Advertisement

Measurement of Anxiety

  • Alan S. Bellack
  • Thomas W. Lombardo

Abstract

Adequate assessment is integral to both clinical work and research on anxiety. Historically, assessment strategies differed between research and clinical prac tice. Quantitative, empirical evaluation using standardized measures was the domain of research, while more limited, idiosyncratic subjective assessments were customary in clinical practice. It is now becoming increasingly evident that idiosyncratic and standardized measurements of anxiety are important to both clinicians and researchers. First, there is more demand for accountability. Whether documenting the need for treatment to third party payers, substantiating treatment gains to funding agencies, or providing empirical dependent measures in research, objective data are increasingly more important.

Keywords

Anxiety Disorder Behavior Therapy Panic Attack Test Anxiety Behavioral Assessment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Akutagawa, D. A study in the construct validity of the psychoanalytic concept of latent anxiety and test of a projection hypothesis. Unpublished dissertation, University of Pittsburgh, 1956.Google Scholar
  2. Andrasik, F., Turner, S. M., & Ollendick, T. H. Self-report and physiologic responding during in vivo flooding. Behaviour Research and Therapy ,1980, 18 ,593–595.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Arkowitz, H., Lichtenstein, E., McGovern, K., & Hines, P. The behavioral assessment of social competence in males. Behavior Therapy ,1975, 6 ,3–13.Google Scholar
  4. Bandura, A. Principles of behavior modification. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1969.Google Scholar
  5. Barlow, D. H., & Wolfe, B. E. Behavioral approaches to anxiety disorders: A report on the NIMH-SUNY, Albany, Research Conference. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psy chology ,1981,49, 448–459.Google Scholar
  6. Barlow, D. H., Mavissakalian, M. R., & Schofield, L. D. Patterns of desynchrony in agorapho bia: A preliminary report. Behaviour Research and Therapy ,1980, 18 ,441–448.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Beck, A. T. Cognitive therapy and the emotional disorders. New York: International Universities Press, 1976.Google Scholar
  8. Beck, A. T., Ward, C. H., Mendelson, M., Mack, J., & Erbaugh, J. An inventory for measuring depression. Archives of General Psychiatry ,1961, 4 ,561–571.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bell, I. R., & Schwartz, G. E. Voluntary control and reactivity of the human heart rate. Psy chophysiology ,1975, 12 ,339–348.Google Scholar
  10. Bellack, A. S. A critical appraisal of strategies for assessing social skill. Behavioral Assessment ,1979, 1 ,157–176.Google Scholar
  11. Bellack, A. S., & Hersen, M. The use of self-report inventories in behavioral assessment. In J. D. Cone & R. P. Hawkins (Eds.), Behavioral assessment: New directions in clinical psychology. New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1977. (a)Google Scholar
  12. Bellack, A. S., & Hersen, M. Behavior modification: An introductory textbook. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1977. (b)Google Scholar
  13. Bellack, A. S., Hersen, M., & Lamparski, D. Role play tests for assessing social skills: Are they valid? Are they useful? Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology ,1979, 47 ,335–347.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bellack, A. S., Hersen, M., & Turner, S. M. The relationship of role playing and knowledge of appropriate behavior to assertion in the natural environment. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology ,1979, 47 ,670–678. (a)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bellack, A. S., Hersen, M., & Turner, S. M. Role play tests for assessing social skills: Are they valid? Behavior Therapy ,1979, 9 ,448–461. (b)Google Scholar
  16. Bernstein, D. A. Situational factors in behavioral fear assessment: A progress report. Behavior Therapy ,1973, 4 ,41–48.Google Scholar
  17. Bernstein, D. A., & Nietzel, M. T. Behavioral avoidance tests: The effects of demand characteristics and repeated measures of two types of subjects. Behavior Therapy ,1974, 5 ,183– 192.Google Scholar
  18. Blom, B. E., & Craighead, W. E. The effects of situational and instructional demand on indices of speech anxiety. Journal of Abnormal Psychology ,1974, 88 ,667–674.Google Scholar
  19. Borkovec, T. D. The effects of instructional suggestion and physiological cues on analogue fear. Behavior Therapy ,1973, 4 ,185–192. (a)Google Scholar
  20. Borkovec, T. D. The role of expectancy and physiological feedback in fear research: A review with special reference to subject characteristics. Behavior Therapy ,1973, 4 ,491–505. (b)Google Scholar
  21. Borkovec, T. D. Physiological and cognitive processes in the regulation of anxiety. In G. E. Schwartz & D. Shapiro (Eds.), Consciousness and self-regulation: Advances in research and theory (Vol. 1). New York: Plenum, 1976.Google Scholar
  22. Borkovec, T. D., & Craighead, W. E. The comparison of two methods of assessing fear and avoidance behavior. Behaviour Research and Therapy ,1971, 9 ,285–291.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Borkovec, T. D., Stone, N. M., O’Brien, G. T., & Kaloupek, D. G. Identification and measurement of a clinically relevant target behavior for analogue outcome research. Behavior Ther apy ,1974, 5 ,503–513.Google Scholar
  24. Borkovec, T. D., Weerts, T. C., & Bernstein, D. A. Assessment of anxiety. In A. R. Ciminero, K. S. Calhoun, & H. E. Adams (Eds.), Handbook of behavioral assessment. New York: Wiley, 1977.Google Scholar
  25. Braun, P. R., & Reynolds, D. N. A factor analysis of a 100-item fear survey inventory. Behav iour Research and Therapy ,1969, 7 ,399–402.Google Scholar
  26. Brodman, K., Erdman, A. J., Lorge, I., & Wolff, H. G. The Cornell Medical Index. I. An adjunct to medical interviews. Journal of the American Medical Association ,1949, 140 ,530.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Cannon, W. B. Bodily changes in pain, hunger, fear, and rage. New York: Appleton-Century Crofts, 1915.Google Scholar
  28. Christoff, K. A., & Edelstein, B. A. Functional aspects of assertive and aggressive behavior: Laboratory and in vivo observations. Paper presented at the meeting of the Association for Advancement of Behavior Therapy, Toronto, November 1981.Google Scholar
  29. Cohn, C. K. ,Kron, H. D., & Brady, J. P. A case of blood-illness-injury phobia treated behaviorally. Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases ,1976, 162 ,65–68.Google Scholar
  30. Cone, J. D. The relevance of reliability and validity for behavioral assessment. Behavior Ther apy ,1977, 8 ,411–426.Google Scholar
  31. Cone, J. D. Confounded comparisons in triple response mode assessment research. Behavioral Assessment ,1979, 1 ,85–95.Google Scholar
  32. Connolly, J., Hallam, R. S., & Marks, I. M. Selective association of fainting with blood-illnessinjury fear. Behavior Therapy ,1976, 7 ,8–13.Google Scholar
  33. Craighead, W. E. The assessment of avoidance responses on the Levis Phobic Test Apparatus. Behavior Therapy ,1973, 4 ,235–240.Google Scholar
  34. Cronbach, L. J. Essentials of psychological testing (2nd ed.). New York: Harper & Row, 1960.Google Scholar
  35. Dmitruk, O. M., Collins, K. W., & Clinger, D. L. The “Barnum Effect” and acceptance of negative personal evaluation. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology ,1973, 41 ,192–195.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Dollard, J., & Miller, N. E. Personality and psychotherapy: An analysis in terms of learning, thinking, and culture. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1950.Google Scholar
  37. Edelberg, R. Electrodermal recovery rate, goal orientation, and aversion. Psychophysiology ,1972, 9 ,512–520.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Eble, R. Must all tests be valid? American Psychologist ,1961, 16 ,640–647.Google Scholar
  39. Emmelkamp, P. M. G., & Emmelkamp-Benner, A. Effects of historically portrayed modeling and group treatment on self-observation: A comparison with agoraphobics. Behaviour Research and Therapy ,1975, 13 ,135–139.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Emmelkamp, P. M. G., & Wessels, H. Flooding in imagination vs. flooding in vivo: A comparison with agoraphobics. Behaviour Research and Therapy ,1975, 13 ,7–15.Google Scholar
  41. Emmelkamp, P. M. G., Kuipers, A. C. M., & Eggeraat, J. B. Cognitive modification versus prolonged exposure in vivo A comparison with agoraphobics as subjects. Behaviour Research and Therapy ,1978, 16 ,33–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Endler, N. S., & Okada, M. A multidimensional measure of trait anxiety: The S-R Inventory of General Trait Anxiousness. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology ,1975, 43 ,319–329.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Endler, N. S., Hunt, J. McV., & Rosenstein, A. J. An S-R inventory of anxiousness. Psychological Monographs ,1962, 76 (Whole No. 536).Google Scholar
  44. Engel, B. T. Response specificity. In N. S. Greenfield & R. A. Sternbach (Eds.), Handbook of psychophysiology. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1972.Google Scholar
  45. Fairbank, J. A., & Keane, T. M. Flooding for combat-related stress disorders: Assessment of anxiety reduction across traumatic memories. Behavior Therapy ,in press.Google Scholar
  46. Fairbank, J. A., Langley, K., Jarvie, G. J., & Keane, T. M. A selected bibliography on post traumatic stress disorders in Vietnam veterans. Professional Psychology ,1981, 12 ,578–586.Google Scholar
  47. Fazio, A. F. Implosive therapy with semiclinical phobias. Journal of Abnormal Psychology ,1972, 80, 183–188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Freedman, A. M., Kaplan, H. I., & Sadock, B. J. Comprehensive textbook of psychiatry (2nd ed.; Vol. 1). Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1975.Google Scholar
  49. Galassi, M. D., & Galassi, J. P. The effects of role playing variations on the assessment of assertive behavior. Behavior Therapy ,1976, 7, 343–347.Google Scholar
  50. Galassi, J. P., Frierson, H. T., & Sharer, R. Behavior of high, moderate and low test anxious students during an actual test situation. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology ,1981,49, 51–62. (a)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Galassi, J. P., Frierson, H. T., & Sharer, R. Concurrent versus retrospective assessment in test anxiety research. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology ,1981, 49 ,614–615. (b)Google Scholar
  52. Geer, J. H. The development of a scale to measure fear. Behaviour Research and Therapy ,1965, 3 ,45–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Gelder, M. G., & Marks, I. M. Severe agoraphobia: A controlled prospective trial of behavior therapy. British Journal of Psychiatry ,1966, 112 ,309–319.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Glennon, B., & Weisz, J. R. An observational approach to the assessment of anxiety in young children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology ,1978, 46 ,1246–1257.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Goldfried, M. R., & Trier, C. S. Effectiveness of relaxation as an active coping skill. Journal of Abnormal Psychology ,1974, 83 ,348–355.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Goldfried, M. R., Decenteceo, E. T., & Weinberg, L. Systematic rational restructuring as a selfcontrol technique. Behavior Therapy ,1974, 5 ,247–254.Google Scholar
  57. Gulas, I., McClanahan, L. D., & Poetter, R. Phobic response factors from the fear survey sched ule. Journal of Psychology ,1975, 90 ,19–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Hall, C. S. & Lindzey, G. Theories of personality. New York: Wiley, 1970.Google Scholar
  59. Hall, R. C. Anxiety. In R. C. Hall (Ed.), Psychiatric presentations of medical illness. New York: S. P. Medical and Scientific Books, 1980.Google Scholar
  60. Hersen, M. Self-assessment of fear. Behavior Therapy ,1973, 4 ,241–257.Google Scholar
  61. Hersen, M., & Bellack, A. S. Social skills training for chronic psychiatric patients: Rationale, research findings, and future directions. Comprehensive Psychiatry ,1976, 17 ,559–580.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Hodgson, R., & Rachman, S. Desynchrony in measures of fear. Behaviour Research and Therapy ,1974, 12 ,319–326.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Horst, P. Personality: Measurement of dimensions. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1968.Google Scholar
  64. Hugdahl, K. The three-systems model of fear and emotion-A critical examination. Behaviour Research and Therapy ,1981, 19 ,75–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Husek, T. R., & Alexander, S. The effectiveness of the anxiety differential in examination stress situations. Educational and Psychological Measurement ,1963, 23 ,309–318.Google Scholar
  66. James. W. What is an emotion? Mind ,1884, 9 ,188–205.Google Scholar
  67. Katkin, E. S. Relationship between manifest anxiety and two indices of autonomic response to stress. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology ,1965, 2 ,324–333.Google Scholar
  68. Katkin, E. S. The relationship between a measure of transitory anxiety and spontaneous autonomic activity. Journal of Abnormal Psychology ,1966, 71 ,142–146.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Katkin, E. S. Eletrodermal lability: A psychophysiological analysis of individual differences in response to stress. In I. G. Sarason & C. D. Spielberger (Eds.), Stress and anxiety. Washington, D.C.: Hemisphere Publishing Co., 1975.Google Scholar
  70. Katkin, E. S., & Deitz, S. R. Systematic desensitization. In W. F. Prokasy & D. Raskin (Eds.), Electrodermal activity and psychological research. New York: Academic, 1973.Google Scholar
  71. Katz, E. R., Kellerman, J., & Siegel, S. E. Behavioral distress in children with cancer undergoing medical procedures: Developmental considerations. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psy chology ,1980, 48 ,356–365.Google Scholar
  72. Kazdin, A. The effect of suggestion and pretesting on avoidance reduction in fearful subjects. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry ,1973, 4 ,213–222.Google Scholar
  73. Kazdin, A. E. Self-monitoring and behavior change. In M. J. Mahoney & C. E. Thoresen (Eds.), Self-control: Power to the person. Monterey: Brooks/Cole, 1974. (a)Google Scholar
  74. Kazdin, A. E. Reactive self-monitoring: The effects of response desirability, goal setting and feedback. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology ,1974, 42 ,704–716. (b)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Kazdin, A. E. Situational specificity: The two-edged sword of behavioral assessment. Behavioral Assessment ,1979, 1 ,57–75.Google Scholar
  76. Keane, T. M., & Kaloupek, D. G. Imaginal flooding in the treatment of a posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology ,1982, 50 ,138–140.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Kelley, C. K. Play desensitization of fear of darkness in preschool children. Behaviour Research and Therapy ,1976, 14 ,79–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Kent, R. N., Diament, C., Dietz, A., & O’Leary, K. D. Expectation biases in observational eval uation of therapeutic change. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology ,1974, 42 ,774–780.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Klinger, E. Modes of normal conscious flow. In K. S. Pope & J. L. Singer (Eds.), The stream of consciousness: Scientific investigations into the flow of human experience. New York: Plenum, 1978.Google Scholar
  80. Kroll, H. W. Rapid therapy of dog phobia by a feeding procedure. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry ,1975, 6, 325–326.Google Scholar
  81. Lacey, J. I. The evaluation of autonomic responses: Toward a general solution. Annals of the New York Academy of Science ,1956, 67 ,123–164.Google Scholar
  82. Lacey, J. I., Bateman, D. E., & VanLehn, R. Autonomic response specificity. Psychosomatic Medicine ,1953, 75, 8–21.Google Scholar
  83. Lang, P. J. The application of psychophysiological methods to the study of psychotherapy and behavior modification. In A. E. Bergin & S. L. Garfields (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change. New York: Wiley, 1971.Google Scholar
  84. Lang, P. J. The psychophysiology of anxiety. In J. Akiskal (Ed.), Psychiatric diagnosis: Exploration of biological criteria. New York: Spectrum, 1977. (a)Google Scholar
  85. Lang, P. J. Physiological assessment of anxiety and fear. In J. D. Cone & R. P. Hawkins (Eds.), Behavioral assessment: New directions in clinical psychology. New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1977. (b)Google Scholar
  86. Lang, P. J., & Lazovik, A. D. Experimental desensitization of a phobia. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology ,1963, 66 ,519–525.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Lang, P. J., Rice, D. G., & Sternbach, R. A. The psychophysiology of emotion. In N. S. Greenfield & R. A. Sternbach (Eds.), Handbook of psychophysiology. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1972.Google Scholar
  88. Lang, P. J., Melamed, B. G., & Hart, J. H. Automating the desensitization procedure: A psychophysiological analysis of fear modification. In M. J. Kietzman (Ed.), Experimental approaches to psychopathology. New York: Academic, 1974.Google Scholar
  89. Lawlis, G. F. Response styles of a patient population on the fear survey schedule. Behaviour Research and Therapy ,1971, 9 ,95–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Lazarus, A. A. Group therapy of phobic disorders by systematic desensitization. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology ,1961, 63 ,504–510.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Leitenberg, H., Agras, W. S., & Barlow, D. H. Contribution of selective reinforcement and therapeutic instructions to systematic desensitization therapy. Journal of Abnormal Psychology ,1969, 74 ,113–118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Leitenberg, H., Agras, W. S., Edwards, J. A., Thomson, L. E., & Wincze, J. P. Practice of a psychotherapeutic variable: An experimental analysis within single cases. Journal of Psychiatric Research ,1970, 7 ,215–225.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Leitenberg, H., Agras, W. S., Butz, R., & Wincze, J. Relationship between heart rate and behavioral change during the treatment of phobias. Journal of Abnormal Psychology ,1971, 78 ,59–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Levis, D. J. The phobic test apparatus: An objective measure of human avoidance behavior to small objects. Behaviour Research and Therapy ,1969, 7 ,309–315.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Levis, D. J. ,& Hare, N. A review of the theoretical rationale and empirical support for the extinction approach of implosive (flooding) therapy. In M. Hersen, R. M. Eisler, & P. M. Miller (Eds.), Progress in behavior modification. New York: Academic, 1977.Google Scholar
  96. Lick, J. R., & Katkin, E. S. Assessment of anxiety and fear. In M. Hersen & A. Bellack (Eds.), Behavioral Assessment: A practical handbook. New York: Pergamon, 1976.Google Scholar
  97. Lick, J. R., & Unger, T. E. External validity of laboratory fear assessment: Implications from two case studies. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology ,1975, 43 ,864–866.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Lick, J., Condiotte, M., & Unger, T. Effects of uncertainty about the behavior of a phobic stim ulus on subjects’ fear reactions. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology ,1978, 46 ,1559–1560.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Lipinski, D., & Nelson, R. The reactivity and unreliability of self-recording. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology ,1974, 42 ,110–123.Google Scholar
  100. Lipinski, D. P., Black, J. L., Nelson, R. O., & Ciminero, A. The influence of motivational variables on the reactivity and reliability of self-recording. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology ,1975, 43 ,637–646.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Locke, H. J., & Wallace, K. M. Short marital adjustment and prediction tests: Their reliability and validity. Marriage and Family Living ,1959, 21 ,251–255.Google Scholar
  102. Lombardo, T. W., & Bellack, A. S. The external validity of laboratory analogue assessments for speech anxiety. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Advancement of Behavior Therapy, Chicago, November 1978.Google Scholar
  103. Lombardo, T. W., & Turner, S. M. Thought-stopping in the control of obsessive rumination. Behavior Modification ,1979, 3 ,267–272.Google Scholar
  104. Lombardo, T. W., Zamosky, A., Romano, J., Volkin, J., & Bellack, A. S. A comparative analysis of a self-control procedure for anxiety reduction. Paper presented at the meeting of the Association for Advancement of Behavior Therapy, Chicago, November 1978.Google Scholar
  105. Lomont, J. F., & Edwards, J. E. The role of relaxation in systematic desensitization. Behaviour Research and Therapy ,1967, 5 ,11–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Mac, R., & Fazio, A. F. Self-report and overt behavioral measures of fear with changes in aversive stimuli. Behaviour Research and Therapy ,1972, 10 ,283–285.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Mahl, G. F. Exploring emotional states by content analysis. In I. D. Pool (Ed.), Trends in content analysis. Urbana, 111.: University of Illinois Press, 1959.Google Scholar
  108. Malmo, R. B., & Shagass, C. Physiologic study of symptom mechanisms in psychiatric patients under stress. Psychosomatic Medicine ,1949, 11 ,25–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Mandler, G. Helplessness: Theory and research in anxiety. In C. D. Spielberger (Ed.), Anxiety: Current trends in theory and research. New York: Academic, 1972.Google Scholar
  110. Mandler, G., & Sarason, S. B. A study of anxiety and learning. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology ,1952, 47 ,166–173.Google Scholar
  111. Mandler, G., Mandler, J. M., & Uviller, E. T. Autonomic feedback: The perception of autonomic activity. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology ,1958, 56 ,367–373.Google Scholar
  112. Manosevitz, M., & Lanyon, R. I. Fear survey schedule: A normative study. Psychological Reports ,1965, 17 ,699–703.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Marchetti, A., McGlynn, F. D., & Patterson, A. S. Effect of cue-controlled relaxation, a placebo treatment, and no treatment on changes in self-reported and psychophysiological indices of test anxiety among college students. Behavior Modification ,1977, 1 ,47–72.Google Scholar
  114. Martin, B. Anxiety and neurotic disorders. New York: Wiley, 1971.Google Scholar
  115. Martin, B., & Sroufe, L. A. Anxiety. In C. G. Costello (Ed.), Symptoms of psychopathology: A handbook. New York: Wiley, 1970.Google Scholar
  116. McDonald, M. L. Multiple impact behavior therapy in a child’s dog phobia. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry ,1975, 6 ,317–322.Google Scholar
  117. Meichenbaum, D. H. Cognitive-behavior modification: An integrative approach. New York: Plenum, 1977.Google Scholar
  118. Melamed, B. G., & Siegel, L. S. Reduction of anxiety in children facing hospitalization and surgery by use of filmed modeling. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology ,1975, 43 ,511–521.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Melamed, B. G. ,Hawes. R., Heiby, E., & Glick, J. The use of filmed modeling to reduce uncoop erative behavior of children during dental treatment. Journal of Dental Research ,1975, 54 ,797–801.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Meyers, A. W., & Craighead, W. E. Adaptation periods in clinical psychophysiological research: A recommendation. Behavior Therapy ,1978, 9 ,355–362.Google Scholar
  121. Miller, B. V., & Bernstein, D. A. Instructional demand in a behavioral avoidance test for claustrophobic fear. Journal of Abnormal Psychology ,1972, 80 ,206–210.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Miller, L. C., Barrett, C. L., Hampe, E., & Noble, H. Revised anxiety scales for the Louisville Behavior Check List. Psychological Reports ,1971, 29 ,503–511.Google Scholar
  123. Miller, L. C., Barrett, C. L., Hampe, E., & Noble, H. Factor structure of childhood fears. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology ,1972, 39 ,264–268.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Morganstern, K. P. Behavioral interviewing: The initial stages of assessment. In M. Hersen & A. S. Bellack (Eds.), Behavioral assessment: A practical handbook (2nd ed.). New York: Pergamon, 1981.Google Scholar
  125. Murray, D. C. Talk, Silence, and anxiety. Psychological Bulletin ,1971, 75 ,244–260.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Nelson, R. O., Lipinski, D. P., & Black, J. L. The effects of expectancy on the reactivity of selfrecording. Behavior Therapy ,1975, 6 ,337–349.Google Scholar
  127. Nesbitt, E. B. An escalator phobia overcome in one session of flooding in vivo. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry ,1973, 4 ,405–406.Google Scholar
  128. Odom, J. V., Nelson, R. O., & Wien, K. S. The differential effectiveness of five treatment procedures on three response systems in a snake phobia analogue study. Behavior Therapy ,1978, 9 ,936–942.Google Scholar
  129. Osgood, C. E., Suci, G. J., & Tannenbaum, P. H. The measurement of meaning. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1957.Google Scholar
  130. Öst L., Jerremalm, A. ,& Johansson, J. Individual response patterns and the effects of different behavioral methods in the treatment of social phobia. Behaviour Research and Therapy ,1981, 19 ,1–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Paul, G. L. Insight versus desensitization in psychotherapy: An experiment in anxiety reduction. Stanford, Cal.: Stanford University Press, 1966.Google Scholar
  132. Paul, G. L. Behavior modification research: Design and tactics. In C. M. Franks (Ed.), Behavior therapy: Appraisal and status. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1969.Google Scholar
  133. Paul, G. L., & Bernstein, D. A. Anxiety and clinical problems: Systematic desensitization and related techniques. New York: General Learning Press, 1973.Google Scholar
  134. Rachman, S. Human fears: A three systems analysis. Scandinavian Journal of Behavior Therapy ,1978, 7, 237–245.Google Scholar
  135. Rachman, S., & Hodgson, R. I. Synchrony and desynchrony in fear and avoidance. Behaviour Research and Therapy ,1974, 12 ,311–318.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Rappaport, H., & Katkin, E. S. Relationships among manifest anxiety, response to stress and the perception of autonomic activity. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology ,1972, 38 ,219–224.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Ritter, B. The use of contact desensitization, demonstration-plus-participation and demonstration-alone in the treatment of acrophobia. Behaviour Research and Therapy ,1970, 7, 157– 164.Google Scholar
  138. Rubin, S. E., Lawlis, G. F., Tasto, D. L., & Namenek, T. Factor analysis of the 122-item fear survey schedule. Behaviour Research and Therapy ,1969, 7 381–386.Google Scholar
  139. Sarason, I. G. Empirical findings and theoretical problems in the use of anxiety scales. Psychological Bulletin ,1960, 57 ,405–415.Google Scholar
  140. Sarbin, T. R. Anxiety: Reification of a metaphor. Archives of General Psychiatry ,1964, 10, 630–633.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Schachter, S. The interaction of cognitive and physiological determinants of emotional state. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 1). New York: Academic, 1964.Google Scholar
  142. Schwartz, G. E. Biofeedback and physiological patterning in human emotion and consciousness. In J. Beatty & H. Legewie (Eds.), Biofeedback and behavior. New York: Plenum, 1977.Google Scholar
  143. Schwartz, G. E. Psychobiological foundations of psychotherapy and behavior change. In S. L. Garfield & A. E. Bergin (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change: An empirical analysis. New York: Wiley, 1978.Google Scholar
  144. Simpson, R. H. The specific meanings of certain terms indicating different degrees of frequency. Quarterly Journal of Speech ,1944, 30 ,328–330.Google Scholar
  145. Smith, R. E., Diener, E., & Beaman, A. L. Demand characteristics and the behavioral avoidance measure of fear in behavior therapy analogue research. Behavior Therapy ,1974, 5, Mini.Google Scholar
  146. Spielberger, C. D. Anxiety as an emotional state. In C. D. Spielberger (Ed.), Anxiety: Current trends in theory and research. New York: Wiley, 1972.Google Scholar
  147. Spielberger, C. D. Manual for the state-trait anxiety inventory for children. Palo Alto, Cal.: Counseling Psychologist Press, 1973.Google Scholar
  148. Spielberger, C. D., Gorsuch, R. L., & Lushene, R. E. Manual for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Palo Alto, Cal.: Counseling Psychologist Press, 1970.Google Scholar
  149. Taggert, P., Carruthers, M., & Somerville, W. Electrocardiogram, plasma catecholamines and lipids, and their modification by oxyprenolol when speaking before an audience. The Lancet, 1973, 1 ,341–346.Google Scholar
  150. Taylor, C. B. Heart rate changes in improved spider-phobic patients. Psychological Reports, 1977,41, 667–671.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Taylor, J. A. A personality scale of manifest anxiety. Journal of Abnormal Psychology ,1953, 48 ,275–280.Google Scholar
  152. Teasdale, J. D., Walsh, P. A., Lancashire, M., & Mathews, A. M. Group exposure for agoraphobics: A replication study. British Journal of Psychiatry ,1977, 130 ,186–193.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Twentyman, C. T., & McFall, R. M. Behavioral training of social skills in shy males. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology ,1975, 43 ,384–495.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Ulrich, R. E., Stachnik, T. J., & Stainton, W. R. Student acceptance of generalized personality interpretations. Psychological Reports ,1963, 13 ,831–834.Google Scholar
  155. Wade, T. C., Malloy, T. E., & Proctor, S. Imaginal correlates of self-reported fear and avoidance behavior. Behaviour Research and Therapy ,1977, 15, 11–22.Google Scholar
  156. Walk, R. D. Self-ratings of fear evoking situation. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1956,22, 171–178.Google Scholar
  157. Watson, D., & Friend, R. Measurement of social-evaluative anxiety. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology ,1969, 33 ,448–457.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Watson, J. P., & Marks, I. M. Relevant and irrelevant fear in flooding-A crossover study of phobic patients. Behavior Therapy ,1971, 2, 275–293.Google Scholar
  159. Wessberg, H. W., Mariotto, M. J., Conger, A. J., Farrell, A. D., & Conger, J. C. The ecological validity of role-plays for assessing heterosocial anxiety and skill in college students. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology ,1979, 47 ,525–534.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Whitehead, W., Robinson, A., Blackwell, B., & Stutz, R. Flooding treatment for phobias: Does chronic diazepam increase effectiveness? Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry ,1978, 9, 219–226.Google Scholar
  161. Wing, J. K., Cooper, J. E., & Sartorius, N. The measurement and classification of psychiatric symptoms. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1974.Google Scholar
  162. Wolpe, J. Inadequate behavior analysis: The Achilles’ heel of outcome research in behavior ther apy. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry ,1977, 8 ,1–3.Google Scholar
  163. Wolpe, J., & Lang, P. J. A fear survey schedule for use in behavior therapy. Behaviour Research and Therapy ,1964, 2 ,27–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Yule, W., & Fernando, P. Blood phobia-Beware. Behaviour Research and Therapy ,1980, 18 ,587–590.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Zuckerman, M. The development of an affect adjective checklist for the measurement of anxiety. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology ,1960, 24 ,457–462.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alan S. Bellack
    • 1
  • Thomas W. Lombardo
    • 2
  1. 1.Eastern Pennsylvania Psychiatric InstituteMedical College of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of MississippiOxfordUSA

Personalised recommendations