Enhanced Follicular Development with Clomiphene Citrate and Human Chorionic Gonadotropin

  • Cecilia L. Schmidt


The unifying goal of pregnancy underlies diverse strategies to monitor and/or control the ovulatory cycles of women undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET). This goal requires either stringent surveillance of an unperturbed spontaneous follicular phase, as detailed in the previous chapter, or hormonal regulation of the cohort stage. Edwards et al. (1980b) credited their change from stimulated cycles to spontaneous cycles as the major breakthrough responsible for their first (Steptoe and Edwards, 1978) and subsequent pregnancies. They cautioned other investigators about the derangements of follicular steroidogenesis caused by ovarian hyperstimulation (Edwards and Steptoe, 1975). However, Trounson et al. (1981) and Johnston et al. (1981) proved that clomiphene citrate given daily from days 5 through 9 of the menstrual cycle within the context of an IVF-ET program could result in viable pregnancies. We have elected to follow the latter approach in an attempt to achieve maturation of multiple pre-ovulatory follicles and to intervene in the biologic clock of ovulation.


Granulosa Cell Embryo Transfer Luteal Phase Follicular Fluid Large Follicle 
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© Plenum Press, New York 1984

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  • Cecilia L. Schmidt

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