Advertisement

Respiratory Syncytial Virus

  • Robert M. Chanock
  • Hyun Wha Kim
  • Carl D. Brandt
  • Robert H. Parrott

Abstract

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was first isolated from a chimpanzee with common-cold-like illness.(77) Shortly thereafter, the virus was recovered from young children with severe lower respiratory tract disease in Baltimore.(16,21) Since its initial isolation from infants with respiratory disease almost 23 years ago, RSV has emerged as the major lower respiratory tract pathogen of infancy and early childhood throughout the world.(3,18,19,29,36,39,60,69,70,98,100) It is now clear that in all geographic areas, RSV is the major cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in infants and young children. RSV presents a special challenge to the epidemiologist, since this virus exhibits a pattern of infection and disease unlike that of any of the other known respiratory tract viral pathogens. Unanswered are many pressing questions concerning the pathogenesis of serious life-threatening disease of the lower respiratory tract produced by this virus during early infancy. A safe, effective vaccine for prevention of serious, pediatric RSV illness is not available at this time. However, studies now in progress offer some hope that ultimately it should be possible to develop effective immunoprophylaxis for RSV bronchiolitis and pneumonia.

Keywords

Respiratory Syncytial Virus Young Infant Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection Respiratory Tract Disease Respiratory Syncytial Virus Disease 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Adams, J. M., Imagawa, D. T., and Zike, K., Relationship of pneumonitis in infants to respiratory syncytial virus, Lancet 81: 502–506 (1961).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Berm, M., Egerer, R., and and erson, J., Respiratory syncytial virus neutralizing antibodies in persons residing in Chicago, Illinois, Pediatrics 34: 761–770 (1964).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Beem, M., Wright, F. H., Hamre, D., Egerer, R., and Oehme, M., Association of the chimpanzee coryza agent with acute respiratory disease in children, N. Engl. J. Med. 263: 523–530 (1960).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Belshe, R. B., Richardson, L. S., London, W. T., SLY, D. L., Camargo, E., Prevar, D. A., and Chanock, R. M., Evaluation of five temperature-sensitive mutants of respiratory syncytial virus in primates. II. Genetic analysis of virus recovered during infection, J. Med. Virol. 3: 101–110 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 4a.
    Belshe, R. B., Richardson, L. S., Schnitzer, T. J., Prevar, D. A., Camargo, E., and Chanock, R. M., Further characterization of the complementation group B temperature-sensitive mutant of respiratory syncytial virus, J. Virol. 24: 8–12 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 4b.
    Belshe, R. B., VAN Voris, L. P., and Mufson, M. A., Results of a field trial with parenterally administered live respiratory syncytial virus vaccine, Clinical Res. 27: 4, 650a (1979).Google Scholar
  7. 5.
    Berg, T., and Johansson, S. G. O., IgE concentrations in children with atopic diseases, Ann. Allergy 36: 219–232 (1969).Google Scholar
  8. 6.
    Berthiaume, L., Joncas, J., and Pavilanis, V., Comparative structure, morphogenesis and biological characteristics of the respiratory syncytial (RS) virus and the pneumonia virus of mice, Arch. Gesamte Virusforsch. 45: 39–51 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 7.
    Blandford, C., and Heath, R. B., Studies on the immune response and pathogenesis of Sendai virus infection of mice. I. The fate of viral antigens, Immunology 22 (4): 637–650 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 8.
    Brandt, C. D., Kim, H. W., Arrobio, J. O., Jeffries, B. C., Wood, S. C., Chanock, R. M., and Parrott, R. H., Epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus infection in Washington, D.C. III. Composite analysis of eleven consecutive yearly epidemics, Am. J. Epidemiol. 98: 355–364 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 9.
    Brandt, C. D., Parrott, R. H., Patrick, J. R., Kim, H. W., Arrobio, J. O., Chandra, R., Jeffries, B. C., and Chanock, R. M., Epidemiology-SIDS and viral respiratory disease in metropolitan Washington D.C., in: S.I.D.S. Proceedings of the Francis E. Camps International Symposium on Sudden and Unexpected Death in Infancy (R. R. ROBINSON, ed.), pp. 117–129, Canadian Foundation for the Study of Infant Death, 1974.Google Scholar
  12. 10.
    Bruhn, F. W., Mokrohisky, S. T., and Mcintosh, K., Apnea associated with respiratory syncytial virus infection in young infants, J. Pediatr. 90: 382–386 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 11.
    Bruhn, F. W., and Yeager, A. S., Respiratory syncytial virus in early infancy, Am. J. Dis. Child. 131: 145–148 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 12.
    Buynak, E. B., Weibel, R. E., Mclean, A. A., and Hilleman, M. R., Live respiratory syncytial virus vaccine administered parenterally, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 157: 636–642 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 13.
    Buynak, E. B., Weibel, R. E., Carlson, A. J., Mclean, A. A., and Hilleman, M. R., Further investigations of live respiratory syncytial virus vaccine administered parenterally, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 160: 272–277 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 14.
    Carilli, A. D., Gohd, R. S., and Gordon, W., A virologie study of chronic bronchitis, N. Engl. J. Med. 270: 123–127 (1964).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 15.
    Chanock, R. M., Prospects for control of acute viral and mycoplasmal respiratory tract disease by vaccination, Science 169: 248–256 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 16.
    Chanock, R. M., and Finberg, L., Recovery from infants with respiratory illness of a virus related to chimpanzee coryza agent (CCA). II. Epidemiological aspects of infection in infants and young children, Am. J. Hyg. 66: 291–300 (1957).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 17.
    Chanock, R. M., Kapikian, A. Z., Mills, J., Kim, H. W., and Parrotr, R. H., Influence of immunological factors in respiratory syncytial virus disease, Arch. Environ. Health 21: 347–356 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 18.
    Chanock, R. M., Kim, H. W., Vargosko, A. J., Releva, A., Johnson, K. M., Cumming, C., and Par-Rott, R. H., Respiratory syncytial virus. I. Virus recovery and other observations during 1960 outbreak of bronchiolitis, pneumonia, and minor respiratory diseases in children, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 176: 647–653 (1961).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 19.
    Chanock, R. M., and Parrott, R. H., Acute respiratory disease in infancy and childhood: Present understanding and prospects for prevention, Pediatrics 36: 21–39 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 20.
    Chanock, R. M., Parrott, R. H., Johnson, K. M., Mufson, M. A., and Knight, V., Biology and ecology of two major lower respiratory tract pathogens-RS virus and Eaton PPLO, in: Perspectives in Virology (M. POLLARD, ed.), pp. 257–281, Burgess, Minneapolis, 1963.Google Scholar
  23. 21.
    Chanock, R. M., Roizman, B., and Myers, R., Re-covery from infants with respiratory illness of a virus related to chimpanzee coryza agent. I. Isolation, properties and characterization, Am. J. Hyg. 66: 281–290 (1957).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 22.
    Chin, J., Magoffin, R. L., Shearer, L. A., Schieble, J. H., and Lennete, E. H., Field evaluation of a respiratory syncytial virus vaccine and a trivalent para-influenza virus vaccine in a pediatric population, Am. J. Epidemiol. 89: 449–463 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 22a.
    Coates, H. V., Alling, D. W., and Chanock R. M., An antigenic analysis of respiratory syncytial virus isolates by a plaque reduction neutralization test, Am. J. Epidemiol. 89: 299–313 (1966).Google Scholar
  26. 23.
    Docgett, J. E., Antibodies to respiratory syncytial virus in human sera from different regions of the world, Bull. WHO 32: 849–853 (1965).Google Scholar
  27. 24.
    Downham, M. A. P. S., Gardner, P. S., Mcquillin, L, and Ferris, J. A. J., Role of respiratory viruses in childhood mortality, Br. Med. J. 1: 235–239 (1975).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 25.
    Downham, M. A. P. S., Scott, R., Sims, D. G., Webb, J. K. G., and Gardner, P. S., Breast-feeding protects against respiratory syncytial virus infections, Br. Med. J. 2: 274–276 (1976).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 26.
    Fransen, H., Sterner, G., Forsgren, M., Heigl, Z., Wolontis, S., Svedmyr, A., and Tunevall, G., Acute lower respiratory illness in elderly patients with respiratory syncytial virus infection, Acta Med. Scand. 182: 323–330 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 27.
    Friedewald, W. T., Forsyth, B. R., Smith, C. B., Gharpure, M. S., and Chanock, R. M., Low-tem-perature-grown RS virus in adult volunteers, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 204: 690–694 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 28.
    Fulginiti, V. A., Eller, J. J., Sieber, O. F., Joyner, J. W., Minamitani, M., and Meiklejohn, G., Respira-tory virus immunization. I. A field trial of two inactivated respiratory virus vaccines: An aqueous trivalent parainfluenza virus vaccine and an alum-precipitated respiratory syncytial virus vaccine, Am. J. Epidemiol. 89: 435–448 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 29.
    Gardner, P. S., Respiratory syncytial virus infection: Admissions to hospital in industrial, urban, and rural areas: Report to the Medical Research Council subcommittee on Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines, Br. Med. J 2: 796–798 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 30.
    Gardner, P. S., and Mcquillin, J., Application of immunofluorescent antibody technique in rapid diagnosis of respiratory syncytial virus infection, Br. Med. J. 3: 340–343 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 31.
    Gardner, P. S., and Mcquillin, J., The coating of respiratory syncytial (RS) virus-infected cells in the respiratory tract by immunoglobulins, J. Med. Virol. 2: 165–173 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 32.
    Gardner, P. S., Mcquillin, J., and Court, S. D. M., Speculation on pathogenesis in death from respiratory syncytial virus infection, Br. Med. J. 1: 327–330 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 33.
    Gardner, P. S., Turk, D. C., Aherne, W. A., Bird, T., Holdaway, M. D., and Court, S. D. M., Deaths associated with respiratory tract infection in childhood, Br. Med. J. 4: 316–320 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 34.
    Gharpure, M. A., Wright, P. F., and Chanock, R. M., Temperature-sensitive mutant of respiratory syncytial virus, J. Virol. 3: 414–421 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 35.
    Gleich, G. J., Averbeck, A. K., and Swedlung, H. A., Measurement of IgE in normal and allergic serum by radioimmunoassay, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 77: 690–698 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 36.
    Glezen, W. P., and Denny, F. W., Epidemiology of acute lower respiratory disease in children, N. Engl. J. Med. 288: 498–505 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 37.
    Paredes, W. P., Taber, L. H., Paredes, A., Allison, J. E., and Frank, A. L., Pathogenesis of respiratory syncytial (RS) virus bronchiolitis in infants, Pediatr. Res. 12: 492 (1978).Google Scholar
  41. 38.
    Gray, K. G., Macfarlane, D. E., and Somerville, R. G., Direct immunofluorescent identification of respiratory syncytial virus in throat swabs from children with respiratory illness, Lancet 1: 446–448 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 39.
    Grist, N. R., Ross, C. A. C., and Stott, E. J., Influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, and pneumonia in Glasgow 1962–1965, Br. Med. J. 1: 456–457 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 40.
    Hall, C. B., Douglas, R. G., JR., and Geiman, J. M., Quantitative shedding patterns of respiratory syncytial virus in infants, J. Infect. Dis. 132: 151–156 (1975).Google Scholar
  44. 41.
    Hall, C. B., Douglas, R. G., JR., and Geiman, J. M., Respiratory syncytial virus infections in infants: Quantitation and duration of shedding, J. Pediatr. 89: 11–15 (1976).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 42.
    Hall, C. B., Douglas, R. G., JR, Geiman, J. M., and Messner, M. K., Nosocomial respiratory syncytial virus infections, N. Engl. J. Med. 293: 1343–1346 (1975).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 43.
    Hall, C. B., Douglas, R. G., JR., Simons, R. L., and Geiman, B. S., Interferon production in children with respiratory syncytial, influenza and parainfluenza virus infections, J. Pediatr. 98: 23–32 (1978).Google Scholar
  47. 44.
    Hall, C. B., Geiman, J. M., Biggar, R., Kotok, D. I., Hogan, P. M., and Douglas, R. G., JR., Respiratory syncytial virus infections within families, N. Engl. J. Med. 294: 414–419 (1976).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 45.
    Hall, C. B., Geiman, J. M., Douglas, R. G., JR., and Meagher, M. P., Control of nosocomial respiratory syncytial viral infections, Pediatrics 62: 728–732 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 46.
    Hall, W. J., Hall, C. B., and Speers, D. M., Respiratory syncytial virus infection in adults: Clinical, virologie, and serial pulmonary function studies, Ann. Intern. Med. 88: 203–205 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 47.
    Hall, C. B., Kopelman, A. E., Douglas, R. G., JR., Geiman, J. M., and Meagher, M. P., Neonatal respiratory syncytial virus infection, N. Engl. J. Med. 300: 393–396 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 48.
    Hambling, M. H., A survey of antibodies to respiratory syncytial virus in the population, Br. Med. J. 1: 1223–1225 (1964).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 49.
    Henderson, F. W., Collier, A. M., Clyde, W. A., and Denny, F. W., Respiratory syncytial virus infection, reinfection and immunity: A prospective longitudinal study in young children, N. Engl. J. Med. 300: 530–535 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 50.
    Hodes, D. S., Kim, H. W., Parrott, R. H., Camargo, E., and Chanock, R. M., Genetic alteration in a temperature-sensitive mutant of respiratory syncytial virus after replication in vivo, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 145: 1158–1164 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 51.
    Inaba, Y., Tanaka, Y., Sato, K., Omori, T., and Matumoto, M., Bovine respiratory syncytial virus: Studies on an outbreak in Japan, 1968–1969, Jpn. J. Microbiol. 16: 373–383 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 52.
    Jacobs, J. W., and Edgington, N., Isolation of respiratory syncytial virus from cattle in Britain, Vet. Rec. 87: 694 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 53.
    Jacobs, J. W., Peacock, D. B., Corner, B. D., Caul, E. O., and Clarke, S. K. R., Respiratory syncytial and other viruses associated with respiratory disease in infants, Lancet 1: 871–876 (1971).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 54.
    Jennings, R., Adenovirus, parainfluenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus antibodies in the sera of Jamaicans, J. Hyg. 70: 523–529 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 55.
    Johnson, K. M., Chanock, R. M., Rifkind, D., Kravetz, H. M., and Knight, V., Respiratory syncytial virus. IV. Correlation on virus shedding, serologic response, and illness in adult volunteers, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 176: 663–667 (1961).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 56.
    Joncas, J., Berthiaume, L., and Pavilanis, V., The structure of the respiratory syncytial virus, Virology 38: 493–496 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 57.
    Kalica, A. R., Wright, P. F., Hetrick, F. M., and Chanock, R. M., Electron microscopic studies of respiratory syncytial temperature-sensitivie mutants, Arch. Gesamte Virusforsch. 41: 248–258 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 58.
    Kapikian, A. Z., Bell, J. A., Mastrota, F. M., Johnson, K. M., Huebner, R. J., and Chanock, R. M., An outbreak of febrile illness and pneumonia associated with respiratory syncytial virus infection, Am. J. Hyg. 74: 234–248 (1961).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 59.
    Kapikian, A. Z., Mitchell, R. H., Chanock, R. M., Shvedoff, R. A., and Stewart, C. E., An epidemiologic study of altered clinical reactivity to respiratory syncytial (RS) virus infection in children previously vaccinated with an inactivated RS virus vaccine, Am. J. Epidemiol 89: 405–421 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 60.
    Kim, H. W., Arrobio, J. O., Brandt, C. D., Jeffries, B. C., Pyles, G., Reid, J. L., Chanock, R. M., and Parrott, R. H., Epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus in Washington, D.C. I. Importance of the virus in different respiratory tract disease syndromes and temporal distribution of infection, Am. J. Epidemiol. 98: 216–225 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 61.
    Kim, H. W., Arrobio. J. O., Brandt, C. D., Wright, P., Hodes, D., Chanock, R. M., and Parrott, R. H., Safety and antigenicity of temperature-sensitive (ts) mutant respiratory syncytial (RS) virus in infants and children, Pediatrics 52: 56–63 (1973).Google Scholar
  65. 62.
    Kim, H. W., Arrobio, J. O., Pyles, G., Brandt, C. D., Camargo, E., Chanock, R. M., and Parrott, R. H., Clinical and immunological response of infants and children to administration of low temperature adapted respiratory syncytial virus, Pediatrics 48: 745–755 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 63.
    Kim, H. W., Canchola, J. G., Brandt, C. D., Pyles, G., Chanock, R. M., Jensen, K., and Parrott, R. H., Respiratory syncytial virus disease in infants despite prior administration of antigenic inactivated vaccine, Am. J. Epidemiol. 89: 422–434 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 64.
    Kim, H. W., Leikin, S. L., Arrobio, J. O., Brandt, C. D., Chanock, R. M., and Parrott, R. H., Cell-me-diated immunity to respiratory syncytial virus induced by inactivated vaccine or by infection, Pediatr. Res. 10: 75–78 (1976).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 65.
    Kravetz, H. M., Knight, V., Chanock, R. M., Morris, A. J., Johnson, K. M., Rifkind, D., and Utz, J. P., Respiratory syncytial virus. III. Production of illness and clinical observations in adult volunteers, J. Am Med. Assoc. 176: 657–663 (1961).Google Scholar
  69. 66.
    Kumar, L., Newcomb, R. W., Isfiizaka, K., Middle-Ton, E., and Hornbrook, M. M., IgE levels in sera of children with asthma, Pediatrics 47: 848–856 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 67.
    Lee, C., Funk, G. A., Chen, S., and Huang, T., An outbreak of respiratory syncytial virus infection in an infant nursery, J. Formosan Med. Assoc. 72: 39–46 (1973).Google Scholar
  71. 68.
    Leer, H. W., Bloomfield, N. J., Green, J. L., Heimlich, E. M., Hyde, J. S., Moffet, H. L., Young, G. A., and Barron, B. A., Corticosteroid treatment in bronchiolitis, Am. J. Dis. Child. 117: 495–503 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 69.
    Loda, F. A., Clyde, W. A., Glezen, W. P., Senior, R. J., Sheaffer, C. I., and Denny, F. W., Studies On the role of viruses, bacteria and M. pneumoniae as causes of lower respiratory tract infections in children, J. Pediatr. 72: 161–176 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 70.
    Martin, A. J., Gardner, P. S., and Mcquillin, J., Epidemiology of respiratory viral infection among pediatric inpatients over a six-year period in Northeast England, Lancet 2: 1035–1038 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 71.
    Mcintosh, K., Interferon in nasal secretions from infants with viral respiratory tract infections, J. Pediatrics 93: 33–36 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 72.
    Mcintosh, K., Ellis, E. F., Hoffman, L. S., Lybass, T. G., Eller, J. J., and Fulginiti, V. A., The association of viral and bacterial respiratory infections with exacerabations of wheezing in young asthmatic children, J. Pediatr. 82: 578–590 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 73.
    Mcintosh, K., Masters, H. B., Orr, I., Chao, R. K., and Barkin, R. M., The immunologic response to infection with respiratory syncytial virus in infants, J. Infect. Dis 138: 24–32 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 74.
    Mills J., Knopf, H. L. S., Vankirk, J., and Chanock, R. M., Significance of local respiratory tract antibody to respiratory syncytial virus, in: The Secretory linmunological System (D. H. Dayton, JR., P. A. Small, JR., R. M. Chanock, H. E. Kaufman, and T. B. To-Masi, eds.), pp. 149–165, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1971.Google Scholar
  78. 75.
    Mills, J., Vankirk, J. E., Wright, P. F., and Chan- Ocr, R. M., Experimental respiratory syncytial virus infection of adults, J. Immunol. 107: 123–130 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 76.
    Monto, A. S., and Lim, S. K., The Tecumseh study of respiratory illness. III. Incidence and periodicity of respiratory syncytial virus and mycoplasma pneumonia infections, Am. J. Epidemiol. 94: 290–301 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 77.
    Morris, J. A., Blount, R. E., JR., and Savage, R. E., Recovery of cytopathogenic agent from chimpanzees with coryza, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 92: 544 (1956).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 78.
    Mufson, M. A., Levine, H. D., Wasil, R. E., Mocegagonzalez, H. E., and Krause, H. E., Epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus infection among infants and children in Chicago, Am. J. Epidemiol. 98: 88–95 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 79.
    Norrby, E., Myxoviridae: Pseudomyxovirus-Respiratory syncytial (RS) virus, in: Handbook Series in Clinical Laboratory Science (D. SELIGSON, ed.), pp. 401–409, CRC Press, West Palm Beach, Florida, 1979.Google Scholar
  83. 79a.
    Norrby, E., and Gollmar, Y., Identification of measles virus-specific hemolysis-inhibiting antibodies separate from hemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies, Infect. Immun. 11: 231–239, (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 80.
    Norrby, E., Marusyk, H., and Orvell, C., Ultrastruc-tural studies of the multiplication of RS (respiratory syncytial) virus, Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. Sect. B 78: 268 (1970).Google Scholar
  85. 81.
    Paccaud, M. R., and Jacquier, C., A respiratory syncytial virus of bovine origin, Arch. Gesamte Virusforsch. 30: 327–342 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 82.
    Parrott, R. H., Kim, H. W., Arrobio, J. O., Hodes, D. S., Murphy, B. R., Brandt, C. D., Camargo, E., and Chanock, R. M., Epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus infection in Washington, D.C. II. Infection and disease with respect to age, immunologic status, race and sex, Am. J. Epidemiol. 98: 289–300 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 83.
    Parrott, R. H., Vargosko, A. J., Kim, H. W., Gumming, C., Turner, J., Huebner, R. J., and Chanock, R. M., Respiratory syncytial virus. II. Serologic studies over a 34-month period of children with bronchiolitis, pneumonia, and minor respiratory disease, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 176: 653–657 (1961).Google Scholar
  88. 84.
    Polmar, S. H., Robinson, S. D., and Minnefor, A. B., Immunoglobulin E in bronchiolitis, Pediatrics 50: 279–284 (1972).Google Scholar
  89. 85.
    Prince, G. A., Jenson, A. B., Horswood, R. L., Camargo, E., and Chanock, R. M., The pathogenesis of respiratory syncytial virus infection in cotton rats, Am. J. Pathol. 93: 771–783 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 86.
    Prince, G. A., Potash, L., Horswood, R. L., Camargo, E., Suffin, S. C., Johnson, R. A., and Chan-Ock, R. M., Intramuscular inoculation of live respiratory syncytial virus induces immunity in cotton rats, Infect. Immun. 23: 723–728 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 87.
    Pringle, C. R., Shirodaria, P. V., Cash, P., Chiswell, D. J., and Malloy, P., Initiation and maintenance of persistent infection by respiratory syncytial virus, J. Virol. 23: 199–211 (1978).Google Scholar
  92. 88.
    Raven, C., Maverakis, N. H., Eveland, W. C., and Ackerman, W. W., The sudden infant death syndrome: A possible hypersensitivity’ reaction determined by distribution of IgG in lungs, J. Forensic Sci. 23: 116–138 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 89.
    Richardson, L. S., Belshe, R. B., London, W. T., Sly, D. L., Prevar, D. A., Camargo, E., and Chanock, R. M., Evaluation of five temperature sensitive mutants of respiratory syncytial virus in primates. I. Viral shedding, immunologic response and associated illness, J. Med. Virol. 3: 91–100 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 90.
    Richardson, L. S., Yolken, R. H., Belshe, R. B., Camargo, E., Kim, H. W., and Chanock, R. M., Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for measurement of serological response to respiratory syncytial virus infection, Infect. Immun. 23: 660–664 (1978).Google Scholar
  95. 91.
    Ross, C. A. C., Pinkerton, I. W., and Assaad, F. A., Pathogenesis of respiratory syncytial virus diseases in infancy, Arch. Dis. Child. 46: 702–704 (1971).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 92.
    Ross, C. A. C., Stott, E. J., Mcmichael, S., and Crowther, I. A., Problems of laboratory diagnosis or respiratory syncytial virus infection in childhood, Arch. Gesamte Virusforsch. 14: 553–562 (1964).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 93.
    Scott, R., Kaul, A., Chiba, Y., and Ocra, P. L., Development of in vitro correlates of cell-mediated immunity to respiratory syncytial virus infection in humans, J. Infect. Dis. 137: 810–817 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 94.
    Sims, D. G., Downham, M. A. P. S., Gardner, P. S., Webb, J. K. G., and Weightman, D., Study of 8-yearold children with a history of respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis in infancy, Br. Med. J. 1: 11–14 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 95.
    Sommerville, R. G., Respiratory syncytial virus in acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, Lancet 2: 1246–1248 (1963).Google Scholar
  100. 96.
    Spence, L., and Barratt, N., Respiratory syncytial virus associated with acute respiratory infections in Trinidadian patients, Am. J. Epidemiol. 88: 257–266 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 97.
    Sterner, G., Wolontis, S., Bloth, B., and Dehevesy, G., Respiratory syncytial virus: An outbreak of acute respiratory illnesses in home for infants, Acta Paediatr. Scand. 55: 273–279 (1966).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 98.
    Suto, T., Yano, N., Ikeda, M., Mwamoto, M., Takai, S., Shigeta, S., Hinuma, Y., and Ishida, N., Respiratory syncytial virus infection and its serologicepidemiology, Am. J. Epidemiol. 82: 211–224 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 99.
    Tyrrell, D. A. J., Discovering and defining the etiology of acute respiratory disease, Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 88: 77–84 (1963).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 100.
    Tyrrell, D. A. J., A collaborative study of the aetiology of acute respiratory infections in Britain 1961–1964, Br. Med. J. 2: 319–326 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 101.
    Waterson, A. P., and Hobson, D., Relationship between respiratory syncytial virus and Newcastle disease-Parainfluenza group, Br. Med. J. 2: 1166–1167 (1962).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 102.
    Welliver, R. C., Kaul, A., and Ocra, P. L., Cell-mediated immune response to respiratory syncytial virus infection: Relationship to the development of reactive airway disease, J. Pediatr. 94: 370–375 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 103.
    Wright, P. F., Mills, J., and Chanock, R. M., Evaluation of a temperature-sensitive mutant of respiratory syncytial virus in adults, J. Infect. Dis. 124: 505–511 (1971).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 104.
    Wright, P. F., Woodend, W. G., and Chanock, R. M., Temperature-sensitive mutants of respiratory syncytial virus: In vivo studies in hamsters, J. Infect. Dis. 122: 501–512 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 105.
    Wright, P. F., Shinovaki, T., Fleet, W., Sell, S. H., Thompson, J., and Karzon, D. T., Evaluation of live, attenuated respiratory syncytial virus vaccine instance, J. Pediatr. 88: 931–936 (1976).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 106.
    Zakstelskaya, L. Y., and Shendervoch, S. F., On mechanisms of interference of respiratory syncytial virus by influenza A2 virus, Vopr. Virusol. 15: 552–555 (1970).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert M. Chanock
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Hyun Wha Kim
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Carl D. Brandt
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Robert H. Parrott
    • 1
    • 2
    • 2
  1. 1.Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious DiseasesNational Institutes of HealthBethesdaUSA
  2. 2.Children’s Hospital National Medical Center of Washington, D.C.USA
  3. 3.Department of Child Health and DevelopmentGeorge Washington University School of Medicine and Health SciencesUSA

Personalised recommendations