Advertisement

African Hemorrhagic Fevers Due to Marburg and Ebola Viruses

  • Karl M. Johnson

Abstract

Marburg and Ebola viruses are morphologically similar, immunologically distinct rod-shaped agents of African origin. They produce acute hemorrhagic fever in man. Although other viruses cause a rather similar disease in Africa and differential diagnosis of a sporadic case cannot be made on clinical grounds, the syndrome associated with infection by these two agents is sufficiently unique and unvarying to distinguish it from yellow fever, Lassa fever, and other infections whenever a cluster of cases occurs. For this reason, the term African hemorrhagic fever (AFHF), rather than Marburg or Ebola disease, is used here to refer to clinical infection caused by either virus. Recent emergence, high mortality, nosocomial secondary transmission, and ecological mystery have combined to draw worldwide attention to these infections.

Keywords

Yellow Fever Haemorrhagic Fever Hemorrhagic Disease Lassa Fever Marburg Virus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Almeida, J. D., Waterson, A. P., and Simpson, D. I. H., Morphology and morphogenesis of the Marburg agent, in: Marburg Virus Disease (G. A. Martini and R. Siegert, eds.), pp. 84–97, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1971.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Baskerville, A., Bowen, E. T. W., Platt, G. S., McAr-dell, L. B., and Simpson, D. I. H., The pathology of experimental Ebola virus infection in monkeys, J. Pathol 125: 131–138 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bechtelsheimer, H., Jacob, H., and Solcher, H. The neuropathology of an infectious disease transmitted by African green monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops), Ger. Med. Monthly 141: 10–12 (1969).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bowen, E. T. W., Simpson, D. I. H., Bright, W. F., Zlotnik, I., and Howard, D. M. R., Vervet monkey disease: Studies on some physical and chemical properties of the causative agent, Br.J. Exp. Pathol. 50: 400–407 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bowen, E. T. W., Platt, G. S., Lloyd, G., Baskerville, A., Harris, W. J., and Vella, E. E., Viral haemorrhagic fever in southern Sudan and northern Zaire, Lancet 1: 571–573 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bowen, E. T. W., Baskerville, A., Cantell, K., Mann, G. F., Simpson, D. I. H., and Zuckerman, A. J., The effect of interferon on experimental Ebola virus infection in rhesus monkeys, in: Ebola Virus Haemorrhagic Fever (S. R. Pattyn, ed.), pp. 245–252, Elsevier/North- Holland, Amsterdam, 1978.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bowen, E. T. W., Lloyd, G., Platt, G., McArdell, L. B., Webb, P. A., and Simpson, D. I. H., Virological studies on a case of Ebola virus infection in man and in monkeys, in: Ebola Virus Haemorrhagic Fever (S. R. Pattyn, ed.), pp. 95–100, Elsevier/North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1978.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bowen, E. T. W., Plait, G. S., Simpson, D. I. H., McArdell, L. B., and Raymond, R. T., Ebola haemorrhagic fever: Experimental infection of monkeys, Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 72: 188–191 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bowen, E. T. W., Platt, G. S., Lloyd, G., McArdle, L., Simpson, D. I. H., Smith, D. H., Francis, D. P., Highton, R. B., Cornet, M., Draper, C. C., Eltahir, B., Mayom Deng, I., Lolik, P., and Duku, O., Viral haemorrhagic fever in the Sudan, 1976: Human virological and serological studies, in: Ebola Virus Haemorrhagic Fever (S. R. Pattyn, ed.), pp. 143–151, Elsevier/ North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1978.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Breman, J. G., Piot, P., Johnson, K. M., White, M. K., Mbuyi, M., Sureau, P., Heymann, D. L., van Nieu-wenhove, S., McCormick, J. B., Ruppol, J. P., Kintoki, V., Isaacson, M., van der Groen, G., Webb, P. A., and Nguete, K., The epidemiology of Ebola haemorrhagic fever in Zaire, 1976, in: Ebola Virus Haemorrhagic Fever (S. R. Pattyn, ed.), pp. 103–124, Elsevier/North- Holland, Amsterdam, 1978.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Casals, J., Absence of serological relationship between Marburg virus and some arboviruses, in: Marburg Virus Disease (G. A. Martini, and R. Siegert, eds.), pp. 98–104, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1971.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Clausen, L., Bothwell, T. H., Isaacson, M., Koorn-hof, H. J., Gear, J. H., McMurdo, J., Payn, E. M., Miller, G. B.; and Sher, R., Isolation and handling of patients with dangerous infectious disease, S. Am. Med. J. 53: 238–242 (1978).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dietrich, M., Schumacher, H. H., Peters, D., and Knobloch, J., Human pathology of Ebola (Maridi) virus infection in the Sudan, in: Ebola Virus Haemorrhagic Fever (S. R. Pattyn, ed.), pp. 37–42, Elsevier/ North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1978.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ebola haemorrhagic fever in Sudan, 1976, Bull. WHO 56: 247–270 (1978).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ebola haemorrhagic fever in Zaire, 1976, Bull. WHO 56: 271–293 (1978).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ebola hemorrhagic fever—southern Sudan, Center for Disease Control, Morbidity Mortality Weekly Rep. 28: 557–559 (1979).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Egbring, R., Slenczka, W., and Baltzer, G., Clinical manifestations and mechanism of the haemorrhagic diathesis in Marburg virus disease, in: Marburg Virus Disease (G. A. Martini and R. Siegert, eds.), pp. 41–49, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1971.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Elliott, L., Dudley, M., and Johnson, K. M., Center for Disease Control, Unpublished observations (1979).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ellis, D. S., Simpson, D. I. H., Francis, D. P., Knob-loch, J., Bowen, E. T. W., Lolik, P., and MayomDeng, I., infrastructure of Ebola virus particles in human liver, J. Clin. Pathol 31: 201–208 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Emond, R. T. D., Evans, B., Bowen, E. T. W., and Lloyd, G., A case of Ebola virus infection, Br. Med. J. 2: 541–544 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Emond, R. T. D., Smith, H., and Welsby, P. D., Assessment of patients with suspected viral haemor-rhagic fever, Br. Med.J. 1: 966–967 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gear, J. S. S., Cassel, G. A., Gear, A. J., Trapper, B., Clausen, L., Meyers, A. M., Kew, M. C, Bothwell, T. H., Sher, R., Miller, G. B., and Schneider, J., Out break of Marburg virus disease in Johannesburg, Br. Med.J. 4: 489–493 (1975).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gedigic, P., Bechtelsheimer, H., and Korb, G., The morbid anatomy of Marburg-virus-disease, Ger. Med. Monthly 14: 68–77 (1969).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gomperts, E. D., Isaacson, M., Koornhof, H. J., Metz, J., Gear, J. H., Schoub, B. D., McIntosh, B., and Prozesky, O. W., Handling of highly infectious material in a clinical pathology laboratory and in a viral diagnostic unit, S. Afr. Med. J. 53: 243–248 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Haas, R., and Maass, G., Experimental infection of monkeys with the Marburg virus, in: Marburg Virus Disease (G. A. Martini and R. Siegert, eds.), pp. 136–143, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1971.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hennessen, W., A hemorrhagic disease transmitted from monkeys to man, Natl. Cancer Inst. Monogr. 29: 161–171 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hennessen, W., Bonin, O., and Mauler, R., Zur Epidemiologie der Erkrankung von Menschen durch Affen, Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr. 93: 582–587 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hennessen, W., Epidemiology of “Marburg Virus” disease, in: Marburg Virus Disease (G. A. Martini and R. Siegert, eds.), pp. 161–165, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1971.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Heymann, D. L., Weisfeld, J. S., Webb, P. A., Johnson, K. M., Cairns, T., and Berquist, H., Ebola hemorrhagic fever: Tandala, Zaire, 1977–1978, J. Infect. Dis. 142: 372–376 (1980).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hofmann, H., and Kunz, C. H., Cultivation of the Marburg virus (Rhabdovirus simiae) in cell cultures, in: Marburg Virus Disease (G. A. Martini and R. Siegert, eds.), pp. 112–116, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1971.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Johnson, K. M., Webb, P. A., Lange, J. V., and Murphy, F. A., Isolation and partial characterization of a new virus causing acute haemorrhagic fever in Zaire, Lancet 1: 569–571 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Johnson, K. M., Webb, P. A., and Heymann, D. L., Evaluation of the plasma-pheresis program in Zaire, in: Ebola Virus Haemorrhagic Fever (S. R. Pattyn, ed.), pp. 219–222, Elsevier/North-Holland, New York, 1978.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Johnson, K. M., van der Groen, G., Elliott, L., and Robbins, B., Center for Disease Control, Unpublished observations (1979).Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kiley, M. P., Regnery, R. L., and Johnson, K. M., Ebola virus; Identification of virion structural proteins, J. Gen. Virol. 49: 333–341 (1980).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kissling, R. E., Robinson, R. Q., Murphy, F. A., and Whitfield, S. G., Agent of disease contracted from green monkeys, Science 160: 888–890 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kunz, C, Hofmann, H., Kovac, W., and Stockinger, L., Bioligische und morphologische Charackteristica des Virus des in Deutschland aufgetretenen “Hämorrhagischen Fiebers,” Wien. Klin. Wochenschr. 80: 161–166 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Malherbe, H., and Strickland-Cholmley, M., Studies on the Marburg virus, in: Marburg Virus Disease (G. A. Martini and R. Siegert, eds.), pp. 188–194, Springer- Verlag, New York, 1971.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Martini, G. A., Knauff, H. G., Schmidt, H. A., Mayer, G., and Baltzer, G., A hitherto unknown infectious disease contracted from monkeys, Ger. Med. Monthly 13: 457–470 (1968).Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Martini, G. A., and Schmidt, H., Spermatogene Übertragung des Marburg virus, Klin. Wochenschr. 46: 391–393 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Murphy, F. A., Simpson, D. I. H., Whitfield, S. G., Zlotnik, I., and Carter, G. B., Marburg virus infection in monkeys: Ultrastructural studies, Lab. Invest. 24: 279–291 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Murphy, F. A., Pathology of Ebola virus infection, in: Ebola Virus Haemorrhagic Fever (S. R. Pattyn, ed.), pp. 43–59, Elsevier/North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1978.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Murphy, F. A., van der Groen, G., Whitfield, S. G., and Lange, J. V., Ebola and Marburg virus morphology and taxonomy, in: Ebola Virus Haemorrhagic Fever (S. R. Pattyn, ed.), pp. 61–82, Elsevier/North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1978.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Oehlert, W., The morphological picture in livers, spleens, and lymph nodes of monkeys and guinea pigs after infection with the “vervet agent,” in: Marburg Virus Disease (G. A. Martini and R. Siegert, eds.), pp. 144–156, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1971.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Pattyn, S., van der Groen, G., Jacob, W., Piot, D., and Courteille, G., Isolation of Marburg-like virus from a case of haemorrhagic fever in Zaire, Lancet 1: 573–574 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Peters, D., and Müller, G., Elektronenmikroskopische Erkennung und Charakterisierung des Marburger Erregers, Dtsch. Aerztebl. 65: 1831–1834 (1968).Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Peters, D., Müller, G., and Slenczka, W. Morphology, development and classification of the Marburg virus, in: Marburg Virus Disease (G. A. Martini and R. Siegert, eds.), pp. 68–83, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1971.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Regnery, R. L., Johnson, K. M., and Kiley, M. P., The nucleic acid of Ebola virus, J. Virol 36: 465–469 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Rutter, D. A., Safety cabinet for use in laboratory studies on hazardous infectious diseases, Br. Med. J. 2: 24 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Siegert, R., Shu, H. L., Slenczka, W., Peters, D., and Müller, G., The etiology of a hitherto unknown infectious disease transmitted from monkeys to man, Ger. Med. Monthly 13: 1–3 (1968).Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Siegert, R., Shu, H. L., and Slenczka, W., Isolierung und Identifierung des “Marbury virus/7 Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr. 93: 604–612 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Simpson, D. I. H., Zlotnik, I., and Rutter, D. A., Vervet monkey disease: Experimental infection of guinea-pigs and monkeys with the causative agent, Br. J. Exp. Pathol 49: 458–464 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Simpson, D. I. H., Marburg virus disease: Experimental infection of monkeys, Lab. Anim. Handb. 4: 149–154 (1969).Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Simpson, D. I. H., Vervet monkey disease: Transmission to the hamster, Br. J. Exp. Pathol 50: 389–392 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Slenczka, W., Growth of Marburg virus in Vero cells, Lab. Anim. Handb. 4: 143–147 (1969).Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Slenczka, W., and Wolff, G., Biological properties of the Marburg virus, in: Marburg Virus Disease (G. A. Martini, and R. Siegert, eds.), pp. 105–108, Springer- Verlag, New York, 1971.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Slenczka, W., Wolff, G., and Siegert, R., A critical study of monkey sera for the presence of antibody against the Marburg virus, Am. J. Epidemiol 93: 496–505 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Smith, C. E. G., Simpson, D. I. H., Bowen, E. T. W., and Zlotnik, I., Fatal human disease from vervet monkeys, Lancet 2: 1119–1121 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Smith, D. H., Francis, D. P., and Simpson, D. I. H., African haemorrhagic fever in the southern Sudan: The clinical features, in: Ebola Virus Haemorrhagic Fever (S. R. Pattyn, ed.), pp. 21–26, Elsevier/North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1978.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Stille, W., Böhle, E., Helm, E., van Rey, W., and Siede, W., Über eine durch Cercopithecus aethiops übertragene infektious Krankheit (“Grüne-meir-katzen-krankheit/ Green monkey disease”), Dtsch Med. Wochenschr. 93: 572–582 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Stojkovic, L. J., Burdjoski, M., Gligic, A., and Ste-Fanovic, Z., Two cases of Cercopithecus-monkeys-as-sociated haemorrhagic fever, in: Marburg Virus Disease (G. A. Martini and R. Siegert, eds.), pp. 24–33, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1971.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Trexler, P. C, Emond, R. T. D., and Evans, R., Negative-pressure isolator for patients with dangerous infections, Br. Med.J. 2: 559–561 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    van der Groen, G., Johnson, K. M., Webb, P. A., Wulff, H. T., and Lange, J. V., Results of Ebola antibody surveys in various population groups in: Ebola Virus Haemorrhagic Fever (S. R. Pattyn, ed.), pp. 203–205, Elsevier/North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1978.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    van der Groen, G., Webb, P. A., Johnson, K. M., Lange, J. V., Lindsay, H., and Elliott, L., Growth of Lassa and Ebola viruses in different cell lines, in: Ebola Virus Haemorrhagic Fever (S. R. Pattyn, ed.), pp. 255–260, Elsevier/North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1978.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Viral haemorrhagic fever, Weekly Epidemiol Rep. (WHO) 52: 185–192 (1977).Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Webb, P. A., Johnson, K. M., Wulff, H. T., and Lange, J. V., Some observations on the properties of Ebola virus, in: Ebola Virus Haemorrhagic Fever (S. R. Pattyn, ed.), pp. 91–94, Elsevier/North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1978.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Wulff, H., and Conrad, L., Marburg virus disease, in: Comparative Diagnosis of Viral Diseases (E. Kurstak and C. Kurstak, eds.), pp. 3–33, Academic Press, New York, 1977.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Wulff, H., Slenczka, W., and Gear, J. H. S., Early detection of antigen and estimation of virus yield in specimens from patients with Marburg virus disease, Bull WHO 56: 633–639 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Wulff, H., and Johnson, K. M., Immunoglobulin M and G responses measured by immunofluorescence in patients with Lassa and Marburg virus infections, Bull WHO 57: 631–635 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Zlotnik, I., and Simpson, D. I. H., The pathology of experimental vervet monkey disease in hamsters, Br. J. Exp. Pathol 50: 393–399 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Zweighaft, R. M., Fräser, D. W., Hattwick, M. A. W., Winkler, W. G., Jordan, W. C., Alter, M., Wolfe, M., Wulff, H., and Johnson, K. M., Lassa fever: Response to an imported case, N. Engl.J. Med. 297: 803–807 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Suggested Reading

  1. Martini, G. A., and Siegert, R. (eds.), Marburg Virus Disease, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1971, 230 pp.Google Scholar
  2. Pattyn, S. R. (ed.), Ebola Virus Haemorrhagic Fever, Elsevier/North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1978, 436 pp.Google Scholar
  3. Viral haemorrhagic fever, Weekly. Epidemiol Rep. (WHO) 52:177–192 (1977).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Karl M. Johnson
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Disease Control, Special Pathogens Branch, Virology Division, Bureau of LaboratoriesU.S. Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health, and Human ServicesAtlantaUSA

Personalised recommendations