Monitoring Follicular Development with Ultrasound
Ultrasound scanning of the pelvis to demonstrate the ovaries and to directly visualize the presence, size, and number of developing follicles has significantly increased over the past few years as a safe and reliable noninvasive method and has become an integral part of most in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) programs throughout the world. Ultrasound has been used to assess human follicular development in spontaneous cycles (Queenan et al., 1980), and in stimulated cycles during which patients were given either clomiphene citrate (O’Herlihy et al., 1980a), human menopausal gonadotropin (Ylostalo et al., 1981), or a combination of both (Hoult et al., 1981). Although many centers treating human infertility by IVF-ET utilize primarily measurements of serum or urinary estrogen to monitor follicular maturation (see Chapter 9), essentially all centers also rely upon ultrasonographic scanning to determine follicular size, location, and number.
KeywordsEmbryo Transfer Corpus Luteum Ovarian Follicle Follicular Development Dominant Follicle
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