Shorebirds pp 379-421 | Cite as

Conservation of Nearctic Shorebirds

  • Stanley E. Senner
  • Marshall A. Howe


The public, and the government agencies that they influence, are often aroused to the cause of wildlife conservation only after species are seriously endangered. Unfortunately, the protection and restoration of already endangered species is at best an expensive and difficult endeavor; at worst, it can be a futile one. Thus, there is no question that preventive measures are the best ones. This is certainly the case in conservation efforts directed toward shorebirds.


Gray Harbor Shorebird Species Piping Plover Western Sandpiper Snowy Plover 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Anderson, D. W., and Gress, F., 1981, The politics of pelicans, in: Coast Alert: Scientists Speak Out ( T. C. Jackson and D. Reische, eds.), pp. 117–143, Coast Alliance/Friends of the Earth, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  2. Anonymous, 1980, Conference on the conservation of wetlands of international importance, especially as waterfowl habitat, Cagliari, Italy, International Waterfowl Research Bureau, Slimbridge, England.Google Scholar
  3. Ashmole, M. J., 1970, Feeding of Western and Semipalmated Sandpipers in Peruvian winter quarters, Auk 87: 131–135.Google Scholar
  4. Atkinson-Willes, G. L., Scott, D. A., and Prater, A. J., 1980, Criteria for selecting wetlands of international importance: Proposed amendments and guidelines for use, Conference on the conservation of wetlands of international importance, especially as waterfowl habitat, Cagliari, Italy, International Waterfowl Research Bureau, Slimbridge, England.Google Scholar
  5. Baker, M. C., and Baker, A. E. M., 1973, Niche relationships among six species of shorebirds on their wintering and breeding ranges, Ecol. Monogr. 43: 193–212.Google Scholar
  6. Banks, R. C., 1977, The decline and fall of the Eskimo Curlew, or why did the curlew go extaille? Am. Birds 31: 127–134.Google Scholar
  7. Banks, R. C., 1979, Human related mortality of birds in the United States, U. S. Fish Wild. Serv. Spec. Sci. Rep. Wildl. 215: 1–16.Google Scholar
  8. Bean, M. J., 1977, The evolution of national wildlife law, U. S. Council on Environmental Quality, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  9. Bird, C. G., and Bird, E. G., 1940, Some remarks on non-breeding in the Arctic, especially in north-east Greenland, Ibis 14: 671–678.Google Scholar
  10. Blodget, B. G., 1978, The effect of off-road vehicles on Least Terns and other shorebirds, Univ. Mass. Natl. Park Serv. Coop. Res. Unit Rep. 26.Google Scholar
  11. Blus, L. J., and Lamont, T. G., 1979, Organochlorine residues in six species of estuarine birds, South Carolina, 1971–75, Pestic. Monit. J. 13: 56–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Blus, L. J., Wiemeyer, S. N., Kerwin, J. A., Stendell, R. C., Ohlendorf, H. M., and Stickel. L. F., 1977, Impact of estuarine pollution on birds, in: Estuarine Pollution Control and Assessment, Vol. I, pp. 57–71, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  13. Boere, G. C., 1976, The significance of the Dutch Waddenzee in the annual life cycle of Arctic, subarctic and boreal waders. Part I. The function as a moulting area, Ardea 64: 210–291.Google Scholar
  14. Bourn, W. S., and Cottam, C., 1950, Some biological effects of ditching tidewater marshes, U.S. Fish Wildl. Serv. Res. Rep. 19.Google Scholar
  15. Boyd, R. L., 1981, Distribution and abundance of Snowy Plovers in Kansas and northern Oklahoma, Bull. Kans. Ornithol. Soc. 32: 25–28.Google Scholar
  16. Brown, J. J., and Brown, A. W. A., 1970, Biological fate of DDT in a sub-arctic environment, J. Wildl. Manage. 34: 929–940.Google Scholar
  17. Burger, J., 1981, The effect of human activity on birds at a coastal bay, Biol. Conserv. 21: 231–241.Google Scholar
  18. Burger, J., Howe, M. A., Hahn, D. C., and Chase, J., 1977, Effects of tide cycles on habitat selection and habitat partitioning by migrating shorebirds, Auk 94: 743–758.Google Scholar
  19. Burger, J., Hahn, D. C., and Chase, J., 1979, Aggressive interactions in mixed-species flocks of migrating shorebirds, Anim. Behay. 27: 459–469.Google Scholar
  20. Burger, J., Shisler, J., and Lesser, F. H., 1982, Avian utilization on six salt marshes in New Jersey, Biol. Conserv. 23: 187–212.Google Scholar
  21. Burhenne-Guilmin, F., and de Klemm, C., 1980, The Ramsar Convention: A legal review, Conference on the conservation on wetlands of international importance, especially as waterfowl habitat, Cagliari, Italy, International Waterfowl Research Bureau, Slim-bridge, England.Google Scholar
  22. Bystrak, D., 1981, The North American Breeding Bird Survey, in: Studies in Avian Biology No. 6, pp. 34–41.Google Scholar
  23. Cairns, W. E., and McLaren, I. A., 1980, Status of the Piping Plover on the east coast of North America, Am. Birds 34: 206–208.Google Scholar
  24. Connors, P. G., Myers, J. P., and Pitelka, F. A., 1979, Seasonal habitat use by Arctic Alaskan shorebirds, in: Studies in Avian Biology No. 2, pp. 101–111.Google Scholar
  25. Darnell, R. M., 1976, Impacts of construction activities in wetlands of the United States, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Ecological Research Series, EPA–600/3–76–045, Tereco Corporation, College Station, Tex.Google Scholar
  26. Davidson, N. C., 1981, Survival of shorebirds (Charadrii) during severe weather: The role of nutritional reserves, in: Feeding and Survival Strategies of Estuarine Organisms ( N. V. Jones and W. J. Wolff, eds.), pp. 231–250, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  27. Duffy, D. C., Atkins, N., and Schneider, D. C., 1981, Do shorebirds compete on their wintering grounds? Auk 98: 215–229.Google Scholar
  28. Dugan, P. J., Evans, P. R., Goodyer, L. R., and Davidson, N. C., 1981, Winter fat reserves in shorebirds: Disturbance of regulated levels by severe weather conditions, Ibis 123: 359–363.Google Scholar
  29. Eastin, W. C., and Hoffman, D. J., 1979, Biological effects of petroleum on aquatic birds, in: Proceedings of the Conference on Assessment of Ecological Impacts of Oil Spills, pp. 561–582, American Institute of Biological Sciences.Google Scholar
  30. Evans, P. R., 1978/79, Reclamation of intertidal land: Some effects on Shelduck and wader populations in the Tees Estuary, Verh. Ornithol. Ges. Bayern 23: 147–168.Google Scholar
  31. Evans, P. R., and Moon, S. J., 1981, Heavy metals in shorebirds and their prey in northeast England, in Heavy Metals in Northern England: Environmental and Biological Aspects ( P. J. Say and B. A. Whitton, eds.), pp. 181–190, University of Durham, U.K.Google Scholar
  32. Evans, P. R., and Smith, P. C., 1975, Studies of shorebirds at Lindisfarne, Northumberland. 2. Fat and pectoral muscle as indicators of body condition in the Bar-tailed Godwit, Wildfowl 26: 64–75.Google Scholar
  33. Evans, P. R., Herdson, D. M., Knight, P. J., and Pienkowski, M. W., 1979, Short-term effects of reclamation of part of Seal Sands, Teesmouth, on wintering waders and Shelducks. 1. Shorebird diets, invertebrate densities, and the impact of predation on the invertebrates, Oecologia (Berlin), 41: 183–206.Google Scholar
  34. Flickinger, E. L., and King, K. A., 1972, Some effects of aldrin-treated rice on Gulf coast wildlife, J. Wildl. Manage. 36: 706–726.Google Scholar
  35. Flickinger, E. L., King, K. A., Stout, W. F., and Mohn, M. M., 1980, Wildlife hazards from Furadan 3G applications to rice in Texas, J. Wildl. Manage. 44: 190–197.Google Scholar
  36. Forbush, E. H., 1912, A history of the game birds, wild-fowl, and shore birds of Massachusetts and adjacent states, Massachusetts Board of Agriculture.Google Scholar
  37. Freese, C., 1982, Western Hemisphere Convention: International framework for wildlife conservation, U.S. Fish Wildl. Serv. Endangered Species Tech. Bull. 7: 4–7.Google Scholar
  38. Fuller, R. J., and Glue, D. E., 1980, Sewage works as bird habitats in Britain, Biol. Conserv. 17: 165–181.Google Scholar
  39. Gill, R. E., Jr., and Handel, C. M., 1981, Shorebirds of the eastern Bering Sea, in: Eastern Bering Sea Shelf. Oceanography and Resources, Vol. 2 ( D. W. Hood and J. A. Calder, eds.), pp. 719–738, Office of Marine Pollution Assessment, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.Google Scholar
  40. Gill, R. E., Jr., and Jorgensen, P. D., 1979, A preliminary assessment of timing and migration of shorebirds along the northcentral Alaska peninsula, in: Studies in Avian Biology No. 2, pp. 113–123.Google Scholar
  41. Gill, R. E. Jr., Petersen, M. R., and Jorgensen, P. D., 1981, Birds of the northcentral Alaska peninsula, 1976–1980, Arctic 34: 286–306.Google Scholar
  42. Glue, D. E., 1971, Saltmarsh reclamation stages and their associated bird-life, Bird Study 18: 187–198.Google Scholar
  43. Goss-Custard, J. D., 1969, The winter feeding ecology of the Redshank Tringa totanus, Ibis 111: 338–356.Google Scholar
  44. Goss-Custard, J. D., 1970, The responses of Redshank (Tringa totanus (L.)) to spatial variations in the density of their prey, J. Anim. Ecol. 39: 91–113.Google Scholar
  45. Goss-Custard, J. D., 1976, Variation in the dispersion of Redshank, Tringa totanus, on their winter feeding grounds, Ibis 118: 257–263.Google Scholar
  46. Goss-Custard, J. D., 1977, The ecology of the Wash. III. Density-related behaviour and the possible effects of a loss of feeding grounds on wading birds (Charadrii), J. Appl. Ecol. 14: 721–739.Google Scholar
  47. Goss-Custard, J. D., Jenyon, R. A., Jones, R. E., Newbery, P. E., and Williams, R. L., 1977, The ecology of the Wash. II. Seasonal variation in the feeding conditions of wading birds (Charadrii), J. Appl. Ecol. 14: 701–719.Google Scholar
  48. Gosselink, J. G., and Baumann, R. H., 1980, Wetland inventories: Wetland loss along the United States coast, Z. Geomorphol. N. F. Suppl. 34: 173–187.Google Scholar
  49. Graul, W. D., 1974, Adaptive aspects of the Mountain Plover social system, Living Bird 12: 69–94.Google Scholar
  50. Graul, W. D., and Webster, L. E., 1976, Breeding status of the Mountain Plover, Condor 78: 265–267.Google Scholar
  51. Green, G. H., Greenwood, J. J. D., and Lloyd, C. S., 1977, The influence of snow conditions on the date of breeding of wading birds in north-east Greenland, J. Zool. 183: 311–328.Google Scholar
  52. Grover, P. B., and Knopf, F. L., 1982, Habitat requirements and breeding success of charadriiform birds nesting at Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge, Oklahoma. J. Field Ornithol. 53: 139–148.Google Scholar
  53. Halbeisen, R., 1977, Disturbance of incubating Snowy Plovers on Point Reyes, Point Reyes Bird Observatory 42: 2–3.Google Scholar
  54. Herman, S. G., and Bulger, J. B., 1981, The distribution and abundance of shorebirds during the 1981 spring migration at Grays Harbor, Washington, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Seattle District, Contract No. DACW6781-M-0936.Google Scholar
  55. Higgins, K. F., 1975, Shorebird and game bird nests in North Dakota croplands, Wildl. Soc. Bull. 3: 176–179.Google Scholar
  56. Holmes, R. T., 1966a, Feeding ecology of the Red-backed Sandpiper (Calidris alpina) in Arctic Alaska, Ecology 47: 32–45.Google Scholar
  57. Holmes, R. T., 1966b, Molt cycle of the Red-backed Sandpiper (Calidris alpina) in western North America, Auk 83: 517–533.Google Scholar
  58. Holmes, R. T., 1970, Differences in population density, territoriality, and food supply of Dunlin on Arctic and subarctic tundra, Symp. Br. Ecol. Soc. 10: 303–319.Google Scholar
  59. Horwitz, E. L., 1978, Our nation’s wetlands, Interagency Task Force Report, U.S. Council on Environmental Quality, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  60. Howe, M. A., 1980, Monitoring migrant shorebird populations in the eastern United States, Atl. Nat. 33: 23–24.Google Scholar
  61. Hughes, R. A., 1979, Notes on Charadriiformes of the south coast of Peru, in: Studies in Avian Biology No. 2, pp. 49–54.Google Scholar
  62. Hussell, D. J. T., 1981, The use of migration counts for monitoring bird population levels, in: Studies in Avian Biology No. 6, 92–102.Google Scholar
  63. Isleib, M. E., and Kessel, B., 1973, Birds of the north Gulf Coast—Prince William Sound region, Alaska, Biol. Pap. Univ. Alaska 14.Google Scholar
  64. Jehl, J. R., Jr., 1981, Mono Lake: A vital way station for the Wilson’s Phalarope, Natl. Geogr. Mag. 160: 520–525.Google Scholar
  65. Jenni, D. A., Redmond, R. L., and Bicak, T. K., 1982, Behavioral ecology and habitat relationships of Long-billed Curlews in western Idaho, U.S. Bureau of Land Management Research Contract YA-512-CT7–54, University of Montana, Missoula.Google Scholar
  66. Joyes, A., Knight, P. J., Leah, R. T., and Pienkowski, M. W., 1976, The blockage of the Oued Chebeika Estuary and its effects on the avifauna, Bull. Inst. Sci. 1: 39–47.Google Scholar
  67. Jurek, R. M., 1974, California Shorebird Study, 1979–1974, Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration Project W-54-R, Special Wildlife Investigations Project Final Report, Job III - 1, California Fish and Game Department, Sacramento.Google Scholar
  68. Kaiser, G. W., and Fry, K., 1980, Ingestion of lead shot by Dunlin, Murrelet 61: 37.Google Scholar
  69. Kaiser, G. W., and Gillingham, M., 1981, Some notes on seasonal fluctuations in the weight of Dunlin Calidris alpina on the Fraser River Delta, British Columbia, Wader Study Group Bull. 31: 46–48.Google Scholar
  70. Kane, R., 1976, The 1975 fall shorebird migration in the Hackensack Meadowlands, Occasional Paper 123, New Jersey Audubon Society.Google Scholar
  71. Kantrud, H. A., and Kologiski, R. L., 1982, Effects of soils and grazing on breeding birds of uncultivated upland grasslands of the northern Great Plains, U. S. Fish Wildl. Serv. Wildl. Res. Rep. 15: 1–33.Google Scholar
  72. Keast, A., and Morton, E. S. (eds.), 1980, Migrant birds in the Neotropics: Ecology, behavior, distribution, and conservation, Symp. Natl. Zool. Park, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  73. Kirsch, L. M., and Higgins, K. F., 1976, Upland Sandpiper nesting and management in North Dakota, Wildl. Soc. Bull. 4: 16–22.Google Scholar
  74. Lambert, A., and Nol, E., 1978, Status of the Piping Plover at Long Point, Unpublished report, Long Point Bird Observatory, Ontario.Google Scholar
  75. Lambert, A., and Ratcliff, B., 1981, Present status of the Piping Plover in Michigan, Jack-Pine Warbler 59: 44–52.Google Scholar
  76. Larsson, T., 1969, Land use and bird fauna on shores in S. Sweden, Oikos 20: 136–155.Google Scholar
  77. Linduska, J. P. (ed.), 1964, Waterfowl Tomorrow, Fish and Wildlife Service, U. S. Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  78. Lum, A. L., 1978, Shorebird fauna changes of a small tropical estuary following habitat alteration: Biological and political impacts of environmental restoration, Environ. Manage. 2: 423–430.Google Scholar
  79. McCaskie, G., 1970, Shorebird and waterbird use of the Salton Sea, Calif Fish Game 56: 87–95.Google Scholar
  80. McCollough, M., and May, T., 1980, Habitat utilization by southward migrating shorebirds in Cobscook Bay, Maine during 1979, Unpublished report, School of Forest Resources, University of Maine.Google Scholar
  81. McCracken, J. D., Bradstreet, M. S. W., and Holroyd, G. L., 1981, Breeding birds of Long Point, Lake Erie: A study in community succession, Can. Wildl. Serv. Rep. Ser. 44: 172.Google Scholar
  82. McNeil, R., and Burton, J., 1977, Southbound migration of shorebirds from the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Wilson Bull. 89: 167–171.Google Scholar
  83. McNeil, R., and Cadieux, F., 1972, Fat content and flight-range capabilities of some adult spring and fall migrant North American shorebirds in relation to migration routes on the Atlantic coast, Nat. Can. 99: 589–605.Google Scholar
  84. Manuwal, D. A., 1978, Effect of man on marine birds: A review, Proceedings of the 4th J. S. Wright Forestry Conference, pp. 140–160.Google Scholar
  85. Marcström, V., and Mascher, J. W., 1979, Weights and fat in lapwings Vanellus vanellus and oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus starved to death during a cold spell in spring, Ornis Scand. 10: 235–240.Google Scholar
  86. Marsh, J. H., Marte, G. F., and Hunt, R. A., 1973, Breeding duck populations and habitat in Wisconsin, Wis. Dep. Nat. Resour. Tech. Bull. 68.Google Scholar
  87. Matthiessen, P., 1959, Wildlife in America, Viking Press, New York.Google Scholar
  88. Morrison, M. L., and Kiff, L. F., 1979, Eggshell thickness in American shorebirds before and since DDT, Can. Field Nat. 93:187–190Google Scholar
  89. Morrison, R. I. G., 1976, Maritimes Shorebird Survey 1974, Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa.Google Scholar
  90. Morrison, R. I. G., 1977, Use of the Bay of Fundy by shorebirds, in: Fundy Tidal Power and the Environment ( G. A. Daborn, ed.), pp. 187–199, The Acadia University Institute, Wolfville, Nova Scotia.Google Scholar
  91. Morrison, R. I. G., and Harrington, B. A., 1979, Critical shorebird resources in James Bay and eastern North America, Trans. North Am. Wildl. Nat. Resour. Conf. 44: 498–507.Google Scholar
  92. Myers, J. P., 1980, The pampas shorebird community: Interactions between breeding and nonbreeding members, in: Migrant Birds in the Neotropics ( A. Keast and E. S. Morton, eds.), pp. 37–49, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  93. Myers, J. P., Connors, P. G., and Pitelka, F. A., 1979, Territory size in wintering Sanderlings: The effects of prey abundance and intruder density, Auk 96: 551–561.Google Scholar
  94. Newton, I., 1979, Population Ecology of Raptors, Buteo Books, Vermillion, S. D.Google Scholar
  95. NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), 1980, The federal coastal programs review: Report to the President, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  96. Page, G. W., and Stenzel, L. E., 1979, Status and breeding biology of the Snowy Plover Charadrius alexandrinus in California, Wader Study Group Bull. 27: 38–39.Google Scholar
  97. Page, G. W., Stenzel, L. E., and Wolfe, C. M., 1979, Aspects of the occurrence of shorebirds on a central California estuary, in: Studies in Avian Biology No. 2, pp. 15–32.Google Scholar
  98. Pampush, G. J., 1980, Status report on the Long-billed Curlew in the Columbia and northern Great Basins, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Report, Portland, Ore.Google Scholar
  99. Parslow, J. L. F., 1973, Mercury in waders from the Wash, Environ. Pollut. 5: 295–304.Google Scholar
  100. Payne, R. B., 1972, Mechanisms and control of molt, in: Avian Biology, Vol. II ( D. S. Farner and J. R. King, eds.), pp. 103–155, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  101. Pienkowski, M. W., 1979, Waders feeding on grain in cold weather, Scott. Birds J. Scott. Ornithol. Club 10: 234–236.Google Scholar
  102. Pienkowski, M. W., Knight, P. J., Stanyard, D. J., and Argyle, F. B., 1976, The primary moult of waders on the Atlantic coast of Morocco, Ibis 118: 347–365.Google Scholar
  103. Pilcher, R. E. M., Beer, J. V., and Cook, W. A., 1974, Ten years of intensive late winter surveys for waterfowl corpses on the north-west shore of the Wash, England, Wildfowl 25: 149–154.Google Scholar
  104. Pitelka, F. A. (ed.), 1979, Shorebirds in marine environments, in: Studies in Avian Biology No. 2, Cooper Ornithological Society, Allen Press, Lawrence, Kans.Google Scholar
  105. Pitelka, F. A., Holmes, R. T., and MacLean, S. F., Jr., 1974, Ecology and evolution of social organization in Arctic sandpipers, Am. Zool. 14: 185–204.Google Scholar
  106. Prater, A. J., 1981, Estuary birds of Britain and Ireland, Poyser, Calton, England.Google Scholar
  107. Ptacek, J., and Schwilling, M., 1983, Mountain plover reintroduction in Kansas. Bull. Kans. Ornithol. Soc. 34: 21–22.Google Scholar
  108. Puttick, G. M., 1980, Energy budgets of Curlew Sandpipers at Langebaan Lagoon, South Africa, Estuarine Coastal Mar. Sci. 11: 207–216.Google Scholar
  109. Renaud, W. E., 1980, The Long-billed Curlew in Saskatchewan- Status and distribution, Blue Jay 38: 221–237.Google Scholar
  110. Rundle, W. D., 1980, Management, habitat selection and feeding ecology of migrant rails and shorebirds, Unpublished M. S. dissertation, University of Missouri.Google Scholar
  111. Saeijs, H. L. F., and Baptist, H. J. M., 1980, Coastal engineering and European wintering wetland birds, Biol. Conserv. 17: 63–83.Google Scholar
  112. Schneider, D. C., and Harrington, B. A., 1981, Timing of shorebird migration in relation to prey depletion, Auk 98: 801–811.Google Scholar
  113. Senner, S. E., 1977, The ecology of Western Sandpipers and Dunlins during spring migration through the Copper—Bering river delta system, Alaska, Unpublished M.S. dissertation, University of Alaska.Google Scholar
  114. Senner, S. E., 1979, An evaluation of the Copper River Delta as a critical habitat for migrating shorebirds, in: Studies in Avian Biology No. 2, pp. 131–145.Google Scholar
  115. Senner, S. E., West, G. C., and Norton, D. W., 1981, The spring migration of Western Sandpipers and Dunlins in southcentral Alaska: Numbers, timing, and sex ratios, J. Field Ornithol. 52: 271–284.Google Scholar
  116. Smith, J. L., and Mudd, D. R., 1976, Impact of dredging on the avian fauna in Grays Harbor, Appendix H, in: Maintenance Dredging and the Environment of Grays Harbor Washington, Summary Report, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Contract no. DACW67–74C0086, Washington State Department of Ecology, Olympia.Google Scholar
  117. Smith, J. L., Mudd, D. R., and Messmer, L. W., 1976, Impact of dredging on the vegetation in Grays Harbor, Appendix F, in: Maintenance Dredging and the Environment of Grays Harbor Washington, Summary Report, U. S. Army Corps of Engineers Contract No. DACW67–74C-0086, Washington State Department of Ecology, Olympia.Google Scholar
  118. Smith, P. C., and Bleakney, J. S., 1969, Observations on oil pollution and wintering Purple Sandpipers, Erolia maritima (Brunnich), in Nova Scotia, Can. Field Nat. 83: 19–22.Google Scholar
  119. Soots, R. F., Jr., and Landin, M. C., 1978, Development and management of avian habitat on dredged material islands, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Technical Report. DS, 7818: 1–96.Google Scholar
  120. Spaans, A. L., 1978, Status and numerical fluctuations of some North American waders along the Surinam coast, Wilson Bull. 90: 60–83.Google Scholar
  121. Speth, J., 1979, Conservation and management of coastal wetlands in California, in: Studies in Avian Biology No. 2, pp. 151–155.Google Scholar
  122. Stone, W. B., 1979, Poisoning of wild birds by organophosphate and carbamate pesticides, N.Y. Fish Game J. 26: 37–47.Google Scholar
  123. Sugden, J. W., 1933, Range restriction of the Long-billed Curlew, Condor 35: 3–9.Google Scholar
  124. Summers, R. W., Cooper, J., and Pringle, J. S., 1977, Distribution and numbers of coastal waders (Charadrii) in the south-western Cape, South Africa, summer 1975–76, Ostrich 48: 85–97.Google Scholar
  125. Svensson, S. E., 1978, Efficiency of two methods for monitoring bird population levels: Breeding bird censuses contra counts of migrating birds, Oikos 30: 373–386.Google Scholar
  126. Sykes, P. W., Jr., and Hunter, G. S., 1978, Bird use of flooded agricultural fields during summer and early fall and some recommendations for management, Fla. Field Nat. 6: 36–43.Google Scholar
  127. Temple, S. A., 1983, Bird conservation, No. 1. Univ. Wisconsin Press, Madison.Google Scholar
  128. Thompson, M. C., 1974, Migratory patterns of Ruddy Turnstones in the central Pacific region, Living Bird 12: 5–24.Google Scholar
  129. Train, R. E., 1982, Statement of Russell E. Train, President, World Wildlife Fund-U.S., Hearings before the Subcommittee on Fisheries and Wildlife Conservation and the Environment, U.S. House of Representatives, on Endangered Species Act Reauthorization and Oversight, Serial No. 97–32:91–94, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  130. Vermeer, K., and Vermeer, R., 1975, Oil threat to birds on the Canadian west coast, Can. Field Nat. 89: 278–298.Google Scholar
  131. Vermeer, K., Risebrough, R. W., and Spaans, A. L., 1974, Pesticide effects on fishes and birds in rice fields of Surinam, South America, Environ. Pollut. 7: 217–236.Google Scholar
  132. Wander, W., and Dunne, P. J., 1981, A preliminary assessment of the spring shorebird migration along the Delaware Bayshore of New Jersey, Unpublished report, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Office of Migratory Bird Management.Google Scholar
  133. Wetmore, A., 1926, Observations on the birds of Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Chile, U.S. Natl. Mus. Bull. 133: 1–448.Google Scholar
  134. White, D. H., King, K. A., and Prouty, R. M., 1980, Significance of organochlorine and heavy metal residues in wintering shorebirds at Corpus Christi, Texas, 1976–77, Pestic. Monit. J. 14: 58–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. White, D. H., Mitchell, C. A., and Prouty, R. M., 1983, Temporal accumulation of organochlorine pesticides in shorebirds wintering on the south Texas coast, Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 12: 241–245.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stanley E. Senner
    • 1
  • Marshall A. Howe
    • 2
  1. 1.Hawk Mountain Sanctuary AssociationKemptonUSA
  2. 2.U.S. Fish and Wildlife ServicePatuxent Wildlife Research CenterLaurelUSA

Personalised recommendations