Advertisement

Viral Hepatitis

  • Robert W. McCollum

Abstract

Evidence of acute inflammation of the liver may be observed in association with infections due to a number of different viruses, e.g., members of the herpesvirus group, yellow fever virus, coxsackieviruses, mumps virus, and a group of exotic viruses.(162) The term “viral hepatitis,” however, is usually reserved for those infections due to one of at least three or more different and distinct agents collectively referred to as hepatitis viruses. These include the well-characterized hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV), associated with, respectively, viral hepatitis type A (previously infectious hepatitis) and viral hepatitis type B (serum hepatitis), and the less well-defined non-A, non-B hepatitis virus(es). The clinical manifestations of these infections are sufficiently similar so that until recently, the differential diagnosis of the individual case rested almost entirely on epidemiological information or inference. Several specific serological tests are now available for diagnostic and epidemiological studies of both type A and type B infections. Diagnosis of non-A, non-B hepatitis is still based on exclusion rather than specific serological tests, but the rapid and sustained developments in hepatitis research during the past ten years give promise for early resolution of this remaining area of confusion.

Keywords

Viral Hepatitis Yellow Fever Virus Franklin Institute Australia Antigen Immune Electron Microscopy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    A Cooperative Study, Prophylactic gamma globulin for prevention of endemic hepatitis: Effects of U.S, gamma globulin upon the incidence of viral hepatitis and other infectious diseases in U.S. soldiers abroad, Arch. Intern. Med. 128: 723–738 (1971).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Aach, R. D., Evans, J., and Losee, J., An epidemic of infectious hepatitis possibly due to airborne transmission, Am. J. Epidemiol. 87: 99–109 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Allen, J. G., and Sayman, W. H., Serum hepatitis from transfusions of blood, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 180: 1079–1085 (1962).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Almeida, J., Rubenstein,D., and Stott, E. J., New antigen-antibody system in Australia-antigen-positive hepatitis, Lancet 2: 1225–1227 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Alpert, E., Isselbacher, K. J., and Schur, P. H., The pathogenesis of arthritis associated with viral hepatitis, N. Engl. J. Med. 285: 185–189 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Alter, H. J., Purcell, R. H., and Gerin, J. L., Transmission of hepatitis B to chimpanzees by hepatitis B surface antigen positive saliva and semen, Infect. Immun. 16: 928–933 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Alter, H. J., Purcell, R. H., Holland, P. V., and Popper, H., Transmissible agent in non-A, non-B hepatitis, Lancet 1: 459–463 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bancroft, W., Mundon, F., and Russell, P., Detection of additional antigenic determinants of hepatitis B antigen, J. Immunol. 109: 842–848 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bancroft, W. H., Snitbhan, R., Scott, R., Tingpalapong, M., Watson, W. T., Tanticharoenyos, P., Karwacki, J. J., And Srimarut, S., Transmission of hepatitis B virus to gibbons by exposure to human saliva containing hepatitis B surface antigen, J. Infect. Dis. 135: 79–85 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Batik, O., Craun, G. F., Tuthill, R. W., and Kraemer, D. F., An epidemiologic study of the relationship between hepatitis A and water supply characteristics and treatment, Am. J. Public Health 70: 167–178 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Beasley, R. P., and Stevens, C. E., Vertical trans-mission of HBV and interruption with globulin, in: Viral Hepatitis ( G. N. Vyas, S. N. Cohen, and R. Schmid, (eds.), pp. 333–345, Franklin Institute Press, Philadelphia, 1978.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Beeson, P. B., Chesney, G., and Mcfarlan, A. M., Hepatitis following injection of mumps convalescent plasma, Lancet 1: 814–815 (1974).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Blumberg, B. S., Alter, H. J., and Visnich, S., A “new” antigen in leukemia sera, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 191: 541–546 (1965).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Blumberg, B. S., Gerstley, B. J. S., Hungerford, D. A., London, W. T., and Sutnick, A. I., A serum antigen (Australia antigen) in Down’s syndrome, leukemia and hepatitis, Ann. Intern. Med. 66: 924–931 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bradley, D. W., Cook, E. H., Maynard, J. E., Mccaustland, K. A., Ebert, J. W., Dolana, G. H., Petzel, R. A., Kantor, R. J., Heilbrunn, A., Fields, H. A., and Murphy, B. L., Experimental infection of chimpanzees with antihemophilic (Factor VIII) materials: Recovery of virus-like particles associated with non-A, non-B hepatitis, J. Med. Virol. 3: 253–269 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bradley, D. W., Fields, H. A., Mccaustland, K. A., Maynard, J. E., Decker, R. H., Whittington, R., and Overby, L. R., Serodiagnosis of viral hepatitis A by a modified competitive binding radioimmunoassay for immunoglobulin M and hepatitis A virus, J. Clin. Microbiol. 9: 120–127 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bradley, D. W., Grevelle, C. R., Cook, E. H., Fields, R. M., and Maynard, J. E., Cyclic excretion of hepatitis A virus in experimentally infected chimpanzees: Biophysical characterization of the associated HAV particles, J. Med. Virol. 1: 133–138 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bradley, D. W., Maynard, J. E., Hindman, S. H., Hornbeck, C. L., Fields, H. A., Mccaustland, K. A., and Cook, E. H., Serodiagnosis of viral hepatitis A: Detection of acute phase immunoglobulin M anti-hepatitis A virus by radioimmunoassay, J. Clin. Microbiol. 5: 521–530 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Brotman, B., Prince, A., and Godfrey, H., Role of arthropods in transmission of hepatitis B virus in the tropics, Lancet 1: 1305–1308 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Brzosko, W., Krawczynski, K., Nazarewicz, T., Morzycka, M., And Nowoslawski, A., Glomerulo-nephritis associated with hepatitis B surface antigen immune complexes in children, Lancet 2: 477–481 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Byrne, E. B., Viral hepatitis: An occupational hazard of medical personnel: Experience of the Yale-New Haven Hospital, 1952–1965, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 195: 362–364 (1966).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Cayzer, L, Dane, D. S., Cameron, C. H., and Denning, J. V., A rapid haemagglutination test for hepatitis-B antigen, Lancet 1: 947–949 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Center For Disease Control, Hepatitis Surveillance Report No. 43 (1979).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Center For Disease Control, Hepatitis Surveillance Report No. 44 (1979).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Cherubin, C. E., Nair, S. R., Dienstag, J. L., Purcell, R. H., and Szmuness, W., Antibody to hepatitis A and B in children in New York City, Pediatrics 61: 781–783 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Cline, A. L., Mosley, J. W., and Scovel, F. G., Viral hepatitis among American missionaries abroad: A preliminary study, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 199: 551–553 (1967).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Committee On Viral Hepatitis Of Nrc-Nas, Nomenclature of antigens associated with viral hepatitis type B, Morbid. Mortal. Weekly Rep. 23: 29 (1974).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Craske, J., Spooner, R. J. D., and Vandervelde, E. M., Evidence for existence of at least two types of factor-VIII-associated non-B transfusion hepatitis, Lancet 2: 1051–1052 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Dane, D. S., Cameron, C. H., and Briggs, M., Virus-like particles in serum of patients with Australiaantigen-associated hepatitis, Lancet 1: 695–698 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Deinhardt, F., Holmes, A. W., Capps, R. B., and Popper, H., Studies on the transmission of human viral hepatitis to marmoset monkeys. I. Transmission of disease, serial passage and description of liver lesions, J. Exp. Med. 125: 673–687 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Desmyter, J., Ray, M. B., Bradburne, A. F., and Alexander, J. J., Human HBsAg-positive hepatoma in nude athymic mice, in: Viral Hepatitis (G. N. Vyas, S. N. Cohen, and R. Schmid, eds.), pp. 459–460, Franklin Institute Press, Philadelphia, 1978.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Dick, S. J., Tamburro, C. H., and Leevy, C. M., Hepatitis B antigen in urban-caught mosquitoes, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 229: 1627–1629 (1974).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Dienstag, J. L., Alling, D. W., and Purcell, R. H., Quantitation of antibody to hepatitis A antigen by immune electron microscopy, Infect. Immun. 13: 1209–1213 (1976).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Dienstag, J. L., Bhan, A. K., Alter, H. J., Feinstone, S. M., and Purcell, R. H., Circulating immune complexes in non-A, non-B hepatitis, Lancet 1: 1265–1267 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Dienstag, J. L., Mathieson, L. R., and Purcell, R. H., Test methods and animal models for HAV infection, in: Viral Hepatitis (G. N. Vyas, S, N. Cohen, and R. Schmid, eds.), pp. 13–29, Franklin Institute Press, Philadelphia, 1978.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Duermeyer, W., Wielaard, F., and van Der Veen, J., A new principle for the detection of specific IgM Antibodies applied in an ELISA for hepatitis A, J. Med. Viral. 4: 25–32 (1979).Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Feinman, S. V., Berris, B., Rebane, A., Sinclair, J. C., Wilson, S., and Wrobel, D., Failure to detect hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in feces of HBsAg positive persons, J. Infect. Dis. 140: 407–410 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Feinstone, S. M., Kapikian, A. Z., And Purcell, R. H., Hepatitis A: Detection by immune electron microscopy of a virus-like antigen associated with acute illness, Science 182: 1026–1028 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Frosner, G. G., Papaevangelou, G., Butler, R., Iwarson, S., Lindholm, A., Courouce-Pauty, A., Haas, H., And Deinhardt, F., Antibody against hepatitis A in seven European countries. I. Comparison of prevalence data in different age groups, Am. J. Epidemiol. 110: 63–69 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Gerety, R. J., And Schweitzer, I. L., Viral hepatitis type B during pregnancy, the neonatal period and infancy, J. Pediatr. 90: 368–374 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Gerety, R. J., Tabor, E., Hoofnagle, J. H., Mitchell, F. D., And Barker, L. F., Tests for HBV associated antigens and antibodies, in: Viral Hepatitis (G. N. Vyas, S. N. Cohen, And R. Schmid, eds.), pp. 121–138, Franklin Institute Press, Philadelphia, 1978.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Giles, J. P., Mccollum, R. W., Berndston, L. W., JR., And Krugman, S., Viral hepatitis: Relationship of Australia/SH antigen to the Willowbrook MS-2 strain, N. Engl. J. Med. 281: 119–121 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Gocke, D. J., Hsu, K., Morgan, C., Bombardieri, S., Lockshin, M., AND Christian, C. L., Association between polyarteritis and Australia antigen, Lancet 2: 1149–1153 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Grady, G. F., Viral hepatitis; Passive prophylaxis with globulins-state of the art in 1978, in: Viral Hepatitis (G. N. Vyas, S. N. Cohen, And R. Schmid, eds.), pp. 467–476, Franklin Institute Press, Philadelphia, 1978.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Gregg, M. B., The changing epidemiology of viral hepatitis in the United States, Am. J. Dis. Child. 123: 350–354 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Gust, I. D., Lehmann, N. I., And Dimitrakakis, M., A seroepidemiologic study of infections with HAV and HBV in five Pacific islands, Am. J. Epidemiol. 110: 237–242 (1979).Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Gust, I. D., Lehmann, N. I., Lucas, C. R., Ferris, A. A., And Locarnini, S. A., Studies of the epidemiology of hepatitis A in Melbourne, in: Viral Hepatitis (G. N. Vyas, S. N. Cohen, And R. Schmid, eds.), pp. 105–112, Franklin Institute Press, Philadelphia, 1978.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Havens, W. P., JR., Immunity in experimentally induced infectious hepatitis, J. Exp. Med. 84: 403–406 (1946).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Havens, W. P., JR., Viral hepatitis: Multiple attacks in a narcotic addict, Ann. Intern. Med. 44: 199–203 (1956).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Hayashi, S., Nakamura, R. M., And Giorgi, E., Problems of prevention and detection of hepatitis in personnel of hospital hemodialysis units, J. Occup. Med. 13: 388–392 (1971).Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Heathcote, J., Cameron, C. H., And Dane, D. S., Hepatitis B antigen in saliva and Semen, Lancet 1: 71–75 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Hepatitis Surveillance Report: Sub-human primate- associated hepatitis, Center for Disease Control, U.S. 68. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Atlanta, No. 34, pp. 10–14, (September 1971).Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Hillis, W. D., An outbreak of infectious hepatitis among chimpanzee handlers at a United States Air 69. Force Base, Am. J. Hyg. 73: 316–328 (1961).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Hoofnagle, J. H., Gerety, R. J., And Barker, L. F., Antibody to hepatitis-B virus core in man, Lancet 70. 2: 869–873 (1973).Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Hoofnagle, J. H., Gerety, R. J., NI, L. Y., And Barker, L. F., Antibody to hepatitis B core antigen: A sensitive indicator of hepatitis B virus replication, N. 71. Engl. J. Med. 290: 1336–1340 (1974).Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Ipsen, J., Donovan, W. R., And James, G., Sociologic factors in the spread of epidemic hepatitis in a rural 71a. school district, J. Hyg. 50: 457–470 (1952).Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Joseph, R. P., Millar, J. D., Henderson, D. A., Naumann, R. D., Bagley, C. S., Schlang, H. A., And Shaw, G. A., An outbreak of hepatitis traced to food 72. contamination, N. Engl. J. Med. 273: 188–194 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Jupp, P. G., Prozesky, A. W., Mcelligot, S. E., And Van Wyck, L. O. S., Infection of common bedbug (Cimex lectularius L.) with hepatitis B virus in South Africa, S. Afr. Med. J. 53: 598–600 (1978).Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Kaplan, P. M., Ford, E. C., Purcell, R. H., And Gerin, J. L., Demonstration of subpopulations of Dane particles, J. Virol. 17: 885–893 (1976).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Kaplan, P. M., Greenman, R. L., Gerin, J. L., Pur- Cell, R. H., And Robinson, W. S., DNA polymerase associated with human hepatitis B antigen, J. Virol. 12: 995–1005 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Kew, M. C., Hepatoma and the HBV, in: Viral Hep atitis (G. N. Vyas, S. N. Cohen, And R. Schmid, eds.), pp. 439–450, Franklin Institute Press, Philadelphia, 1978.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Khuroo, M. S., Study of an epidemic of non-A, non- B hepatitis: Possibility of another human hepatitis virus distinct from post-transfusion non-A, non-B type, Am. J. Med. 68: 818–824 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Knodell, R. G., Conrad, M. E., Ginsburg, A. L., Bell, C. J., And Flannery, E. P., Efficacy of prophylactic gamma-globulin in preventing non-A, non-B post-transfusion hepatitis, Lancet 1: 557–561 (1976). 79.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Koff, R. S., Slavin, M. S., Connelly, L. J. D., Posen, D. R., Contagiousness of acute hepatitis B: Secondary attack rates in household contacts, Gastroenterology 72: 297–300 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Krugman, S., The clinical use of gamma globulin, N. Engl. J. Med. 269: 195–201 (1963).Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Krugman, S., And Giles, J. P., Viral hepatitis, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 212: 1019–1029 (1970).Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Krugman, S., Giles, J. P., And Hammond, J., Infectious hepatitis: Evidence for two distinctive clinical, epidemiological and immunological types of infection, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 200: 365–373 (1967).Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Krugman, S., Giles, J. P., Hammond, J., Viral hepatitis type B (Ms-2 strain): Prevention with specific hepatitis B immune serum globulin, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 218: 1665–1670 (1971).Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Krugman, S., Giles, J. P., And Hammond, J., Viral hepatitis Type B (MS-2 strain): Studies on active immunization, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 217: 41–45 (1971).Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Krugman, S., Hoofnagle, J. H., Gerety, R. J., Kaplan, P. M., And Gerin, J. L., Viral hepatitis, type B: DNA polymerase activity and antibody to hepatitis B core antigen, N. Engl. J. Med. 290: 1331–1335 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Krugman, S., Ward, R., And Giles, J. P.: The natural history of infectious hepatitis, Am. J. Med. 32: 717–728 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 71a.
    Lander, J. M., Alter, H. J., And Purcell, R. H., Frequency of antibody to hepatitis associated antigen as measured by a new radioimmunoassay technique, J. Immunol. 106: 1166–1171 (1871).Google Scholar
  73. 72.
    Lebouvier, G. L., The heterogeneity of Australia antigen, J. Infect. Dis. 123: 671–675 (1971).Google Scholar
  74. 73.
    Lebouvier, G., And Williams, A., Serotypes of hepatitis B antigen (HBsAg): The problem of “new” determinants, as exemplified by “t,” Am. J. Med. Sci. 270: 165–171 (1975).Google Scholar
  75. 74.
    Ling, C. M., And Overby, L. R., Prevalence of hepatitis B virus antigen as revealed by direct radioimmune assay with 125I-antibody, J. Immunol. 109: 834–841 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 75.
    Lobel, H. O., And Mccollum, R. W., Some observations on the ecology of infectious hepatitis, Bull. WHO 32: 675–682 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 76.
    Macnab, G. M., Alexander, J. J., Lecacsas, G., Bey, E. M., And Urbanowicz, J. M., Hepatitis B surface antigen produced by a human hepatoma cell line, Br. J. Cancer 34: 509–515 (1976).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 77.
    Magnius, L. O., And Espmark, J. A., New specificities in Australia antigen positive sera distinct from the LeBouvier determinants, J. Immunol. 109: 1017–1021 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 78.
    Marmion, B. P., And Tonkin, R. W., Control of hepatitis in dialysis units, Br. Med. Bull. 28: 169–179 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 79.
    Mascoli, C., Ittensohn, O., Villarejos, V., Argue- Das, J., Provost, P., And Hilleman, M.: Recovery of hepatitis agents in the marmoset from human cases occurring in Costa Rica, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 142: 276–282 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 80.
    Mathiesen, L. R., Feinstone, S. M., Wong, D. C., Skinhoj, P., And Purcell, R. H., Enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay for detection of hepatitis A antigen in stool and antibody to hepatitis A antigen in sera: Comparison with solid-phase radioimmunoassay, immune electron microscopy, and immune adherence hemagglutination assay, J. Clin. Microbiol. 7: 184–193 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 81.
    Maupas, P., Goudeau, A., Coursaget, P., Drucker, J., And Bagros, P., Hepatitis B vaccine: Efficacy in high risk settings, a two year study, Intervirology 10: 196–208 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 82.
    Mazzur, S., Menstrual blood as a vehicle of Australia antigen transmission, Lancet 1: 749–751 (1975).Google Scholar
  84. 83.
    Mazzur, S., Burgert, S., and Blumberg, B. S., Geo-graphical distribution of Australia antigen determi- nants d, y, and w, Nature (London) 247: 38–40 (1974).Google Scholar
  85. 84.
    Mcauliffe, V. J., And Purcell, R. H., Current status of tests for HBeAg and anti-HBe, in: Viral Hepatitis (G. N. Vyas, S. N. Cohen, AND R. Schmid, eds.), pp. 161–191, Franklin Institute Press, Philadelphia, 1978.Google Scholar
  86. 85.
    Melnick, J. L., A water-borne urban epidemic of hepatitis, in: Hepatitis Frantiers (F. W. Hartman, ed.), pp. 211–225, Little Brown, Boston, 1957.Google Scholar
  87. 86.
    Miller, W. J., Provost, P. J., Mcaleer, W. J., Ittensohn, O. L., Villarejos, V. M., And Hilleman, M. R., Specific immune adherence assay for human hepatitis A antibody: Application to diagnostic and epidemiologic investigations (38783), Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 149: 254–261 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 87.
    Moritsugu, Y., Tomoyuki, T., And Shikata, T., A preliminary serologic survey of hepatitis A virus infection in Japan, Jpn. J. Med. Sci. Biol. 31: 325–338 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 88.
    Morse, L. J., Bryan, J. A., Hurley, J. P., Murphy, J. F., O’brien, T. F., And Wacker, W. E., The Holy Cross College football team hepatitis outbreak, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 219: 706–798 (1972).Google Scholar
  90. 89.
    Mosley, J. W., The epidemiology of viral hepatitis: An overview, Am. J. Med. Sic. 270: 253–270 (1975).Google Scholar
  91. 90.
    Mosley, J. W., Edwards, V. M., Meihaus, J. E., And Redeker, A. G., Subdeterminants d and y of hepatitis B antigen as epidemiologic markers, Am. J. Epidemiol. 95: 529–535 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 91.
    Mosley, J. W., Redeker, A. G., Feinstone, S. M., And Purcell, R. H., Multiple hepatitis viruses in multiple attacks of acute viral hepatitis, N. Engl. J. Med. 296: 75–78 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 92.
    Nordenfelt, E., AND Dalquist, E., HBeAg positive adopted children as a cause of intrafamilial spread of hepatitis B, Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 10: 161–163 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 93.
    Nordenfelt, E., AND Lebouvier, G., Hepatitis B an-tigen with both d and y subspecificities on the same particle, Intervirology 2: 65–74 (1973).Google Scholar
  95. 94.
    Obata, H., Hayashi, N., Motoike, Y., Hisamitsu, J., Okuda, H., Kobayashi, S., And Nishioka, K., A pro-spective study on the development of hepatocellular carcinoma from liver cirrhosis with persistent hepatitis B infection, Int. J. Cancer 25: 741–747 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 95.
    Okada, K., Kamiyama, I., Inomata, M., Mitsunobu, I., Miyakawa, Y., And Mayumi, M.: e antigen and anti-e in the serum of asymptomatic carrier mothers as indicators of positive and negative transmission of hepatitis B virus to their infants, N. Engl. J. Med. 294: 746–749 (1976).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 96.
    Okochi, K., and Murakami, S., Observations on Australia antigen in Japanese, Vox Sang. 15: 374–385 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 97.
    Papaevangelou, G., And Kourea-Kremastinou, T., Role of mosquitoes in transmission of hepatitis B virus infection, J. Infect. Dis. 130: 78–80 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 98.
    Papaevangelou, G., Trichopoulos, D., Kremastinou, T., And Papoutsakis, G., Prevalence of hepa-titis B antigen and antibody in prostitutes, Br. Med. J. 2: 256–258 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 99.
    Pasek, M., Goto, T., Gilbert, W., Zink, B., Schaller, H., Mackay, P., Leadbetter, G., And Murray, K., Hepatitis B virus genes and their expression in E. coli, Nature (London) 282: 575–579 (1979).Google Scholar
  101. 100.
    Paul, J. R., And Gardner, H. T., “Viral hepatitis”: Preventive medicine in World War II, Communicable Dis. 5: 411–462 (1960).Google Scholar
  102. 101.
    Peterson, M. R., Barker, L. F., And Shade, D. S., Detection of antibody to hepatitis-associated antigen in hemophilia patients and in voluntary blood donors, Vox Sang. 24: 66–75 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 102.
    Piazza, M., Distasio, G., Maio, G., And Marzano, L., Hepatitis B antigen inhibitor in human feces and intestinal mucosa, Br. Med. J. 2: 334–337 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 103.
    Polakoff, S., Decrease in the incidence of hepatitis in dialysis units associated with prevention programme, Br. Med. J. 4: 751–754 (1974).Google Scholar
  105. 104.
    Prince, A. M., An antigen detected in the blood during the incubation period of serum hepatitis, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 60: 814–821 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 105.
    Propert, S. A., Hepatitis after prophylactic serum, Br. Med. J. 2: 677–678 (1938).Google Scholar
  107. 106.
    Provost, P. J., And Hilleman, M. R., An inactivated hepatitis A virus vaccine prepared from infected marmoset liver, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 159: 201–203 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 107.
    Provost, P. J., And Hilleman, M. R., Propagation of human hepatitis A virus in cell culture in vitro, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 160: 213–221 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 108.
    Provost, P. J., Ittensohn, O. L., Villarejos, V. M., Arguedas, J., Hilleman, M. R., Etiologic relationship of marmoset-propagated CR326 hepatitis A virus to hepatitis in man, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 142: 1257–1267 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 109.
    Provost, P. J., Ittensohn, O. L., Villarejos, V. M., And Hilleman, M. R., A specific complement-fixation test for human hepatitis A employing CR326 virus antigen: Diagnosis and epidemiology (38669), Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 148: 962–969 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 110.
    Purcell, R. H., Wong, D. C., Moritsugu, Y., Dienstag, J. L., Routenberg, J. A., And Boggs, J. D., A microtiter solid-phase radioimmunoassay for hepatitis A antigen and antibody, J. Immunol. 116: 349–356 (1976).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 111.
    Rakala, J., And Redeker, A. G., Long term follow-up after HBsAg negative hepatitis, Gastroenterology 72: 902–909 (1977).Google Scholar
  113. 112.
    Redeker, A., Mosley, J., Gocke, D., Mckee, A., And Pollack, W., Hepatitis B immune globulin as a prophylactic measure for spouses exposed to acute type B hepatitis, N. Engl. J. Med. 293: 1055–1059 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 113.
    Reesink, H. W., Reesink-Brongers, E. E., Lafeberschut, B. M. T., Kalshoven-Benschop, J., And Brummelhuis, H. G. J., Prevention of chronic HBsAg carrier state in infants of HBsAg-positive mothers by hepatitis B immunoglobulin, Lancet 2: 436–437 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 114.
    Roos, B., Hepatitepidemi spridd genom ostron, Svenska Lakert 53: 989–1003 (1956).Google Scholar
  116. 115.
    Ruddy, S., Johnson, R., Mosley, J., Atwater, J., Rossetti, M., And Hart, J., An epidemic of clam-associated hepatitis, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 208: 649–655 (1969).Google Scholar
  117. 116.
    Schweitzer, I. L., Mosley, J. W., Ashcavai, M., Ed-Wards, V. M., And Overby, L. B., Factors influencing neonatal infection by hepatitis B virus, Gastroenterology 65: 277–283 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 117.
    Seef, L. B., Zimmerman, H. W., Wright, E. C., And Mccollum, R. W., VA Cooperative study of post-transfusion hepatitis, 1969–1974: Incidence and characteristics of hepatitis and responsible risk factors, Am. J. Med. Sci. 270: 355–362 (1975).Google Scholar
  119. 118.
    Shikata, T.: Primary liver carcinoma and liver cirrhosis, in: Hepatocellular Carcinoma (K. Okunda and R. L. Peters, eds.), pp. 53–71, John Wiley, New York, 1976.Google Scholar
  120. 119.
    Shimizu, Y. K., Feinstone, S. M., Purcell, R. H., Alter, H. J., And London, W. T., Non-A, non-b hepatitis: Ultrastructural evidence for two agents in experimentally infected chimpanzees, Science 205: 197–200 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 120.
    Shirachi, R., Shiraishi, H., Tateda, A., Kikuchi, K., And Ishida, N., Hepatitis “C” antigen in non-A, non-B post-transfusion hepatitis, Lancet 2: 853–856 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 121.
    Singleton, J. W., Kohler, P. F., And Merrill, D., Infectivity risk of household contact with chronic carriers of hepatitis B antigen, Gastroenterology 64: 172 (1973).Google Scholar
  123. 122.
    Skinhoj, P., Mikkelsen, F., And Hollinger, F. B., Hepatitis A in Greenland: Importance of specific antibody testing in epidemiologic surveillance, Am. J. Epidemiol. 105: 140–147 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 123.
    Smith, B. F., Occurrence of hepatitis in recently tatooed service personnel, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 144: 1074–1076 (1950).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 124.
    Smith, J. L., Maynardj., Berquist, K. R., Doto, I. L., Webster, H. M., And Siieller, M. J., Comparative risk of hepatitis B among physicians and dentists, J. Infect. Dis. 133: 705–706 (1976).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 125.
    Snydman, D. R., Bregman, D., And Bryan, J. A., Hemodialysis-associated hepatitis in the United States, 1974, J. Infect. Dis. 135: 687–691 (1977).Google Scholar
  127. 126.
    Soulier, J. P., Blatix, C., Courouce, A. M., Bensamon, P., Amouch, P., And Drouet, J., Prevention of virus B hepatitis (SH hepatitis), Am. J. Dis. Child. 123: 429–435 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 127.
    Steigman, F., Human, S., And Goldbloom, R., Infectious hepatitis (homologous serum type) in drug addicts, Gastroenterology 15: 642–645 (1950).Google Scholar
  129. 128.
    Stevens, C., Beasley, P., Tsui, J., And Lee, W., Vertical transmission of hepatitis B antigen in Taiwan, N. Engl. J. Med. 292: 771–774 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 129.
    Stokes, J. JR., And Neefe, J. R., The prevention and attenuation of infectious hepatitis by gamma globulin, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 127: 144–145 (1945).Google Scholar
  131. 130.
    Summers, J., Smolec, J. M., And Snyder, R., A virus similar to human hepatitis B virus associated with hepatitis and hepatoma in woodchucks, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 75: 4533–4537 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 131.
    Szmuness, W., Hepatocellular carcinoma and the hepatitis B virus: Evidence for a causal association, Prog. Med. Virol. 24: 40–49 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 132.
    Szmuness, W., Large scale efficacy trials of hepatitis B vaccines in the USA: Baseline data and protocols, J. Med. Virol. 4: 327–40 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 133.
    Szmuness, W., Dienstag, J. L., Purcell, R. H., Stevens, C. E., Wong, D. C., Ikram, H., Bar-Shany, S., Beasley, R. P., Desmyter, J., And Gaon, J. A., The prevalence of antibody to hepatitis A antigen in various parts of the world: A pilot study, Am. J. Epidemiol. 106: 392–398 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 134.
    Szmuness, W., Harley, E. J., And Prince, A. M., Intrafamilial spread of asymptomatic hepatitis B, Am. J. Med. Sci. 270: 293–304 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 135.
    Szmuness, W., Hirsch, R. L., Prince, A. M., Levine, R. W., Harley, E. J., And Ikram, H., Hepatitis B surface antigen in blood donors: Further observations, J. Infect. Dis. 131: 111–117 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 136.
    Szmuness, W., Much, I., Prince, A., Hoofnagle, J., Cherubin, C., Harley, E., And Block, G., On the role of sexual behavior in the spread of hepatitis B infection, Ann. Intern. Med. 83: 489–495 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 137.
    Szmuness, W., And Prince, A. M., Epidemiologic patterns of viral hepatitis in Eastern Europe in the light of recent findings concerning the serum hepatitis antigen, J. Infect. Dis. 123: 200–212 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 138.
    Szmuness, W., Prince, A. M., Brotman, B., and Hirsch, R. L., Hepatitis B antigen and antibody in blood donors: An epidemiologic study, J. Infect. Dis. 127: 17–25 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 139.
    Szmuness, W., Prince, A., Goodman, M., Ehrich, C., Pick, R., And Ansari, M., Hepatitis B immune serum globulin in prevention of nonparenterally transmitted hepatitis B, N. Engl. J. Med. 290: 701–706 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 140.
    Szmuness, W., Prince, A., Hirsch, R., And Brotman, B., Familial clustering of hepatitis B infection, N. Engl. J. Med. 289: 1162–1166 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 141.
    Szmuness, W., Stevens, C. E., Harley, E. J., Zang, E. A., Oleszko, W. R., William, E. C., Sadovsky, R., Morrison, J. M., And Kellner, A., Hepatitis B Vaccine demonstration of efficacy in a controlled clinical trial in a high risk population, N. Engl. J. Med. 303: 833–841 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 142.
    Tabor, E., Gerety, R. J., and Barker, L. F., Detection of e antigen during acute and chronic hepatitis B virus infections in chimpanzees, J. Infect. Dis. 136: 541–547 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 143.
    Tabor, E., Gerety, R. J., Drucker, J. A., Seef, L. B., Hoofnagle, J. H., Jackson, D. R., April, M., Barker, L. F., And Pineda-Tamondong, G., Transmission of non-A, non-B hepatitis from man to chimpanzee, Lancet 1: 463–466 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 144.
    Tabor, E., Seef, L. B., And Gerety, R., Lack of SUSceptibility of marmosets to human non-A, non-B hepatitis, J. Infect. Dis. 140: 794–797 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 145.
    Takekoshi, Y., Tanaka, M., Miyakawa, Y., Hiroshi, Y., Takekoshi, K., And Mayumi, M., Free “small” and IgG-associated “large” hepatitis B e antigen in the serum and glomerular capillary walls of two patients with membranous glomerulonephritis, N. Engl. J. Med. 300: 814–819 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 146.
    Taylor, J. S., Shmunes, E., And Holmes, A. W., Hepatitis B in plasma fractionation workers, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 230: 850–853 (1974).Google Scholar
  148. 147.
    Tong, M. J., Weiner, J. M., Ashcavai, M. W., Redeker, A. G., Comparini, S., And Vyas, G. N.: A com-parative study of hepatitis B viral markers in the family members of Asian and non-Asian patients with hepatitis B surface antigen-positive hepatocellular carcinoma and with chronic hepatitis B infection, J. Infect. Dis. 140: 506–512 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 148.
    Trepo, C. G., Vitvitski, L., Hantz, O., And Prince, A. M., Detection in serum of a precipitating antigen antibody system supposedly associated with non-A non-B hepatitis, Infection 7: 209 (1979).Google Scholar
  150. 149.
    Trichopoulos, D., Gerety, R. J., Sparros, L., Tabor, E., Xirouchaki, E., Munoz, N., And Linsell, C. A., Hepatitis B and primary hepatocellular carcinoma in a European population, Lancet 2: 1217–1219 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 150.
    Tripatzis, I., Australia antigen in urine and feces, Am. J. Dis. Child. 123: 401–404 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 151.
    Villarejos, V., Gutierrez, A., And Pelon, W., Iden-tification of a type b hepatitis epidemic in Costa Rica, Am. J. Epidemiol. 96: 372–378 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 152.
    Villarejos, V. M., Provost, P. J., Ittensohn, O. L., Mclean, A. A., And Hilleman, M. R., Seroepide-miologic investigations of human hepatitis caused by A, B and a possible third virus, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 152: 524–528 (1976).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 153.
    Villarejos, V. M., Visona, K. A., Gutierrez, A., And Rodriguez, A., Role of saliva, urine and feces in the transmission of type B hepatitis, N. Engl. J. Med. 291: 1375–1378 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 154.
    Vitvitski, L., Prince, A. M., Trepo, C., And Brotman, B., Detection of virus-associated antigen in serum and liver of patients with non-A/non-B hepatitis, Lancet 2: 1263–1267 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 155.
    Voegt, H., Zur Aetiologie der Hepatitis Epidemica, Muench. Med. Wochenschr. 89: 76–79 (1942).Google Scholar
  157. 156.
    Vyas, G. N., And Shulman, N. R., Hemagglutination assay for antigen and antibody associated with viral hepatitis, Science 170: 332–333 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 157.
    Walsh, J. H., Yalow, R., And Berson, S. D., Detec-tion of Australia antigen and antibody by means of radioimmunoassay techniques, J. Infect. Dis. 121: 550–554 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 158.
    Williams, A., And Lebouvier, G., Heterogeneity and thermo-lability of “e,” Bibl. Haematol. 42: 71–75 (1976).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 159.
    Wills, W., Larouge, B., London, W. J., Millman, I., Werner, B. G., Ogston, W., Pourtaghva, M., Diallo, S., And Blumberg, B. S., Hepatitis B virus in bedbugs (Cimex hemipterus) from Senegal, Lancet 2: 217–219 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 160.
    Wolters, G., Kuijpers, L. P. C., Kocaki, J., And Schuurs, H. W. M., Enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay for hepatitis B surface antigen, J. Infect. Dis. 136: S311 - S317 (1877).Google Scholar
  162. 161.
    World Health Organization Expert Committee, Ad-vances in viral hepatitis, Tech. Rep. Ser., No. 602, WHO, Geneva (1977).Google Scholar
  163. 162.
    Zuckerman, A. J., And Simpson, D. I. H.: Exotic virus infections of the liver, in: Progress in Liver Diseases, Vol. VI (H. Popper, And F. Schaffner, eds.), pp. 425–538, Grune and Stratton, New York, 1979.Google Scholar

Suggested Reading

  1. Alter, H. J., Hepatitis B, Semin. in Liver Dis. 1:1–87, (1981).Google Scholar
  2. Kopf, R. S., Viral Hepatitis, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1978.Google Scholar
  3. Krugman, S. and Gocke, D. J. Viral Hepatitis, W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1978.Google Scholar
  4. Szmuness, W., Alter, H. J. And Maynard, J. E., eds. Viral Hepatitis. The Franklin Institute Press, Philadelphia, 1982, in press.Google Scholar
  5. WHO Expert Committee. Advances in Viral Hepatitis, Tech. Rep. Ser. No. 602. WHO, Geneva, (1977).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert W. McCollum
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Epidemiology and Public HealthYale University School of MedicineNew HavenUSA

Personalised recommendations