The Classification of the Shorebirds of the World

  • Michael Gochfeld
  • Joanna Burger
  • Joseph R. JehlJr.


The order Charadriiformes contains in addition to the gulls, terns, skuas, skimmers, and auks, a heterogeneous assemblage of families known as shorebirds in the New World and waders in the Old World. These terms, “shorebirds” and “waders,” are slightly misleading in that many of the species, particularly in the tropics and Southern Hemisphere, infrequently wade and do not frequent shorelines. In fact, several taxa are characteristically desert or steppe birds (e.g., Thinocoridae, Cursoriinae).


Western Hemisphere Eastern Hemisphere North American Bird American Ornithologist Golden Plover 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. A.O.U., 1983, Checklist of North American Birds, 6th ed., American Ornithologist’s Union, Lawrence, Kansas.Google Scholar
  2. Bock, W., 1958, A generic review of the plovers ( Charadriinae Ayes ), Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harv. Univ. 118: 27–97.Google Scholar
  3. Clements, J. F., 1981, Birds of the World: A Checklist, 3rd ed., Two Continents Publishing Group, New York.Google Scholar
  4. Connors, P. G., 1983, Taxonomy, distribution, and evolution of the Golden Plovers Pluvialis dominica and Pluvialis fulva, Auk, 100: 607–620.Google Scholar
  5. Cracraft, J., 1981, Toward a phylogenetic classification of the recent birds of the world (class Ayes), Auk 98: 681–714.Google Scholar
  6. Deignan, H. G., 1961, Types specimens of birds in the United States National Museum, U.S. Natl. Mus. Bull. 221.Google Scholar
  7. Hockey, P. A. R., 1982, Haematopus meadewaldoi: A good species, Bull. Br. Ornithol. Club 102:77–83.Google Scholar
  8. Jehl, J. R., Jr., 1968, Relationships in the Charadrii (shorebirds): A taxonomic study basedon color patterns of the downy young, San Diego Soc. Nat. Hist. Mem. 3: 1–54.Google Scholar
  9. Johnsgard, P. A., 1981, The Plovers, Sandpipers, and Snipes of the World, University ofNebra ska Press, Lincoln.Google Scholar
  10. King, B., and Dickinson, E. C., 1975, A Field Guide to the Birds of South-east Asia, Collins, Glasgow.Google Scholar
  11. Kinsky, F. C., and Yaldwyn, J. C., 1981, The bird fauna of Niue Island, southwest Pacific, with special notes on the White-tailed Tropicbird and Golden Plover, Natl. Mus. N.Z. Misc. Ser. No. 2.Google Scholar
  12. Mackworth-Praed, C. W., and Grant, C. H. B., 1962, Birds of the Southern Third of Africa, Vol. 1, Longmans, Green, New York.Google Scholar
  13. Mayr, E., and Short, L. L., 1970, Species taxa of North American birds, Publ. Nuttall Ornithol. Club. 9: 1–127.Google Scholar
  14. Meyer de Schauensee, R., 1966, The Species of Birds of South America, Livingston, Narberth, Pa.Google Scholar
  15. Morony, J. J., Jr., Bock, W. J., and Farrand, J., Jr., 1975, Reference List of the Birds of the World, American Museum of Natural History, New York.Google Scholar
  16. Olson, S. L., and Feduccia, A., 1980, Relationships and evolution of flamingos (Ayes: Phoenicopteridae), Smithson. Contrib. Zool. 316.Google Scholar
  17. Olson, S. L., and Steadman, D. W., 1981, The relationships of the Pedionomidae (Ayes: Charadriiformes ), Smithson. Contrib. Zool. 337: 1–25.Google Scholar
  18. Parker, S. A., 1982, A new sandpiper of the genus Calidris, South Aust. Nat. 56:63. Peters, J. L., 1934, Check-list of Birds of the World, Vol. 2, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  19. Peterson, R. T., Mountfort, G., and Hollom, P. A. D., 1954, A Field Guide to the Birds of Britain and Europe, Houghton, Mifflin, Boston.Google Scholar
  20. Slater, P., 1972, A Field Guide to Australian Birds: Non-passerines, Oliver Boyd, Edinburgh.Google Scholar
  21. Strauch, J. G., Jr., 1978, The phylogeny of the Charadriiformes (Ayes): A new estimate using the method of character compatability analysis, Trans. Zool. Soc. London 34: 263–345.Google Scholar
  22. Witherby, H. F., Jourdain, F. C. R., Ticehurst, N. F., and Tucker, B. W., 1940, The Handbook of British Birds, Vol. 5, Witherby, London.Google Scholar
  23. Zusi, R. L., and Jehl, J. R., Jr., 1970, The systematic position of Aechomorhynchus, Prosobonia, and Phegornis (Charadriiformes: Charadrii ), Auk 87: 760–780.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael Gochfeld
    • 1
  • Joanna Burger
    • 2
  • Joseph R. JehlJr.
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Environmental and Community MedicineUMDNJ—Rutgers Medical SchoolPiscatawayUSA
  2. 2.Department of Biology and Bureau of Biological ResearchRutgers UniversityPiscatawayUSA
  3. 3.Hubbs—Sea World Research InstituteSan DiegoUSA

Personalised recommendations