• Paul D. Webb
  • Stanley R. Glasser


Studies from several countries over the last two centuries have shown that the chances of a fertile couple producing viable offspring in any one menstrual cycle is about 25% (Vessey et al., 1976; Short, 1979). Unfortunately little data is available on what percentage of the failure is due to ovulatory, fertilization, implantation, or developmental dysfunction. In farm animals there is a high incidence of early embryonic loss; in the case of the pig as large as 30–40%. This also appears to be the situation in the human where it has been estimated that such losses may be as high as 50% of presumed conceptions (Leridon, 1977; Short, 1979). The majority of these spontaneously aborted embryos are either genetically or morphologically abnormal. Laboratory and domestic species exhibit a behavioral period (estrus) during their reproductive cycles when females will accept males and copulate. Although the human reproductive cycle has a similar hormonal basis, acceptance of the male is not restricted to an exclusive period of behavior. It is of interest therefore that in comparison with domestic species, fecundity in humans is low. To date, the success rates achieved by IVF-ET protocols are, at 15–20%, only marginally below the accepted norm.


Embryo Transfer Endometrial Cell Luminal Epithelium Decidual Cell Implantation Process 
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© Plenum Press, New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul D. Webb
  • Stanley R. Glasser

There are no affiliations available

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