoviruses: Comparison of the genomes by RNA hybridization, J. Virol. 11: 832–839 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. 234.
    Young, D. C., and Sharp, D. G., Partial reactivation of chlorine-treated echovirus, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 37: 766–773 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. 235.
    Ziegler, J. B., and Penny, R., Fatal echo 30 virus infection and amyloidosis in X-linked hypogammaglobulinemia, Clin. Immunol. Immunopathol. 3: 347–352 (1975).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Suggested Reading

  1. Gear, J. H. S., and Measroch, V., Coxsackievirus infections of the newborn, Prog. Med. Viro. 15: 42–62 (1973).Google Scholar
  2. Grist, N. R., Bell, E. J., and Assaad, F., Enteroviruses in human disease, Prog. Med. Virol. 24: 114–157 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Lansdown, A. B. G., Viral infections and diseases of the heart, Prog. Med. Virol. 24: 70–113 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Melnick, J. L., Advantages and disadvantages of killed and live poliomyelitis vaccines, Bull. WHO 56: 21–38 (1978).Google Scholar
  5. Melnick, J. L., Combined use of live and killed vaccines to control poliomyelitis in tropical areas. Dev. Biol. Standard. 47: 265–273 (1981).Google Scholar
  6. Melnick, J. L., Gerba, C. P., and Wallis, C., Viruses in water, Bull. WHO 56: 499–508 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Melnick, J. L., Wenner, H. A., and Phillips, C. A., Enteroviruses, in: Diagnostic Procedures for Viral, Rickettsial, and Chlamydia) Infections, 5th ed. (E. H. Lennette and N. J. Schmidt, eds.), pp. 471–534, American Public Health Association, Washington, 1979.Google Scholar
  8. Paul, J. R., A History of Poliomyelitis, Yale University Press, New Haven, 1971.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joseph L. Melnick
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Virology and EpidemiologyBaylor College of MedicineHoustonUSA

Personalised recommendations