Shorebirds pp 169-241 | Cite as

Communication in Breeding Shorebirds

  • Edward H. Miller


Shorebirds offer rich opportunities for comparative research because of their wide geographic distribution and their phylogenetic, ecological, and social diversity. There are more than 200 extant species, which occur in all zoogeographic regions of the world. Some species are resident and sedentary year-round, like the Shore Plover (Charadrius novaeseelandiae), which exists in small numbers only on the Chatham Islands east of New Zealand; others undertake phenomenal migrations each year, spending only 2 months or even less on the breeding grounds, with the remainder in migration or on wintering areas (e.g., certain Arctic species). Shorebirds inhabit the high mountains of Asia and of North and South America; they dwell in swamps and in hot, arid areas of Africa, Australia, and elsewhere; and they are found on muddy, rocky, or sandy seacoasts around the world (see Burger, this volume; Hale, 1980; Johnsgard, 1981). This wide geographic and ecological scope is paralleled by a great diversity of social systems, both on and off the breeding grounds. All these characteristics make shorebirds a likely group to enhance our understanding of the evolution and ecology of social behavior, a prediction supported by recent studies (e.g., Erckmann, 1981; Myers, 1981; Oring and Lank, 1982; Pitelka et al., 1974; van Rhijn, 1983; Walters, 1980, 1982; and chapters in these volumes).


Call Type Snowy Plover Golden Plover Haematopus Ostralegus Northern Lapwing 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adret, P., 1982, The sound signals of the adult avocet Recurvirostra avosetta during the perinatal phase, Ibis 124: 275–287.Google Scholar
  2. Ailes, I. W., 1976, Ecology of the Upland Sandpiper in central Wisconsin, M.S. thesis, University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point.Google Scholar
  3. Allen, J. N., 1980, The ecology and behavior of the Long-billed Curlew in southeastern Washington, Wildl. Monogr. 73.Google Scholar
  4. Andersen, F. S., 1951, Contributions to the biology of the Ruff (Philomachus pugnax (L.)), III, Dan. Ornithol. Foren. Tidsskr. 45: 145–173.Google Scholar
  5. Armstrong, E. A., 1963, A Study of Bird Song, Oxford University Press, London. Ashkenazie, S., and Safriel, U. N., 1979, Time—energy budget of the Semipalmated Sandpiper Calidris pusilla at Barrow, Alaska, Ecology 60: 783–799.Google Scholar
  6. Avery, M., and Sherwood, G., 1982, The lekking behaviour of Great Snipe, Ornis Scand. 13: 72–78.Google Scholar
  7. Baker, A. J., 1974, Ecological and behavioural evidence for the systematic status of New Zealand oystercatchers (Charadriiformes: Haematopodidae), R. Ont. Mus. Life Sci. Contrib. 96: 1–34.Google Scholar
  8. Baker, M. C., 1982, Individuality of vocalizations in Dunlin: A possible acoustic basis for recognition of parent by offspring, Auk 99: 771–774.Google Scholar
  9. Beer, C. G., 1975, Multiple functions and gull displays, in: Function and Evolution in Behaviour Essays in Honour of Professor Niko Tinbergen, F.R.S. ( G. P. Baerends, C. G. Beer, and A. Manning, eds.), pp. 16–54, Oxford University Press, London.Google Scholar
  10. Beightol, D. R., 1972, Sonagraphic analysis of the American Woodcock’s ‘peent’ call as a research and management tool, M.S. thesis, West Virginia University, Morgantown.Google Scholar
  11. Beightol, D. R., and Samuel, D. E., 1973, Sonagraphic analysis of the American Woodcock’s peent call, J. Wildl. Manage. 37: 470–475.Google Scholar
  12. Bengtson, S.-A., 1970, Breeding behaviour of the Purple Sandpiper Calidris maritima in west Spitsbergen, Ornis Scand. 1: 17–25.Google Scholar
  13. Bock, W. J., 1958, A generic review of the plovers (Charadriinae, Ayes), Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harv. Univ. 118: 27–97.Google Scholar
  14. Bourgeois, J.-C., 1977, Contribution a l’étude des problèmes relatifs à l’interpretation des recensements de populations de bécasses d’Amérique (Philohela minor), Thèse M.Sc., Université Québec à Trois-Rivières, Trois-Rivières.Google Scholar
  15. Bourgeois, J.-C., and Couture, R., 1977, A method for identifying American Woodcock males based on peent call sonagraphic analysis, in: Proceedings of the Sixth Woodcock Symposium ( Bourgeois, J.-C., and Couture, R., eds.), pp. 171–184, Fredericton.Google Scholar
  16. Boyd, R. L., 1972, Breeding biology of the Snowy Plover at Cheyenne Bottoms Waterfowl Management Area, Barton County, Kansas, M.S. thesis, Kansas State Teachers College, Emporia.Google Scholar
  17. Burger, A. E., 1979, Breeding biology, moult and survival of Lesser Sheathbills Chionis minor at Marion Island, Ardea 67: 1–14.Google Scholar
  18. Burger, A. E., 1980a, Sexual size dimorphism and aging characters in the Lesser Sheathbill at Marion Island, Ostrich 51: 39–43.Google Scholar
  19. Burger, A. E., 19806, An analysis of the displays of Lesser Sheathbills Chionis minor, Z. Tierpsychol. 52: 381–396.Google Scholar
  20. Burger, A. E., 1980c, Behavioural ecology of Lesser Sheathbills Chionis minor at Marion Island, Ph.D. thesis, University of Cape Town, Cape Town.Google Scholar
  21. Bursian, S. J., 1971, The structure and function of Killdeer vocalizations, M.S. thesis, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.Google Scholar
  22. Cadman, M. D., 1980, Age-related foraging efficiency of the American Oystercatcher (Haematopus palliatus), M.Sc. thesis, University of Toronto, Toronto.Google Scholar
  23. Cairns, W. E., 1977, Breeding biology and behaviour of the Piping Plover (CharadriusGoogle Scholar
  24. Melodus in southern Nova Scotia, M.Sc. thesis, Dalhousie University, Halifax. Cairns, W. E., 1982, Biology and behavior of breeding Piping Plovers, Wilson Bull. 94: 531–545.Google Scholar
  25. Clark, A., 1982, Some observations on the breeding behaviour of Kittlitz’s Sandplover, Ostrich 53: 120–122.Google Scholar
  26. Connors, P. G., 1983, Taxonomy, distribution, and evolution of Golden Plovers ( Pluvialis dominica and Pluvialis fulva), Auk 100: 607–620.Google Scholar
  27. Cramp, S. (ed.), 1983, Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: The Birds of the Western Palearctic, Vol. 3, Waders to Gulls, Oxford University Press, London.Google Scholar
  28. Cunningham, J. M., 1973, The Banded Dotterel, Charadrius bicinctus: Pohowera or Tuturiwhatu?—Call notes and behavior, Notornis 20: 21–27.Google Scholar
  29. Dabelsteen, T., 1978, An analysis of the song-flight of the lapwing ( Vanellus vanellus L.) with respect to causation, evolution and adaptations to signal function, Behaviour 66: 136–178.Google Scholar
  30. Dowsett, R. J., Lemaire, F., and Stjernstedt, R., 1977, The voice of the courser Rhinoptilus cinctus, Bull. Br. Ornithol. Club97: 73–75.Google Scholar
  31. Drury, W. H., Jr., 1961, The breeding biology of shorebirds on Bylot Island, Northwest Territories, Canada, Auk 78: 176–219.Google Scholar
  32. Edwards, G., Hosking, E., and Smith, S., 1947, Aggressive display of the Ringed Plover(studied by means of a stuffed specimen and a mirror), Br. Birds 40: 12–19.Google Scholar
  33. Edwards, P. J., 1982, Plumage variation, territoriality and breeding displays of the Golden Plover Pluvialis apricaria in southwest Scotland, Ibis 124: 88–95.Google Scholar
  34. Erckmann, W. J., Jr., 1981, The evolution of sex-role reversal and monogamy in shorebirds, Ph.D. thesis, University of Washington, Seattle.Google Scholar
  35. Ferdinand, L., 1966, Display of the Great Snipe ( Gallinago media Latham ), Dan. Ornithol. Foren. Tidsskr. 60: 14–34.Google Scholar
  36. Ferdinand L., and Gensb01, B., 1966, Maintenance of territory in the Great Snipe (Gallinago media Latham) on the display ground, Dan. Ornithol. Foren. Tidsskr. 60: 35–43.Google Scholar
  37. Ferns, P., 1978, Individual differences in the head and neck plumage of Ruddy Turnstones(Arenaria interpres) during the breeding season, Auk 95: 753–755.Google Scholar
  38. Ferns, P. N., 1981, Identification, subspecific variation, ageing and sexing in European Dunlins, Dutch-Birding 3: 85–98.Google Scholar
  39. Ferns, P. N., and Green, G. H., 1979, Observations on the breeding plumage and prenuptial moult of Dunlins, Calidris alpina, captured in Britain, Gerfaut Rev. Belge Ornithol. 69: 286–303.Google Scholar
  40. Forsythe, D. M., 1967, Vocalizations of the Long-billed Curlew, M.S. thesis, Utah State University, Logan.Google Scholar
  41. Forsythe, D. M., 1970, Vocalizations of the Long-billed Curlew, Condor 72: 213–224.Google Scholar
  42. Gaunt, A. S., 1983a, On sonograms, harmonics, and assumptions, Condor 85: 259–261.Google Scholar
  43. Gaunt, A. S., 1983b, An hypothesis concerning the relationship of syringeal structure to vocal abilities, Auk 100: 853–862.Google Scholar
  44. Gibson, F., 1978, Ecological aspects of the time budget of the American Avocet, Am. Midi. Nat. 99: 65–82.Google Scholar
  45. Glutz von Blotzheim, U. N., Bauer, K. M., and Bezzel, E. (eds.), 1975, Handbuch der Vögel Mitteleuropas, Vol. 6, Charadriiformes, Part 1, Akademie Verlagsgesellschaft, Wiesbaden.Google Scholar
  46. Glutz von Blotzheim, U. N., Bauer, K. M., and Bezzel, E. (eds.), 1977, Handbuch der Vögel Mitteleuropas, Vol. 7, Charadriiformes, Part 2, Akademie Verlagsgesellschaft, Wiesbaden.Google Scholar
  47. Goriup, P. D., 1982, Behaviour of Black-winged Stilts, Br. Birds 75: 12–24.Google Scholar
  48. Gratto, C. L., Cooke, F., and Morrison, R. I. G., 1981, Hatching success of yearling and older breeders in the Semipalmated Sandpiper Calidris pusilla, Bull. Wader Study Group 33: 37–38.Google Scholar
  49. Graul, W. D., 1973a, Possible functions of head and breast markings in Charadriinae, Wilson Bull. 85: 60–70.Google Scholar
  50. Graul, W. D., 1973b, Adaptive aspects of the Mountain Plover social system, Living Bird 12: 69–94.Google Scholar
  51. Graul, W. D., 1974, Vocalizations of the Mountain Plover, Wilson Bull. 86: 221–229.Google Scholar
  52. Green, S., and Marier, P., 1979, The analysis of animal communication, in: Handbook of Behavioral Neurobiology ( P. Marier and J. G. Vandenbergh, eds.), Vol. 3, pp. 73–158, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  53. Greenewalt, C. H., 1968, Bird Song: Acoustics and Physiology, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  54. Grosskopf, G., 1958, Zur Biologie des Rotschenkels (Tringa t. totanus), I, J. Ornithol. 99: 117.Google Scholar
  55. Groves, S., 1978, Age-related differences in Ruddy Turnstone foraging and aggressive behavior, Auk 95: 95–103.Google Scholar
  56. Grudzien, T. A., 1976, The breeding behavior of the Common Snipe (Capella gallinago delicata Ord) in central Michigan, M.S. thesis, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant.Google Scholar
  57. Hailman, J. P., 1977, Optical Signals: Animal Communication and Light, Indiana University Press, Bloomington.Google Scholar
  58. Hailman, J. P., 1982 [Review of] Ritualization and the evolution of movement signals, J.Field Ornithol. 53: 186–187.Google Scholar
  59. Hale, W. G., 1980, Waders, Collins, Glasgow.Google Scholar
  60. Hale, W. G., and Ashcroft, R. P., 1982, Pair formation and pair maintenance in the Redshank Tringa totanus, Ibis 124: 471–490.Google Scholar
  61. Hamilton, R. B., 1975, Comparative behavior of the American Avocet and the Black-necked Stilt ( Recurvirostridae ), A.O.U. Ornithol. Monogr. 17.Google Scholar
  62. Hansen, G. L., 1979, Territorial and foraging behaviour of the eastern Willet CatoptrophorusGoogle Scholar
  63. semipalmatus semipalmatus (Gmelin), M.Sc. thesis, Acadia University, Wolfville. Hay, R., 1983, The Wrybill, Anarhynchus frontalis, in: Reader’s Digest Book of New Zea-land Birds (in press).Google Scholar
  64. Heckenlively, D. B., 1972, Responses of adult Killdeers to a downy young distress call,Condor 74: 107–108.Google Scholar
  65. Heidemann, M. K., and Oring, L. W., 1976, Functional analysis of Spotted Sandpiper ( Ac-titis macularia) song, Behaviour 56: 181–193.Google Scholar
  66. Heppleston, P. B., 1970, The function of oystercatcher piping behaviour, Br. Birds 63: 133135.Google Scholar
  67. Heppleston, P. B., 1971, The feeding ecology of oystercatchers ( Haematopus ostralegus L.) in winter in northern Scotland, J. Anim. Ecol. 40: 651–672.Google Scholar
  68. Hindwood, K. A., 1934, Observations on the Lotus-bird, Emu 34: 51–56.Google Scholar
  69. Hirons, G., 1977a, The roding behaviour of the European Woodcock, in: Supplement to the Proceedings of the Sixth Woodcock Symposium (D. A. Keppie and R. B. Owen, Jr., eds.), no pagination, Fredericton.Google Scholar
  70. Hirons, G., 1977b, The Game Conservancy woodcock project, Game Conservancy Annu. Rev. 9:x—xx.Google Scholar
  71. Hogan-Warburg, A. J., 1966, Social behavior of the Ruff, Philomachus pugnax ( L. ), Ardea 54: 109–225.Google Scholar
  72. Holmes, R. T., 1973, Social behaviour of breeding Western Sandpipers, Ibis 115: 107–123.Google Scholar
  73. Holmes, R. T., and Pitelka, F. A., 1961, Behavior and taxonomic position of the Whiterumped Sandpiper, Proc. Alaska Sci. Conf. 12: 19–20.Google Scholar
  74. H¢rlyk, N.-O., and Lind, H., 1978, Pecking response of artificially hatched oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus young, Ornis Scand. 9: 138–145.Google Scholar
  75. Howe, M. A., 1972, Pair bond formation and maintenance in Wilson’s Phalarope, Phalaropus tricolor, Ph.D. thesis, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.Google Scholar
  76. Howell, T. R., 1979, Breeding biology of the Egyptian Plover, Pluvianus aegyptius, Univ. Calif. Berkeley Publ. Zool. 113.Google Scholar
  77. Huxley, J. S., and Montague, F. A., 1925, Studies on the courtship and sexual life of birds. V. The oyster-catcher ( Haematopus ostralegus L. ), Ibis 1925: 868–897.Google Scholar
  78. Jehl, J. R., Jr., 1970, Sexual selection for size differences in two species of sandpipers, Evolution 24: 311–319.Google Scholar
  79. Jehl, J. R., Jr., 1973, Breeding biology and systematic relationships of the Stilt Sandpiper, Wilson Bull. 85: 115–147.Google Scholar
  80. Jehl, J. R., Jr., 1975 Pluvianellus socialis: Biology, ecology, and relationships of an enigmatic Patagonian shorebird, Trans. San Diego Soc. Nat. Hist. 18: 25–74.Google Scholar
  81. Jenni, D. A., Gambs, R. D., and Betts, B. J., 1974, Acoustic behavior of the Northern Jacana, Living Bird 13: 193–210.Google Scholar
  82. Johnsgard, P. A., 1981, The Plovers, Sandpipers, and Snipes of the World, University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln.Google Scholar
  83. Johnson, A. W., and Goodall, J. D., 1965, The Birds of Chile and Adjacent Regions of Argentina, Bolivia and Peru, Vol. 1, Platt Establecimientos Graficos S.A., Buenos Aires.Google Scholar
  84. Kliebe, K., 1974, Beobachtungen zur Flugbalz der Zwergschnepfe ( Lymnocryptes minimus ), Vogelwelt 95: 30–33.Google Scholar
  85. Klingholz, F., and Meynhardt, H., 1979, Lautinventare der Saugetiere-diskret oder kontinuierlich?, Z. Tierpsychol. 50: 250–264.Google Scholar
  86. Knudson, M. L., 1972, Functional analysis of song in the Spotted Sandpiper, Actitis macularia (L.), M.S. thesis, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks.Google Scholar
  87. Konishi, M., 1970, Evolution of design features in the coding of species-specificity, Am. Zool. 10: 67–72.Google Scholar
  88. Kroodsma, D. E., and Miller, E. H. (eds.), 1982a, Acoustic Communication in Birds, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  89. Kroodsma, D. E., and Miller, E. H. (eds.), 1982b, Introduction, in: Acoustic Communication in Birds, Vol. 1, pp. xxi—xxxi, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  90. Labutin, Y. V., Leonovitch, V. V., and Veprintsev, B. N., 1982, The Little Curlew Numenius minutus in Siberia, Ibis 124: 302–319.Google Scholar
  91. Lemnell, P. A., 1978, Social behaviour of the Great Snipe Capella media at the arena display, Omis Scand. 9: 146–163.Google Scholar
  92. Leopold, A., and Eynon, A. E., 1961, Avian daybreak and evening song in relation to time and light intensity, Condor 63: 269–293.Google Scholar
  93. Lind, H., 1961, Studies on the Behaviour of the Black-tailed Godwit (Limosa limosa(L.)), Munksgaard, Copenhagen.Google Scholar
  94. Lind, H., 1965, Parental feeding in the oystercatcher (Haematopus o. ostralegus (L.)), Dan. Ornithol. Foren. Tidsskr. 59: 1–31.Google Scholar
  95. Mace, T. R., 1981, Causation, function, and variation of the vocalizations of the Northern Jacana, Jacana spinosa, Ph.D. thesis, University of Montana, Missoula.Google Scholar
  96. McGilp, J. N., and Morgan, A. M., 1931, The nesting of the Banded Stilt ( Cladorhynchus leucocephalus ), South Aust. Ornithol. 11: 37–53.Google Scholar
  97. Maclean, G. L., 1967, The breeding biology and behaviour of the Double-banded Courser Rhinoptilus africanus ( Temminck ), Ibis 109: 556–569.Google Scholar
  98. Maclean, G. L., 1969, A study of seedsnipe in southern South America, Living Bird 8: 3380.Google Scholar
  99. Maclean, G. L., 1972, Problems of display postures in the Charadrii (Ayes, Charadriiformes ), Zool. Afr. 7: 57–74.Google Scholar
  100. Maclean, G. L., 1976a, A field study of the Australian Dotterel, Emu 76:207–215. Maclean, G. L., 1976b, A field study of the Australian Pratincole, Emu 76:171–182. Maclean, G. L., 1977, Comparative notes on Black-fronted and Red-kneed Dotterels, Emu 77: 199–207.Google Scholar
  101. Maier, V., 1982, Acoustic communication in the Guinea Fowl (Numida meleagris): structure and use of vocalizations, and the principles of message coding, Z. Tierpsychol. 59: 2983.Google Scholar
  102. Mal’chevskii, A. S., 1981, New data on sound communication in birds, Vestn. Leningr. Univ. Biol. 4: 58–64 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  103. Mal’chevskii, A. S., 1982, Biological foundations of sound communication in birds, Zool. Zh. 61: 1000–1008 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  104. Marcström, V., 1974, On the courtship flight of the woodcock (Scolopax rusticola L.) in Sweden, in: Proceedings, Fifth American Woodcock Workshop, no pagination, Athens.Google Scholar
  105. Marier, P., 1976, Social organization, communication and graded signals: The chimpanzee and the gorilla, in: Growing Points in Ethology ( P.P.G. Bateson and R. A. Hinde, eds.), pp. 239–280, Cambridge University Press, London.Google Scholar
  106. Marler, P. R., and Tenaza, R., 1977, Signaling behavior of apes with special reference to vocalization, in: How Animals Communicate ( T. A. Sebeok, ed.), pp. 965–1033, Indiana University Press, Bloomington.Google Scholar
  107. Mathew, D. N., 1964, Observations on the breeding habits of the Bronzewinged Jacana [Metopidius indicus ( Latham), J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 61: 295–301.Google Scholar
  108. Maxson, S. J., and Oring, L. W., 1980, Breeding season time and energy budgets of the polyandrous Spotted Sandpiper, Behaviour 74: 200–263.Google Scholar
  109. Miller, E. H., 1975, Social and evolutionary implications of territoriality in adult male New Zealand fur seals, Arctocephalus forsteri (Lesson, 1828 ), during the breeding season, Rapp. P.-V. Réun. Cons. Int. Explor. Mer 169: 170–187.Google Scholar
  110. Miller, E. H., 1977, Breeding biology of the Least Sandpiper, Calidris minutilla (Vieill.) on Sable Island, Nova Scotia, Ph.D. thesis, Dalhousie University, Halifax.Google Scholar
  111. Miller, E. H., 1979a, Functions of display flights by males of the Least Sandpiper, Calidris minutilla (Vieill.), on Sable Island, Nova Scotia, Can. J. Zool. 57: 876–893.Google Scholar
  112. Miller, E. H., 1979b, Flight displays of Least Sandpipers, Bull. Wader Study Group 26: 44–45.Google Scholar
  113. Miller, E. H., 1979c, An approach to the analysis of graded vocalizations of birds, Behay. Neural. Biol. 27: 25–38.Google Scholar
  114. Miller, E. H., 1982, Character and variance shift in acoustic signals of birds, in: Acoustic Communication in Birds (D. E. Kroodsma and E. H. Miller, eds.), Vol. 1, pp. 253295, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  115. Miller, E. H., 1983a, Structure of display flights in the Least Sandpiper, Condor 85: 220–242.Google Scholar
  116. Miller, E. H., 1983b, The structure of aerial displays in three species of Calidridinae ( Scolopacidae ), Auk 100: 440–451.Google Scholar
  117. Miller, E. H., 1983c, Sounds of shorebirds. 1: Introduction and methods of analysis, Bull. Wader Study Group 38: 35–37.Google Scholar
  118. Miller, E. H., and Baker, A. J., 1980, Displays of the Magellanic Oystercatcher ( Haematopus leucopodus ), Wilson Bull. 92: 149–168.Google Scholar
  119. Miller, E. H., Gunn, W. W. H., and Harris, R., 1983, Geographic variation in aerial song of the Short-billed Dowitcher (Ayes, Scolopacidae ), Can. J. Zool. 61: 2191–2198.Google Scholar
  120. Morton, E. S., 1977, On the occurrence and significance of motivation-structural rules in some bird and mammal sounds, Am. Nat. 111: 855–869.Google Scholar
  121. Morton, E. S., 1982, Grading discreteness, redundancy, and motivation-structural rules, in: Acoustic Communication in Birds ( D. E. Kroodsma and E. H. Miller, eds.), Vol. 1, pp. 183–212, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  122. Mundahl, J. T., 1977, Role specialization in the parental and territorial behavior of the Killdeer (Charadrius vociferus), M.S. thesis, Utah State University, Logan.Google Scholar
  123. Myers, J. P., 1979, Leks, sex, and Buff-breasted Sandpipers, Am. Birds 33: 823–825.Google Scholar
  124. Myers, J. P., 1981, Cross-seasonal interactions in the evolution of sandpiper social systems, Behay. Ecol. Sociobiol. 8: 195–202.Google Scholar
  125. Myers, J. P., 1982, The promiscuous Pectoral Sandpiper, Am. Birds 36:119–122. Nemetschek, G. 1977, Beobachtungen zur Flugbalz der Waldschnepfe ( Scolopax rusticola ), J. Ornithol. 118: 68–86.Google Scholar
  126. Nethersole-Thompson, D., and Nethersole-Thompson, M., 1979, Greenshanks, Poyser, Berkhamsted.Google Scholar
  127. Nettleship, D. N., 1974, The breeding of the Knot Calidris canutus at Hazen Camp, Ellesmere Island, N.W.T., Polarforschung 44: 8–26.Google Scholar
  128. Niethammer, G., 1966, Sexualdimorphismus am Ösophagus von Rostratula, J. Ornithol. 107: 201–204.Google Scholar
  129. Nol, E., 1980, Factors affecting the nesting success of the Killdeer (Charadrius vociferus) on Long Point, Ontario, M.Sc. thesis, University of Guelph, Guelph.Google Scholar
  130. Norton-Griffiths, M., 1969, The organization, control and development of parental feeding in the oystercatcher ( Haematopus ostralegus), Behaviour 34: 55–114.Google Scholar
  131. Nowicki, T., 1973, A behavioral study of the Marbled Godwit in North Dakota, M.S. thesis, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant.Google Scholar
  132. Oring, L. W., 1964, Displays of the Buff-breasted Sandpiper at Norman, Oklahoma, Auk 81: 83–86.Google Scholar
  133. Oring, L. W., 1968, Vocalizations of the Green and Solitary Sandpipers, Wilson Bull. 80: 395420.Google Scholar
  134. Oring, L. W., 1973, Solitary Sandpiper early reproductive behavior, Auk 90: 653–663.Google Scholar
  135. Oring, L. W., and Lank, D. B., 1982, Sexual selection, arrival times, philopatry and site fidelity in the polyandrous Spotted Sandpiper, Behay. Ecol. Sociobiol. 10: 185–191.Google Scholar
  136. Panov, E., 1963, Taxonomic position of the Ussuri Plover Charadrius hiaticula placidus Grey and Gray (on the basis of ethological data), Zool. Zh. 42: 1546–1553 (in Russian. English translation in Josselyn van Tyne Memorial Library, Bird Division, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor).Google Scholar
  137. Parmelee, D. F., Stephens, H. A., and Schmidt, R. H., 1967, The birds of southeastern Victoria Island and adjacent small islands, Bull. Natl. Mus. Can. 222.Google Scholar
  138. Parr, R., 1980, Population study of Golden Plover Pluvialis apricaria, using marked birds, Omis Scand. 11: 179–189.Google Scholar
  139. Phillips, R. E., 1972, Sexual and agonistic behavior in the Killdeer ( Charadrius vociferus ), Anim. Behay. 20: 1–9.Google Scholar
  140. Phillips, R. E., 1977, Notes on the behaviour of the New Zealand Shore Plover, Emu 77: 2327.Google Scholar
  141. Phillips, R. E., 1980, Behaviour and systematics of New Zealand plovers, Emu 80: 177–197.Google Scholar
  142. Pitelka, F. A., 1959, Numbers, breeding schedule, and territoriality in Pectoral Sandpipers of northern Alaska, Condor 61: 233–264.Google Scholar
  143. Pitelka, F. A., Holmes, R. T., and MacLean, S. F., Jr., 1974, Ecology and evolution of social organization in Arctic sandpipers, Am. Zool. 14: 185–204.Google Scholar
  144. Potter, J., 1934, Lotus-birds found breeding on Hawkesbury River, N.S.W., Emu 33: 298–305.Google Scholar
  145. Prater, A. J., Marchant, J. H., and Vuorinen, J., 1977, Guide to the Identification and Ageing of Holarctic Waders, British Trust for Ornithology, Guide No. 17.Google Scholar
  146. Reddig, E., 1978, Der Ausdrucksflug der Bekassine ( Capella gallinago gallinago), J. Ornithol. 119: 357–387.Google Scholar
  147. Reed, S. M., 1981, New Zealand dotterel ( Charadrius obscurus)—An endangered species?, Notornis 28: 129–132.Google Scholar
  148. Richards, D. G., and Wiley, R. H., 1980, Reverberations and amplitude fluctuations in the propagation of sound in a forest: Implications for animal communication, Am. Nat. 115: 381–399.Google Scholar
  149. Rowan, W., 1929, Notes on Alberta waders included on the British list, VII, Br. Birds 23: 217.Google Scholar
  150. Rutschke, E., 1976, Zur struktur der Schallfedern von Bekassinen ( Capella ), Beitr. Vogelkd. 22: 12–25.Google Scholar
  151. Samuel, D. E., and Beightol, D. R., 1972, Monitoring woodcock singing sites through son-agrams, Proc. Annu. Conf. Southeast. Assoc. Game Fish Comm. 26: 301–305.Google Scholar
  152. Samuel, D. E., and Beightol, D. R., 1973, The vocal repertoire of male American Woodcock, Auk 90: 906–909.Google Scholar
  153. Schwinn, M., 1964, Raising shorebirds in captivity, M.S. thesis, Kansas State Teachers College, Emporia.Google Scholar
  154. Shepard, J. M., 1975, Factors influencing female choice in the lek mating system of the Ruff, Living Bird 14:87—Ill.Google Scholar
  155. Shissler, B. P., Samuel, D. E., and Burkhart, D. L., 1982, An aging technique for American Woodcock on summer fields, Wildl. Soc. Bull. 9: 302–305.Google Scholar
  156. Simmons, K. E. L., 1953a, Some aspects of the aggressive behaviour of three closely related plovers ( Charadrius ), Ibis 95: 115–127.Google Scholar
  157. Simmons, K. E. L., 1953b, Some studies on the Little Ringed Plover, Avic. Mag. 59: 191–207.Google Scholar
  158. Skeel, M. A., 1976, Nesting strategies and other aspects of the breeding biology of the Whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus) at Churchill, Manitoba, M.Sc. thesis, University of Toronto, Toronto.Google Scholar
  159. Skeel, M. A., 1978, Vocalizations of the Whimbrel on its breeding grounds, Condor 80: 194–202.Google Scholar
  160. Smith, S., and Hosking, E., 1955, Birds Fighting: Experimental Studies of the Aggressive Displays of Some Birds, Faber & Faber, London.Google Scholar
  161. Smith, W. J., 1977, The Behavior of Communicating: An Ethological Approach, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  162. Sordahl, T. A., 1979, Vocalizations and behavior of the Willet, Wilson Bull. 91: 551–574.Google Scholar
  163. Sordahl, T. A., 1980, Antipredator behavior and parental care in the American Avocet and Black-necked Stilt (Ayes: Recurvirostridae), Ph.D. thesis, Utah State University,Logan.Google Scholar
  164. Sordahl, T. A., 1981, Predator-mobbing behaviour in the shorebirds of North America, Bull.Wader Study Group 31: 41–44.Google Scholar
  165. Stead, E. F., 1932, The Life Histories of New Zealand Birds, Search, London. Stettenheim, P. R., 1976, Structural adaptations in feathers, in: Proceedings of the 16thGoogle Scholar
  166. International Ornithological Congress (H. J. Frith and J. H. Calaby, eds.), pp. 385–401, Australian Academy of Science, Canberra.Google Scholar
  167. Sutton, G. M., 1932, The birds of Southhampton Island, Mem. Carnegie Mus. 12 (Part 2, Sect. 2).Google Scholar
  168. Sutton, G. M., 1981, On aerial and ground displays of the world’s snipes, Wilson Bull. 93: 457–477.Google Scholar
  169. Swanberg, P. 0., 1965, Studies of less familiar birds. 138. The Great Snipe, Br. Birds 63: 504–508.Google Scholar
  170. Thomas, D. W., and Dilworth, T. G., 1980, Variation in peent calls of American Woodcock, Condor 82: 345–347.Google Scholar
  171. Thönen, W., 1968, Auffallender Unterschied zwischen den instrumentalen Balzlauten der europaischen and nordamerikanischen Bekassine Gallinago gallinago, Ornithol. Beob. 65: 6–13.Google Scholar
  172. Tikhonov, A. V., and Fokin, S. Y., 1979, Acoustic signalling and behavior of shorebirds in early ontogenesis. I. Prenatal stages of development, Biol. Nauki 10: 33–40 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  173. Tikhonov, A. V., and Fokin, S. Y., 1980, Acoustic signalization and the behavior of shorebirds in early ontogenesis. II. Signalization and the behavior of nestlings, Biol. Nauki 10: 45–54 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  174. Tikhonov, A. V., and Fokin, S. Y., 1981a, Lek and calls of shorebirds, Ornitologia 16: 6472 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  175. Tikhonov, A. V., and Fokin, S. Y., 1981b, Acoustic signaling and behavior during the nesting period in shorebirds, Byull Mosk. Ova Ispyt. Prir. Otd. Biol. 86: 31–42 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  176. Tikhonov, A. V., and Fokin, S. Y., 1982, Acoustic signaling and behaviour of waders in early ontogenesis, in: Ornithological Studies in the U.S.S.R. ( V. M. Gavrilov and R. L. Potapov, eds.), vol. 2, pp. 262–273, Nauka, Moscow.Google Scholar
  177. Trimble, R., 1940, Habits, in: Birds of Western Pennsylvania (by W. E.C. Todd), pp. 216–218, University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh.Google Scholar
  178. Tuck, L. M., 1972, The snipes: A study of the genus Capella, Can. Wildl. Serv. Monogr. No. 5.Google Scholar
  179. van Rhijn, J. G., 1973, Behavioural dimorphism in male Ruffs, Philomachus pugnax ( L. ), Behaviour 47: 153–229.Google Scholar
  180. van Rhijn, J. G., 1983, On the maintenance and origin of alternate strategies in the Ruff Philomachus pugnax, Ibis 125: 482–498.Google Scholar
  181. van Tets, G. F., D’Andria, A. H., and Slater, E., 1967, Nesting distribution and nomenclature of Australasian vanelline plovers, Emu 67: 85–93.Google Scholar
  182. Veprintsev, B. N., and Zablotskaya, M. M., 1982, Acoustic signals of the Little Curlew Numenius minutus, Pushchino (in Russian).Google Scholar
  183. Von Frisch, 0., 1956, Zur Brutbiologie and Jugendentwicklung des Brachvogels (Numenius arquata L.), Z. Tierpsychol. 13: 50–81.Google Scholar
  184. Wallis, C. A., and Wershler, C. R., 1981, Status and breeding of Mountain Plovers ( Charadrius montanus) in Canada, Can. Field-Nat. 95: 133–136.Google Scholar
  185. Walters, J. R., 1980, The evolution of parental care in lapwings, Ph.D. thesis, University of Chicago, Chicago.Google Scholar
  186. Walters, J. R., 1982, Parental behavior in lapwings ( Charadriidae) and its relationships with clutch sizes and mating systems, Evolution 36: 1030–1040.Google Scholar
  187. Warham, J., and Bell, B. D., 1979, The birds of Antipodes Island, New Zealand, Notornis 26: 121–169.Google Scholar
  188. Warner, R. W., 1969, The anatomy of the avian syrinx, Ph.D. thesis, University of London, London.Google Scholar
  189. Weeden, R. B., 1965, Further notes on Wandering Tattlers in central Alaska, Condor 67: 8789.Google Scholar
  190. Weeks, H. P., Jr., 1969, Courtship and territorial behavior of some Indiana woodcocks, Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 79: 162–171.Google Scholar
  191. Weir, N. L., 1979, The use of sonagraphic analysis of the American Woodcock (Philohela minor) peent call as a method for identifying individual males, M.S. thesis, Pennsylvania State University, University Park.Google Scholar
  192. Weir, N. L., and Graves, H. B., 1982, Discriminant analysis of the peent call for identification of individual male American Woodcock, in: Woodcock Ecology and Management (T. J. Dwyer and G. L. Storm, eds.), pp. 34–39, U.S. Fish Wild!. Serv. Wildl. Res. Rep. 14.Google Scholar
  193. Wiley, R. H., and Richards, D. G., 1982, Adaptations for acoustic communication in birds: Sound transmission and signal detection, in: Acoustic Communication in Birds ( D. E. Kroodsma and E. H. Miller, eds.), Vol. 1, pp. 131–181, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  194. Williamson, K., 1943, The behaviour pattern of the Western Oyster-catcher ( Haematopus ostralegus occidentalis Neumann) in defence of nests and young, Ibis 85: 486–490.Google Scholar
  195. Williamson, K., 1946, Field-notes on the breeding-biology of the Whimbrel, North West. Nat. 21: 167–184.Google Scholar
  196. Williamson, K., 1948, Field-notes on nidification and distraction-display in the Golden Plover, Ibis 90: 90–98.Google Scholar
  197. Williamson, K., 1950, The distraction behaviour of the Faeroe snipe, Ibis 92: 66–74.Google Scholar
  198. Williamson, K., 1952, Regional variation in the distraction displays of the oyster-catcher, Ibis 94: 85–96.Google Scholar
  199. Witherby, H. F., Jourdain, F. C. R., Ticehurst, N. F., and Tucker, B. W., 1941, The Handbook of British Birds, Vol. 4, Witherby, London.Google Scholar
  200. Wollemann, M., 1978, Two kinds of the alarm sound of the Black-winged Stilt ( Himantopus himantopus ), Puszta 7: 22–23 (in Hungarian).Google Scholar
  201. Wollemann, M., and Olaszy, G., 1977, Spectrogram analysis of different alarm calls in gulls and waders, Agressologie 18: 97–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Zvonov, B. M., and Tikhonov, A. V., 1981, Denervation of the syrinx and the structure of radiated sounds in non-Passeriformes, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Ser. Biol. 6: 924–930 (in Russian).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Edward H. Miller
    • 1
  1. 1.Vertebrate Zoology DivisionBritish Columbia Provincial Museum and Biology Department University of VictoriaVictoriaCanada

Personalised recommendations